The prime reason for this conference, as you have already been informed, was that NASA believed that certain aspects of planning and applying food technology to long-term spaceflights required further research. We felt that the best way to review work done in this area was to invite the persons working in the various disciplines to a common conference.
I should like to point out that the first A in NASA stands for aeronautics. I am responsible for the aeronautics human factor studies. This is a new field for NASA, and, at the moment, we cannot really contribute anything that would improve upon the fine work pioneered by the airline industry. As a matter of fact, we are uncertain about the extent to which we should become involved; however, we are willing to participate provided we can make a beneficial contribution. Mr. Webb, when he was Administrator of NASA, urged us to act as catalysts in areas in which we saw that research or technology was lacking and to try, through various means, to get the needs filled. The question is, what can NASA do in support of research in this area ?
We hope that the answer lies in several programs now underway. For example, drawing on our space technology knowledge we are developing an electrolysis process which supplies oxygen to airplanes by electrolyzing water. Both military and civilian carriers would benefit, primarily from a cutback in their logistics problems. For example, it now takes 5 liters of liquid oxygen to provide 1 liter of converted gaseous oxygen per man. If our project is successful we shall be able to produce from 1 pint of water sufficient oxygen for one man for a 10-hr mission.
Another project involves utilizing energy-absorption techniques to provide a more useful airline seat. These techniques have been used in the military services for some time but have not found their way into civilian use. We are also investigating the possibility of incorporating certain convenience items into the seat. The seats may have an impact on future food-handling techniques. We expect delivery of a prototype in midsummer. The Ames Research Center is monitoring both of these projects.
I would like to call your attention to the fact that two different requirements have been discussed here. One of them is posed by previously designed systems. You beard some of the problems of trying to squeeze objects into predetermined spaces; that is the worry of the people engaged in the human factors area and consequently the reason that they have been belaboring the point. Any help that you can give them would certainly be appreciated. Dr. Humphrey, as you know, heads the effort for the Apollo human factors program. His area is space medicine, and he and I work very closely together.
 The other requirement is that posed by future systems not constrained by weights and volumes. Hence, I urge all of you not to limit your thoughts to constraints of weights and volume for the future. I feel sure that for long-term spaceflights we are going to have to consider man as a "subsystem" whose requirements must be met. You have heard enumerated many requirement for a man who is a consumer. Well, a man who is an astronaut will not be very different. He will be doing work that we want him to perform, so we must keep him efficient, happy, and working for us. This will not be an easy job on a long mission. There are going to be constraints on this ma he will have limitations on his movement and his living conditions. We feel we should be considering the value of food and food management in maintaining his morale.
I believe that many good ideas have been discussed in this conference. We did not expect to formalize any here this last afternoon. We will review the material presented and will expect hear from some of you. We want to put together a good Apollo Applications Program.
We have had many disciplines here; this is NASA's traditional approach to research. M Webb prided himself on heading one of the first Federal agencies to utilize this technique. I thin it has paid off, and we expect even greater dividends in the future.