NASA-AFSC Coordination of Effort in Research and Technology
The establishing of a good working relationship between the Office of Defense Affairs and the Commander, AFSC, took considerable time. Effective coordination between NASA and AFSC during 1962 and 1963 was largely confined to the area of manned space flight and was carried on through the branch office of M. Gen. O. J. Ritland, Deputy Commander, AFSC, for Manned Space Flight, physically located in our Office of Manned Space Flight. General Schriever appeared to prefer to keep things that way. In May 1963, Schriever had proposed expanding Ritland's NASA office to cover the interface with the entire NASA Headquarters, but this had been rejected by NASA.
At my first meeting with Schriever on March 24, 1964, I expressed our desire to strengthen the relationship between my office and the AFSC, and we discussed way and means of bringing this about. Schriever seemed eager to cooperate. Whether it was a direct result of this meeting I do not know, but shortly thereafter we saw signs of a warming trend in Schriever's attitude toward NASA. We were told by one of his principal assistants that at a staff meeting the latter part of April Schriever made a number of points concerning NASA-AFSC relations, the most pertinent of which were in substance as follows:
In April 1964, Col. C. C. Lutman, USAF, Director, Program Support, AFSC, exchanged correspondence with Mr. Green of my office with the object of establishing a procedure for the coordination of all NASA and AFSC research and technology efforts. Green and Lutman began exploratory conversations on establishing a formal procedure for information exchange and coordination between NASA and AFSC on research and technology activities across the board. Internally, we discussed this with OART. Meetings were held between cognizant NASA and AFSC representatives.
On May 20, 1964, I wrote to Schriever regarding this subject. I conveyed Dr. Bisplinghoff's recommendation, in which I concurred, that a formal coordination procedure be set up under the aegis of the Supporting Space Research and Technology Panel of the AACB. Pending such action, we proposed that NASA and the AFSC proceed immediately to examine coordination in the field of aeronautics. NASA and AFSC had exchanged briefings on April 29, 1964, covering on-going programs in aeronautical R&D, but we felt it would be useful for AFSC to brief a group of NASA Headquarters and Center personnel on the future requirements of the Air Force in aeronautical technology, as AFSC had offered to do. Green and Lutman met on May 26 to map out a plan of action. It became apparent to us that Schriever preferred to work directly with NASA rather than through AF Headquarters and/or DDR&E in coordinating R&T programs, but we continued to insist that our mutual efforts in this direction should be carried on within the framework of the AACB and that the DDR&E should be kept informed.
During the summer of 1964, General Schriever made visits to Langley, Ames, and Lewis, probably his first inspections of these laboratories since assuming command of AFSC. We were told later that "his eyes were opened" as to the capabilities and competence available at these Centers to assist the Air Force in the accomplishment of its mission. Following these visits, Schriever wrote to Seamans commenting upon his observations. He referred to on-going NASA work which was valuable to the Air Force efforts toward developing the technology for future weapons systems. He identified several areas in which he felt that more research was needed and in which increased NASA efforts could make valuable contributions in meeting Air Force needs. In December 1964, Schriever visited MSC and MSFC.
Schriever wrote to Seamans on July 2, 1964, agreeing that coordination of space R&T programs should be conducted utilizing the SSR&T Panel of the AACB, but proposed that actual procedures be devised by the NASA and AFSC staffs prior to formal presentation of the matter to the AACB. He agreed with our suggestion that, in the interim, we proceed on a bilateral basis to establish NASA-AFSC relationships in the field of aeronautics. He  designated M. Gen. M. C. Dembler, USAF, Commander of the Research and Technology Division (RTD), AFSC, as his point of contact.
Dembler and Bisplinghoff, each with several assistants, met on August 14, 1964. The principal topic of discussion was the new "NASA-DOD Agreement on Research and Technology Information Exchange'' which had just been consummated under the charter of the SSR&T Panel of the AACB (approved by Dr. Seamans and Dr. Brown, effective August 21, 1964). Dr. Bisplinghoff explained that the Agreement provided for the use of a standard form (NASA Form 1122; DOD Form 1498) superseding previously used NASA and RTD forms, and the adoption of common or compatible coding structures, in reporting on all research and technology work going on in the two Agencies. The Agreement further provided for the periodic exchange and joint review of all such information, employing Automatic Data Processing techniques. Implementation responsibility was vested in the SSR&T Panel.
Nevertheless, General Dembler restated General Schriever's strong desire to develop effective, direct liaison and coordination in R&T between other elements of AFSC and NASA, as had been done in the field of manned space flight. Bisplinghoff explained that OART had responsibility to oversee and coordinate the supporting research and technology activities of all the NASA Program Offices. It was agreed that a small ad hoc joint group would consider further ways and means of strengthening the NASA-AFSC interface in R&T. The result was the creation of an informal sub-structure of Ad Hoc Technology Groups in the areas of Materials, Launch Vehicles, V/STOL, Hypersonic Flight, and Nuclear Aircraft Propulsion. Thereafter, these Groups made periodic oral reports to NASA-AFSC officials on the state-of-the-art and planned projects in their respective disciplines. The V/STOL Group became particularly active and remained so.
On August 19, Colonel Ebbeler and I met with General Ritland and Colonel Coulter (then still with AFSC) for a general discussion of NASA-AFSC coordination. This meeting served to clarify the organization relationships between Defense Affairs and (1) Ritland as the central point of contact in AFSC Headquarters for NASA affairs, (2) Ritland's branch office in OMSF for manned space flight coordination, and (3) any new arrangement in General Dembler's office for across-the-board information exchange and coordinated effort in R&T.
In September 1964, Gen. William F. McKee, then a special assistant to Mr. Webb, sent a letter to M. Gen. A. J. Kinney, USAF, Assistant DCS/Research and Development, AFSC, asking that he identify some of the areas of R&D in which NASA-Air Force cooperation would be mutually profitable and a greater service to the nation. Kinney replied on October 9, 1964, enclosing a long list of projects, mostly technical but some administrative. Kinney pointed out, correctly, that cooperation already existed in many of the areas and that the question was really one of whether the extent of cooperation could be expanded. McKee sent the list to me, and Defense Affairs staffed the matter in NASA Headquarters, coordinating with the Program Offices.
 During November and December 1964, Mr. Harper and his aeronautics people in OART held several meetings with AFSC representatives to review progress, policy, plans, and procedures in aeronautics R&D. One point of particular importance which emerged from these discussions was the immense value to NASA, in planning its research programs, to have an appreciation of Air Force plans early in their formulation process. Our people pointed out the value of being kept informed of Air Force advanced thinking so that NASA R&D programs could be started in time for results to be available when needed in the conceptual and developmental stages of new weapon system. procurement. Under its charter, NASA could initiate the development of new and advanced technology without awaiting a known application to an approved new weapon system requirement; the Military Services could not.
In furtherance of the beneficial exchanges between AFSC and NASA on Project FORECAST, AFSC offered to brief key NASA personnel, from time to time, or major Air Force project objectives. The series started with a discussion of Composite Structures on January 18, 1965. Other subjects were covered in subsequent meetings.
 Project FORECAST
In the spring of 1963, the Secretary of the Air Force initiated a comprehensive study and analysis of the Air Force structure projected into the 1965-1975 period, to include an analytical study of the impact of technology on the future Air Force strategy, its mission, and its force structure, with due consideration for national policy and the external threat. General Schriever, Commander, AFSC, was designated as Director of the study. The main study effort was to be conducted by a selected central group of highly qualified representatives of the civilian scientific and engineering communities as well as of the Military. The work of this group was to be augmented by the efforts of other government agencies, non-profit organizations, industry, universities, and other competent sources. In a letter to Mr. Webb dated May 10, 1963, Schriever asked the support of NASA as being essential to the success of Project FORECAST.
Webb replied on May 21, 1963, stating that NASA would be pleased to assist and cooperate in achieving the objectives of FORECAST, and designated me as the point of contact for further action.
The efforts of the central group of the FORECAST study were to be supported by several technical panels organized along disciplinary lines. The functions of these panels generally were to review the current state-of-the-art in various areas of technology, to identify the technological advances necessary to make possible the production of the weapon systems to compose the force structure of the Air Force in the 1965-1975 period, and to set goals for these advances. The panels were to prepare separate reports to be incorporated as attachments to the final overall report.
I viewed NASA's participation in FORECAST not simply in terms of assisting the Air Force in a major study effort concerning the future trends in weapon systems, but also as a means of revealing to NASA those areas toward which NASA's R&D efforts should be oriented in order to be most responsive to the needs of the Military and thereby make the maximum contribution to national defense.
Meetings of NASA representatives with various technical panels began right away. The first such meeting took place on May 24, 1963, in which NASA representatives, headed by Dr. Bisplinghoff, met with the FORECAST panel on propulsion technology.
After an exchange of correspondence with Dr. Allen F. Donovan, the Scientific Director of project FORECAST, and with the approval of Dr. Dryden, I issued a memorandum. dated July 24, 1963, designating NASA representatives to meet with FORECAST panel members at the Space Systems Division, AFSC, in Los Angeles during the period July 25-30 to discuss technology in the areas indicated below. Mr. Abraham Hyatt, Director, Office of Plans and Program Evaluation, was named as the principal NASA representative.
Reentry Vehicle Programs to include
Mr. Abraham Hyatt
Mr. Marvin Schuldenfrei, Office of
Plans and Program Evaluation, NASA Hq.
Dr. A. J. Eggers, Jr., Ames Research
Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Mr. Abraham Hyatt
Mr. Marvin Schuldenfrei
Dr. William A. Lee, Director, Systems
Studies, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Hq.
Ability of Man To Increase the Total
Capability of Space Systems
Mr. Robert Trapp, Chief, Man-System
Integration, Office of Advanced Research and Technology,
Major Gordon Cooper, USAF, Astronaut,
Manned Spacecraft Center
Meteorological Forecast Capability
Using Space Based Systems
Dr. Morris Tepper, Director,
Meteorological Systems, Office of Applications, NASA
Mr. Fred Singer, Director, National
Weather Satellite Center
Col. Jim Jones, Air Weather Service
Reentry Vehicle Programs to include Project FIRE
Mr. Abraham Hyatt
Mr. Marvin Schuldenfrei, Office of Plans and Program Evaluation, NASA Hq.
Dr. A. J. Eggers, Jr., Ames Research Center
Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Mr. Abraham Hyatt
Mr. Marvin Schuldenfrei
Dr. William A. Lee, Director, Systems Studies, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Hq.
Ability of Man To Increase the Total Capability of Space Systems
Mr. Robert Trapp, Chief, Man-System Integration, Office of Advanced Research and Technology, NASA Hq.
Major Gordon Cooper, USAF, Astronaut, Manned Spacecraft Center
Meteorological Forecast Capability Using Space Based Systems
Dr. Morris Tepper, Director, Meteorological Systems, Office of Applications, NASA Hq.
Mr. Fred Singer, Director, National Weather Satellite Center
Col. Jim Jones, Air Weather Service Liaison Officer.
Warm letters of thanks were received from the Scientific Director, expressing his appreciation for the outstanding contributions made by these NASA representatives at the panel meetings.
In July 1963, at the request of the Air Force, NASA officials briefed members of the FORECAST study group on NASA space programs.
The main FORECAST study effort was originally scheduled for completion in August 1963, but this target date proved to be widely optimistic. As the study developed, the report was structured as a main body, containing some highly sensitive material on such subjects as policy, strategy, force structure, intelligence, nature and performance of weapon systems, and targeting, and, as indicated earlier, the panel reports on technology as attachments.
 Mr. McNamara was given a briefing on the contents of the main body of the report in late October 1963. We were orally informed that as a result of this briefing the Secretary ordered further study by the Air Force and for that reason no further dissemination of the contents of the report was made at that time. NASA had been scheduled to hear tapes of the briefing to Mr. McNamara, and we had expected to be called upon to review those parts of the report in which we had a technical interest, but these anticipated actions were canceled.
NASA continued to assist in the work of the technical panels as called upon. At the request of General Schriever? Dr. Mae M. Link, OMSF, was made available for twenty-one days temporary duty at SSD Headquarters, Los Angeles, in January-February 1964 to assist AFSC in its review of the report of the panel on bioastronautics.
Although it appeared that the panel reports had for the most part been completed by January 1964, their availability to NASA continued to be withheld. When I lunched with General Schriever on March 24, 1964, he told me that he expected to be able to deliver the reports to us the following week. However, it was not until June that a single set of panel reports was received in NASA Headquarters, with a request for our review and comment.
On June 16, 1964, Defense Affairs distributed the below listed reports to cognizant Headquarters offices for review and comment, with special emphasis on (1) the impact that the panel recommendations should have on NASA programs and (2) the extent to which NASA could assist in any of the recommended R&D programs.
Since it was necessary to circulate some of these single copies through several offices, the thorough review by NASA Headquarters took considerable time, so that it was not until October 21, 1964, that I was able to complete the distillation of all of the comments received and forward a lengthy summary of the results of our review to General Schriever.
On June 25, 1964, the Air Force gave a three-hour presentation to an audience of about sixty key NASA officials -including Mr. Webb, Dr. Dryden, and Dr. Seamans, - on the results of Project FORECAST. At the end of the briefing, there was a general discussion of the means by which  NASA might assist the Air Force in achieving the technological goals delineated in the study.
Several specific actions stemmed from this meeting:
 The NASA Centers reacted to the FORECAST briefing with a strong desire to assist in achieving the technological goals identified in the study, but the full potential of the Centers could not be realized without making copies of the FORECAST panel reports available to them for reference. I continued during August and September to press AFSC for additional copies to be distributed to our Centers. Finally, eight additional sets were received in October, and the component parts were promptly distributed to the technical Centers, as appropriate, for review and comment. Because the Secretary of Defense had prohibited the distribution of FORECAST reports to " contractor organizations of any type," we were not permitted to furnish JPL with any of the panel reports.
Comprehensive and thoughtful comments were submitted by all of the Centers who had been asked to review the reports. In general, the Centers agreed that the FORECAST studies were thoroughly and competently done. While Center personnel were fairly familiar with the broad aspects of Air Force programs and technical requirements through representation on numerous joint NASA-DOD committees, the report served the very useful purpose of highlighting those areas needing a greater effort in order to meet the Air Force goals. It was found that NASA R&D programs generally were being responsive to Air Force needs in most areas of common interest. The need for continuing liaison was stressed, as was the desirability of making full use of existing mechanisms for coordination and information exchange, such as the AACB and its panels.
The reports from the Field Centers were combined and summarized by the Program Associate Administrators, two of whom added their own statements emphasizing the value of the FORECAST reports to their respective programs. The entire package was forwarded to General Schriever by my letter of May 6, 1965. In previous correspondence, we had suggested that al] of the NASA comments on FORECAST be made available to DDR&E. In a letter to me dated May 19, 1965, General Schriever expressed his appreciation for all NASA had done in support of FORECAST.