Ira H. Abbott (1906- ) began working for the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1929 after graduating from MIT. He wrote many technical reports on aerodynamics and was instrumental in setting up programs in high-speed research, rising to the position of assistant chief of research at Langley in 1945. Transferring to NACA Headquarters in 1948 as assistant director of research (aerodynamics), he was promoted to the post of director, advanced research programs in NASA in 1959 and to that of director, advanced research and technology in 1961. As such, he supervised the X-15, the supersonic transport, the nuclear rocket, and the advanced reentry programs. He retired in 1962. ("Ira H. Abbott," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John G. Adams (1912- ) had been a Republican party official since World War II and had held a succession of government positions as an attorney since 1949. He became counselor and later general counsel to the Department of the Army in 1953 and served until 1955. He was a consultant on organization and management to the Atomic Energy Commission in 1956-1957 and served as director of the bureau of enforcement in the Civil Aeronautics Board, 1958-1965. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him a member of the Civil Aeronautics Board in 1965, and he served until 1971.
Sherman Adams (1899-1986) had the title of assistant to the president and served as Eisenhower's chief of staff between 1953 and 1958. Previously he had been a member of the House of Representatives (R-NH) between 1945 and 1947 and governor of New Hampshire from 1949 to 1953. Adams resigned from the Eisenhower administration in 1958 following House subcommittee revelations that he had accepted expensive gifts, including a vicuna overcoat, from a textile manufacturer seeking government favors. On his career, see Kenneth E. Shewmaker, "The Sherman Adams Papers," Dartmouth College Library Bulletin, 10 (April 1969): 88-92; John E. Wickman, "Partnership for Research," Dartmouth College Library Bulletin, 10 (April 1969): 93-97; Historical Materials in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library (Abilene, KS: Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, 1989), pp. 8, 48; New York Times, 28 October 1986, p. D-28.
Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) was a former mayor of Cologne, Germany, who had been twice imprisoned during the Nazi era. He was chancellor of West Germany from 1949-1963, during which time he did much to consolidate Germany's first effective democratic and republican form of government. He sponsored a Western European union and a close alliance with France and presided over a resurgence of German industry. Bruce Alger (1918- ) (R-TX) was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1954 and served for a decade.
Gordon L. Allott (1907-1989) (R-CO) was elected to the Senate in 1954 and served until 1973.
 Milton B. Ames, Jr. (1913- ) earned a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1936 and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory the same year. In 1941 he transferred to NACA Headquarters where he served on the technical staff. In 1946 he became chief of the aerodynamics division. With the establishment of NASA, he became chief of the aerodynamics and flight mechanics research division. In 1960 he assumed deputy directorship of the office of advanced research programs at NASA Headquarters and then directorship of space vehicles in 1961. He retired in 1972. ("Milton B. Ames, Jr.," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Clinton P. Anderson (1895-1975) (D-NM) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1940 and served through 1945, when he was appointed secretary of agriculture. He resigned that position in 1948 and was elected to the Senate, where he served until 1973.
Robert B. Anderson (1910-1989) was secretary of the treasury between 1957 and 1961. A firm believer like Eisenhower in fiscal restraint, he attempted to hold federal spending within narrow limits and to balance the budget. Previously, he had held a number of important government posts in Texas and Washington, including secretary of the Navy, 1953-1954, and deputy secretary of defense, 1954-1955. In 1961 he became a partner with Carl M. Loeb, Rhoades, and Co.
Victor L. Anfuso (1905-1966) (D-NY) served in the House of Representatives 1950-1952, 1954-1962.
John A. Barclay (1909- ) became commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency on 31 March 1958 after serving as deputy commander since 1 May 1956 under the more famous John B. Medaris. Barclay had been promoted to the rank of brigadier general on 29 September 1955 after a career in the field artillery and ordnance that included command of Picatinny Arsenal from 1954 to 1956.
Perkins Bass (1912- ) (R-NH) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1954 and served through 1962.
Page Belcher (1899-1980) (R-OK) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1950 and served through the 92d Congress (1971-1973).
Robert L. Bell was director of the security division in NASA's office of business administration in 1960. (Headquarters Telephone Directory, May 1960, NASA Historical Reference Collection).
Rawson Bennett (1905-1968) became an ensign in the U.S. Navy in 1927, earned an M.S. in electronic engineering at the University of California in 1937, and rose through the ranks to become a rear admiral in 1956. He served as chief of naval research in Washington, D.C., from 1956 through 1961 and then became senior vice president and director of engineering for Sangamo Electric Co. in 1961.
Paul F. Bikle (1916-1991) earned a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Detroit in 1939 and was employed by Taylorcraft Aviation Corp. for a year before working for the Air Corps and Air Force as a civilian from 1940 to 1959, both at Wright Field, Ohio, and at the Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California. At Edwards, he rose to the position of technical director of the center. In 1959 he became director of NASA's Flight Research Center, also at  Edwards, a position he held until his retirement in 1971. Both with the Air Force and with NASA, he was associated with many major aeronautical research programs from the XB-43, the first jet bomber, through the successful rocket-powered X-15, to wingless lifting bodies that lead to the Space Shuttle and reusable boosters. ("Paul F. Bikle," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Henry E. Billingsley (1906- ) was appointed as NASA's director of the office of international cooperation in January 1959. Previously he had served in the Navy in World War II and with the Department of State. ("Henry E. Billingsley," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection).
Earl Henry ("Red") Blaik (1897-1989) had been a star end on the Army football team before he graduated in 1920. He later became head football coach there in 1941, and in 18 seasons as a coach achieved a 121-33-10 record. He was named coach of the year in 1946 and elected to the National Football Foundation's Hall of Fame in 1964. He became a vice president and director of Avco Corporation, 1959-60, and then director and chairman of its executive committee in 1960.
Clay D. Blair, Jr. (1925- ) had been successively a correspondent for Time and Life magazines before becoming associate editor for the Saturday Evening Post from 1957-1961. He later rose through the position of editor in 1963-1964 to become executive vice president and director of Curtis Publishing Co. in the latter year. He was also the author of numerous books about a variety of subjects, including the atomic submarine and the hydrogen bomb.
Hendrik W. Bode (1905-?) was vice president of military development and systems engineering at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1958-1967. He was a research engineer and worked for Bell from 1926 to 1967, when he became a professor at Harvard.
Charles E. ("Chip") Bohlen (1904-1974) was a career U.S. foreign service officer and diplomat who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1953-1957; to the Philippines, 1957-1959; and to France, 1962-1968. Among other posts, he was special assistant to the secretary of state for Soviet affairs, 1959-1961.
Walter T. Bonney (1909-1975) was NASA's first director of the office of public information (1958-1960). From 1949 to 1958 he had worked for NASA's predecessor organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and before that, for Bell Aircraft Corp. as manager of public relations. From 1960 to 1971, he served as director of public relations for the Aerospace Corp. ("Walter T. Bonney," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) was the leader of what has been called the "rocket team," which had developed the German V-2 ballistic missile in World War II. At the conclusion of the war, von Braun and some of his chief assistants - as part of a military operation called Project Paperclip - came to America and were installed at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, to work on rocket development and use the V-2 for high altitude research. They used launch facilities at the nearby White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. Later, in 1950 von Braun's team moved to the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, to concentrate on the development of a new missile for the Army. They built the Army's Jupiter ballistic missile, and before that the Redstone, used by NASA to launch the first Mercury capsules. The story of von Braun and the "rocket team" has been told many times. See, as examples, David H. DeVorkin, Science With a Vengeance: How the Military Created the US Space Sciences After World War II (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992); Frederick I. Ordway III and Mitchell R. Sharpe, The Rocket Team (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1979); Erik Bergaust, Wernher von Braun (Washington, D.C.: National Space Institute, 1976).
Styles Bridges (1898-1961) (R-NH) had served as governor of his state, 1935-1937, and was elected to the Senate in 1936. He was at this time the ranking Republican member of the Appropriations Committee, a member of the Armed Services Committee and its preparedness investigating subcommittee, as well as the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee. He was the leader of his party's conservative wing and a strong proponent of military preparedness. Bryce Harlow told Eisenhower in 1958 that he was "a walking 25 votes in the Senate, the most skilled maneuverer on the Republican side." (Quoted in Divine, The Sputnik Challenge, p. 140.)
 Wallace R. Brode (1900-1974) was a chemist and scientific consultant who received a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1925 and became a Guggenheim fellow in Europe, 1926-1928. From then until 1948 he was on the chemistry faculty at Ohio State, rising in 1939 to the rank of full professor. He worked with the Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II and became head of the science department, U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, Inyokern, CA, 1945-1947. From then until 1958, he served as associate director of the National Bureau of Standards. For the next two years, he was scientific advisor to the secretary of state, following which he became a scientific consultant, also serving on numerous committees advisory boards, etc.
Luigi Broglio was chairman of the Italian National Committee on Space Research. He was also a professor at the Aeronautical Engineering School (Scuola d'Ingegneria Aeronautics) in Rome.
Detlev W. Bronk (1897-1975) was president of the National Academy of Sciences, 1950-1962, and a member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council. A scientist, he was president of Johns Hopkins University, 1949-1953, and Rockefeller University, 1953-1968.
Arthur B. Bronwell (1909- ) was an electrical engineer who had been a professor at Northwestern University and became president of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute from 1955-1962, then the dean of engineering at the University of Connecticut at Storrs.
Overton Brooks (1897-1961) (D-LA) had been elected to represent his home state in the House to 12 successive terms since 1937. He became chairman of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics in January 1959 and was reappointed to this chairmanship in 1961.
Wilber M. Brucker (1894-1968), was secretary of the Army between 1955 and 1961. An attorney, he had also held a number of important government positions, including governor of Michigan in 1930-1932, prior to becoming secretary. Brucker had served with the Army in World War I. After leaving federal service Brucker returned to his law practice in Detroit (William Gardner Bell, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches [Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1982], p. 140; New York Times, 29 October 1968, p. 41).
Edmond C. Buckley (1904-1977) went to work for the NACA at Langley in 1930 after earning his B.S. in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He became chief of the instrument research division in 1943 and was responsible for instrumentation at Wallops Island and at the Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. In 1959 he became assistant director for space flight operations at NASA Headquarters. Two years later, his title changed to director for tracking and data acquisition, and from 1962 to 1968 he was associate administrator for tracking and data acquisition. He retired in 1969 as special assistant to Administrator James E. Webb. ("Edmond C. Buckley," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 Hugh Bullock (1898- ), son of Calvin Bullock, was an investment banker. He was president and director of several investment funds including Calvin Bullock, Limited, and Bullock Fund, Ltd.
William A.M. Burden (1906-1984) was an aviation consultant of wide experience. He had advised Brown Bros., Harriman & Co., on aviation financing, 1928-1932; headed aviation research for Scudder, Stevens, & Clark, 1932-1939; and directed National Aviation Corp., 1939-1941. In 1942-1943 Burden had served as a special assistant to the secretary of commerce, with supervision of the Civil Aeronautics Authority, and between 1943 and 1947 he had been assistant secretary of commerce for air. Thereafter he was an independent consultant. He served on the National Aeronautics and Space Council from its creation until March 1959, when he resigned to serve as ambassador to Belgium.
Carter L. Burgess (1916- ) was a corporate executive who served as assistant secretary of defense for manpower, personnel, and resources, 1954-1957; president and director of Trans World Airlines, Inc. in 1957; president and director of American Machine & Foundry Co., 1958; its chairman and chief executive officer thereafter.
Arleigh A. Burke (1901- ) was a career naval officer who served as commander of a destroyer squadron and then chief of staff of Task Force 58 during World War II. During the Korean War he was commander of Cruiser Division 5. He was chief of naval operations, 1955-1961, and then retired to become a corporate executive.
Charles P. Cabell (1903-1971) was a career officer in the Army Air Corps and later the Air Force, rising to the rank of general in 1958. During World War II he commanded a combat wing in the European theater and later was director of operations and intelligence, Mediterranean Allied Air Forces from 1944-1945. In 1948 he was director of intelligence, Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, and from 1953-1962 he served as deputy director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Joseph Campbell (1900- ) worked as an accountant and then comptroller with a couple of private firms from 1924 to 1932, became a partner in another for two years, and then formed his own accounting firm. He became comptroller general of the U.S. in 1954 and remained in that position until 1965.
Howard W. Cannon (1912- ) (D-NV) was first elected to the Senate in 1958 and served until 1983.
William Monte Canterbury graduated from West Point in 1934 and was commissioned in the Army Air Corps in that year. He held a number of positions involving research and development before becoming deputy chief of staff, research, engineering in the Air Research and Development Command in 1959-60. He subsequently served in 1960-61 as commander, Air Force Missile Development Center at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, before retiring as a major general to become senior staff scientist, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. in 1961.
Clifford P. Case (1928-1982) (R-NJ) was a member of the House of Representatives from 1945 to 1953 and was elected to the Senate the following year, serving until 1979.
 Francis H. Case (1896-1962) (R-SD) was elected to the House in 1936 and served seven consecutive terms until he was elected to the Senate in 1950 and reelected in 1956.
Joseph V. Charyk (1920- ) was under secretary of the Air Force at this time (1960-1963) and later returned to aerospace industry, whence he had come, serving as president of Communications Satellite Corporation after 1963.
Peter T. Chew worked in the reports section of the office of public information at NASA Headquarters. (Headquarters Telephone Directory, May 1960, pp. 2, 6, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Archie Trescott Colwell (1895-1979) went to work in 1922 as a sales engineer for Steel Products Co. (later Thompson Products, Inc. and then Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge, Inc. - still later, TRW, Inc.) and rose to become vice president in charge of engineering from 1937-1960.
Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962) earned a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton in 1916 and became physics department chair at Washington University in St. Louis in 1920. He became a professor of physics at the University of Chicago in 1923. In 1927 he and C. T. R. Wilson of England jointly won the Nobel Prize in physics for their discovery and explanation of the wavelength changes in diffused X-rays when they collide with electrons. From 1942-1945, Compton directed the metallurgical laboratory at Chicago, which developed the first self-sustaining atomic chain reaction. He became chancellor of Washington University in 1945 and was a professor of natural history there from 1953 to 1961.
Emerson W. Conlon (1905- ) received an aeronautical engineering degree from MIT in 1929 and spent 12 years in private engineering before joining the aeronautical engineering department at the University of Michigan in 1937. He went on active duty with the Navy in 1942 and later directed the development of the Douglas D-558, a transonic research aircraft. He returned to Michigan as chair of the aeronautical engineering department and remained in that position until 1953, with a year's leave of absence in 1950-1951 as technical director of the Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center. He spent some years with Fairchild Engine Division and as general manager of Curtiss-Wright's Turbomotor Division before becoming research director of Drexel Institute of Technology in 1958. In 1959-1960 he was on a leave of absence from Drexel to serve as NASA's assistant director for power plants in the office of advanced research programs. (biography in NASA miscellaneous biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Silvio O. Conte (1921- ) (R-MA) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1958 and was reelected to every succeeding Congress through the 101st (1989-1990).
John J. Corson (1905-1990) had been a management consultant with McKinsey & Co., since 1951, remaining there until 1966. Glennan contracted with McKinsey & Co. for a series of studies. These included: "Organizing Headquarters Functions," 2 volumes, December 1958; "Financial Management - NASA-JPL Relationships," February 1959; "Security and Safety - NASA-JPL Relationships,"  February 1959; "Facilities Construction - NASA-JPL Relationships," February 1959; "Procurement and Subcontracting - NASA-JPL Relationships," February 1959; "NASA-JPL Relationships and the Role of the Western Coordination Office," March 1959; "Providing Supporting Services for the Development Operations Division," January 1960, on the transfer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to NASA; "Report of the Advisory Committee on Organization," October 1960; "An Evaluation of NASA's Contracting Politics, Organization, and Performance," October 1960. (All in T. Keith Glennan, administrator, correspondence, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Edgar M. Cortright (1923- ) earned an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1949, the year after he joined the staff of Lewis Laboratory. He conducted research at Lewis on the aerodynamics of high-speed air induction systems and jet exit nozzles. In 1958 he joined a small task group to lay the foundation for a national space agency. When NASA came into being, he became chief of advanced technology in NASA Headquarters, directing the initial formulation of the agency's meteorological satellite program, including projects Tiros and Nimbus. Becoming assistant director for lunar and planetary programs in 1960, Cortright directed the planning and implementation of such projects as Mariner, Ranger, and Surveyor. He became deputy director and then deputy associate administrator for space science and applications in the next few years, then (1967) deputy associate administrator for manned space flight. In 1968 he became director of the Langley Research Center, a position he held until 1975, when he went to work for private industry, becoming president of the Lockheed-California Co. in 1979. ("Edward M. Cortright," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Albert Scott Crossfield (1921- ) learned to fly with the Navy during World War II. He became an aeronautical research pilot with the NACA in 1950, flying the X-1 and D558-II rocket planes and other experimental jets. From 1955 to 1961 he was the chief engineering test pilot for North American Aviation, Inc. The first man to fly at twice the speed of sound (Mach 2) in the D558-II in 1953, Crossfield reached Mach 2.11 and an altitude of 52,341 in the first powered flight of the X-15 in 1959. His last flight in the X-15 apparently occurred on 6 December 1960. ("Albert Scott Crossfield," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John W. ("Gus") Crowley, Jr. (1899-1974) joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1921 after earning his mechanical engineering degree from MIT the year before. He became head of the research department at Langley in 1943, then transferred to the NACA's Washington headquarters in 1945 to become acting director of research there. He assumed the post of associate director for research in 1945, and when NASA replaced the NACA, he became director of aeronautical and space research. He retired in 1959. ("John W. Crowley, Jr.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 Robert Cutler (1895-1974) was a lawyer and banking executive. He practiced law in Boston from 1922-1942 and then became president and director of the Old Colony Trust Co., 1946-1953, and its chairman for the next several years. In 1960-1962 he served as executive director of the Inter-American Development Bank.
Emilio Quincy Daddario (1918- ) (D-CT) was first elected to Congress in 1958 and served until 1971.
Melvin S. Day (1923- ) earned a B.S. in chemistry from Bates College in 1943 and worked in private industry for a year before serving in the Army from 1944-1946 at Oak Ridge as a laboratory foreman. He joined the Atomic Energy Commission at Oak Ridge in 1947 and rose through various positions to become chief of the technical information service there in 1958. The same year he transferred to Washington to become assistant chief of the AEC technical information service. He became director of the office before joining NASA in 1960 as deputy director of the office of technical information and educational programs. From 1962-1967 he headed the scientific and technical information division for NASA before becoming successively deputy assistant administrator for technology utilization (1966) and acting assistant administrator for technology utilization (1969). In 1970 he left NASA to head the office of scientific information in the National Science Foundation. ("Melvin S. Day," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Kurt H. Debus (1908-1983) earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering (1933), an M.S. (1935) and Ph.D. (1939) in electrical engineering, all from the Technical University of Darmstadt in Germany. He became an assistant professor at the university after receiving his degree. During the course of World War II he became an experimental engineer at the A-4 (V-2) test stand at Peenemünde (see entry for Wernher von Braun), rising to become superintendent of the test stand and test firing stand for the rocket. In 1945 he came to the United States with a group of engineers and scientists headed by von Braun. From 1945-1950 the group worked at Fort Bliss, Texas, and then moved to the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. From 1952-1960 Debus was chief of the missile firing laboratory of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. In this position, he was located at Cape Canaveral, Florida, where he supervised the launching of the first ballistic missile fired from there, an Army Redstone. When ABMA became part of NASA, Debus continued to supervise missile and space vehicle launchings, first as director of the Launch Operations Center and then of the Kennedy Space Center as it was renamed in December 1963. He retired from that position in 1974. ("Kurt H. Debus," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Smith J. DeFrance (1896-1985) was a military aviator with the Army's 139th Aero Squadron during World War I, then earned a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1922 before beginning a career with the NACA and NASA. He worked in the flight research section at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory and designed its 30-by-60-foot wind tunnel, the largest  ever built until that time (1929-1931). He directed the research in that tunnel and designed others as well before becoming director of the new Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in 1940. He remained its director until his retirement in 1965. During that time, the center built 19 major wind tunnels and conducted extensive flight research, including the blunt-body research necessary for returning spacecraft from orbit to the earth's atmosphere without burning up. ("Smith J. DeFrance," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; Muenger, History of Ames, esp. pp. 12-14, 67-68, 131-132.)
James R. Dempsey (1921- ) was manager of the Astronautics Division for Convair in San Diego, California, from 1957-1958 and then became vice president of the Convair division, 1958-1961. In the latter year, his title became president, General Dynamics Astronautics. He remained in that position until 1965. ("J.R. Dempsey," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
C. Douglas Dillon (1909- ) was under secretary of state, 1958-1959, and secretary of the treasury, 1960-1965.
Thomas J. Dodd (1907-1971) (D-CT) received his law degree from Yale in 1933 and served in the Justice Department's civil rights section, 1938-1945, then as a chief trial counsel in the prosecution of Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg in 1945-1946. He began the practice of law in Hartford in 1947 and was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1953-1957. He was elected to the Senate in 1957 and served until 1971 but was defeated for a third term in 1970 after the Senate censured him in 1967 for financial irregularities.
James H. Doolittle (1896- ) was a longtime aviation promoter, air racer, Air Force officer, and aerospace research and development advocate. He had served with the U.S. Army Air Corps between 1917 and 1930, and then was manager of the aviation section for Shell Oil Co. between 1930 and 1940. In World War II, Doolittle won early fame for leading the April 1942 bombing of Tokyo, and then as commander of a succession of air units in Africa, the Pacific, and Europe. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general in 1944. After the war he was a member of the Air Force's Scientific Advisory Board and the President's Scientific Advisory Committee. At the time of Sputnik he was chair of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the USAF Scientific Advisory Board. In 1985 the Senate approved his promotion in retirement to four-star general. (General James H. (Jimmy) Doolittle with Carroll V. Glines, I Could Never Be So Lucky Again: An Autobiography [New York: Bantam Books, 1991]; Carroll V. Glines, Jimmy Doolittle: Daredevil Aviator and Scientist [New York: Macmillan, 1972]; "James H. Doolittle," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
James H. Douglas, Jr. (1899-1988), was secretary of the Air Force between 1957 and 1959 and deputy secretary of defense, 1959-1961. Trained as an attorney, Douglas practiced most of his career in Chicago but served as fiscal assistant secretary of the treasury, 1932-1933, and undersecretary of the Air Force, 1953-1957, prior to becoming secretary of the Air Force. At the conclusion of the Eisenhower administration, Douglas rejoined his old law firm, Gardner, Carton, Douglas, Chilgren & Waud.
 Charles Stark Draper (1901-1987) earned his Ph.D. in physics at MIT in 1938 and became a full professor there the following year. In that same year, he founded the Instrumentation Laboratory. Its first major achievement was the Mark 14 gyroscopic gunsight for Navy antiaircraft guns. Draper and the lab applied gyroscopic principles to the development of inertial guidance systems for airplanes, missiles, submarines, ships, satellites, and space vehicles, notably those used in the Apollo moon landings. (John Noble Wilford, "Charles S. Draper, Engineer: Guided Astronauts to the Moon," New York Times, 27 Jul. 1987, p. 2; Donald MacKenzie, Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance [Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990], esp. pp. 64-94; C. Stark Draper, "The Evolution of Aerospace Guidance Technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1935-1951: A Memoir," Essays on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics, R. Cargill Hall, ed. [Washington, D.C.: NASA Conf. Pub. 2014, 1977], Vol. II, pp. 219-252.)
Roscoe Drummond was a journalist and editor with the Washington bureau of the New York Herald Tribune Syndicate, serving as chief of the bureau between 1953 and 1955, and as a syndicated columnist into the 1960s.
Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) was a career civil servant and an aerodynamicist by discipline who had also begun life as something of a child prodigy. He graduated at age 14 from high school and went on to earn an A.B. in three years from Johns Hopkins (1916). Three further years later (1919) he earned his Ph.D. in physics and mathematics from the same institution even though he had been employed full-time in the National Bureau of Standards since June 1918. His career at the Bureau of Standards, which lasted until 1947, was devoted to studying airflow, turbulence, and particularly the problems of the boundary layer - the thin layer of air next to an airfoil that causes drag. In 1920 he became chief of the aerodynamics section in the Bureau. His work in the 1920s on measuring turbulence in wind tunnels facilitated research in the NACA that produced the laminar flow wings used in the P-51 Mustang and other World War II aircraft. From the mid-1920s to 1947, his publications became essential reading for aerodynamicists around the world. During World War II, his work on a glide bomb named the Bat won him a Presidential Certificate of Merit. He capped his career at the Bureau by becoming its assistant director and then associate director during his final two years there. He then served as director of the NACA from 1947-1958, after which he became deputy director of NASA under Glennan and James Webb. (Richard K. Smith, The Hugh L. Dryden Papers, 1898-1965 [Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Library, 1974].)
Lee A. DuBridge (1901- ), a physicist with a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin (1926), became director of the radiation laboratory at MIT after an academic career capped to that point by a deanship at the University of Rochester, 1938-1941. He was president of the California Institute of Technology between 1946 and 1969, when he resigned to serve as science advisor to Richard M. Nixon. He had been involved in several governmental science advisory organizations before taking up his formal White House duties in 1969 and serving in that capacity until 1970. ("Lee A. DuBridge," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection).
 Allen W. Dulles (1893-1969), brother of President Eisenhower's more famous secretary of state, served as director of the CIA from 1953-1961.
Louis G. Dunn (1908-1979), born in South Africa, earned a B.S. (1936), two M.S.s - in mechanical engineering (1937) and aeronautical engineering (1938) - and a Ph.D. (1940) from Caltech and then joined the faculty there. He became assistant director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1945-1946 and its director from 1947-1954, presiding over its early program in rocketry leading up to the development of the Sergeant missile. He left JPL to take over the beginning Atlas missile project for the recently-formed Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation. He remained there through 1957 as associate director and then director and vice president of the guided missile research division, before becoming executive vice president and general manager, then president, and finally chairman of the firm's Space Technology Laboratories. He left the firm in 1963 to assume various management positions for Aerojet-General Corporation. Besides the Atlas (built by General Dynamics), he played a key role in developing the Thor (McDonnell Douglas), the Titan and Minuteman missiles (Martin Marietta). (Koppes, JPL, pp. 31-32, 63-64; "Louis G. Dunn," industry miscellaneous biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Henry C. Dworshak (1894-1962) (R-ID) was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1938 and served there from 1939 to 1946, when he was elected to the Senate, where he remained through 1962.
Frederick M. Eaton (1905-1984) was a lawyer and served in 1960 as chairman of the American delegation to the Disarmament Commission in Geneva.
Allen Joseph Ellender (1890-1972) (D-LA) was first elected to the Senate in 1936 and served until 1972.
Eugene M. Emme (1919-1985) became the NASA chief historian in 1959 and served until his retirement in 1979. Previously he had been a historian with the Air University of the U.S. Air Force. (Sylvia D. Fries, "Eugene M. Emme [1919-1985]," Technology and Culture, 27 [July 1986]: 665-67).
Maxime A. Faget (1921- ), an aeronautical engineer with a B.S. from LSU (1943), joined the staff at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1946 and soon became head of the performance aerodynamics branch of the pilotless aircraft research division. There, he conducted research on the heat shield of the Mercury spacecraft. In 1958 he joined the space task group in NASA, forerunner of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center that became the Johnson Space Center, and he became its assistant director for engineering and development in 1962 and later its director. He contributed many of the original design concepts for Project Mercury's manned spacecraft and played a major role in designing virtually every U.S. crewed spacecraft since that time, including the Space Shuttle. He retired from NASA in 1981 and became an executive for Eagle Engineering, Inc. In 1982 he was one of the founders of Space Industries, Inc. and became its president and chief executive officer. ("Maxime A. Faget," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 Philip J. Farley (1916- ) earned a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1941 and was on the faculty at Corpus Christi Junior College from 1941 to 1942 before entering government work - for the Atomic Energy Commission, 1947-1954, and for the State Department, 1954-1969. From 1957 to 1961 he was a special assistant to the secretary of state for disarmament and atomic energy and from 1961 to 1962 his responsibilities shifted to atomic energy and outer space. After several years of assignment to NATO, he returned to Washington and became deputy secretary of state for political-military affairs, 1967-1969. Then from 1969 to 1973 he became deputy director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
George J. Feldman (1904- ) was a lawyer and financier. He served as consultant for the House Select Committee on Science and Astronautics in 1960. He then became 1 of 14 director of Communications Satellite Corp. from 1962-1965. (COMSAT, as it is called, is a mixed private-government entity established by legislation in 1962; it had a mandate to cooperate with other countries to set up an international communications satellite system, and it helped set up INTELSAT [International Telecommunications Satellite Organization] in 1964 for that purpose.)
Harold B. Finger (1924- ) joined the NACA in 1944 as an aeronautical research scientist at the Lewis facility in Cleveland, where he worked with compressors until 1957 when, having received training in nuclear engineering, he became head of the nuclear radiation shielding group and the nuclear rocket design analysis group. In 1958 he moved to NASA Headquarters to assume duties as chief of the nuclear engine program. By 1962 he had become director of nuclear systems. From 1967 to 1969 he was NASA's associate administrator for organization and management before becoming assistant secretary for research and technology in the Department of Housing and Urban Development from 1969-1972. ("Harold B. Finger," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John F. Floberg (1915- ) was one of six members of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1960. A lawyer, he also served as assistant secretary of the Navy from 1949-1953. In 1960 he became general counsel for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Co., later rising to be vice president and then director and member of its executive committee.
Gerald R. Ford (1913- ) (R-MI) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1948 and served there until he became vice president in 1973 following the resignation of Spiro Agnew and president, 1974-1978, following Richard M. Nixon's resignation in the wake of the Watergate break-in.
Arnold W. Frutkin (1918- ) was deputy director of the U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year in the National Academy of Sciences when NASA hired him in 1959 as director of international programs, a title that changed in 1963 to assistant administrator for international affairs. In 1978 he became associate administrator for external relations, a post he relinquished in 1979 when he retired from federal service. During his career, he had been NASA's senior negotiator for almost all of the important international space agreements. ("Arnold W. Frutkin," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 J. William Fulbright (1905- ) (D-AR) became president of the University of Arkansas in 1939, then served as congressman from 1943 to 1944 and senator from 1945 to 1974. In 1946 he sponsored the so-called Fulbright act providing for exchanges of scholars with other countries. From 1959 he served as chairman of the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He is best known for his opposition to the U.S. war in Vietnam.
James G. Fulton (1903-1971) (R-PA) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1944 and served through 1971.
Clifford C. Furnas (1900-1969) earned his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1926 and served as a chemist with the U.S. Bureau of Mines from 1926-1931; he then taught chemical engineering at Yale from 1931-1942. He became director of research at Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division, 1943-1946 and served as vice president for Cornell Aeronautical Lab. from 1946-1954. Becoming chancellor at the University of Buffalo from 1954 to 1962, he then became president of the State University of N.Y. at Buffalo.
Thomas S. Gates, Jr. (1906-1983) was secretary of the Navy between 1957 and 1959, deputy secretary of defense in 1959, then secretary of defense from 1959-1961. Before that time, Gates had been undersecretary of the Navy, 1953-1957; director of the Scott Paper Co.; and on active duty with the Navy in World War II.
Robert R. Gilruth (1913- ) was a longtime NACA engineer working at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory from 1937-1946, then as chief of the pilotless aircraft research division at Wallops Island from 1946-1952, who had been exploring the possibility of human spaceflight before the creation of NASA. He served as assistant director at Langley from 1952-1959 and as assistant director (manned satellites) and head of Project Mercury from 1959-1961, technically assigned to the Goddard Spaceflight Center but physically located at Langley. In early 1961 Glennan established an independent Space Task Group (already the group's name as an independent subdivision of the Goddard center) under Gilruth at Langley to supervise the Mercury program. This group moved to the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, in 1962. Gilruth was then director of the Houston operation from 1962-1972. See, Henry C. Dethloff, "Suddenly Tomorrow Came . . .": A History of the Johnson Space Center, 1957-1990 (Washington, D.C.: NASA SP-4307, 1993); James R. Hansen, Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 (Washington, D.C.: NASA SP-4305, 1987), pp. 386-88.
James P. Gleason had been appointed to head the NASA office of congressional relations in late 1958 or early 1959 and served through March 1961. Thereafter, he practiced law in Washington, served as county executive for Montgomery County, Maryland, and as an administrative judge with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ("James P. Gleason," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 Frank E. Goddard, Jr. (1915- ) was a long-time employee of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, having held positions as chief of the high-speed wind tunnel section, chief of the aerodynamics division, and chief of the aerodynamic and propellants department, before assuming duties from 1959 to 1961 as assistant director for NASA relations, with offices in NASA Headquarters. He then became director of planning back at JPL and, in 1962, assistant laboratory director for research and advanced development. ("Frank E. Goddard," biographical files, NASA miscellaneous, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Harry J. Goett (1910- ) earned a degree in physics from Holy Cross College in 1931 and one in aeronautical engineering from NYU in 1933. After holding a number of engineering posts with private firms, he became a project engineer at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1936. He later moved to Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, where he was chief of the full-scale and flight research division, 1948-1959. In the latter year he became director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, a post he held until July 1965, when he became a special assistant to NASA Administrator James E. Webb. Later that year he became director for plans and programs at Philco's Western Development Labs in California and ultimately retired from a position with Ford Aerospace and Communications. ("Harry J. Goett," biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Barry M. Goldwater (1909- ) (R-AZ) was a U.S. senator from 1953-1965. In 1964 he ran unsuccessfully for president of the U.S. against Lyndon Johnson. He was an outspoken conservative and became the leader and later elder statesman for the right wing of the Republican party.
Nicholas E. Golovin (1912-1969), born in Odessa, Russia, but educated in this country (Ph.D. in physics, George Washington University, 1955) worked in various capacities for the government during and after World War II, including for the Naval Research Laboratory, 1946-1948. He held several administrative positions with the National Bureau of Standards from 1949 to 1958. In 1958 he was chief scientist for the White Sands Missile Range and then worked for the Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1959 as director of technical operations. He became deputy associate administrator for NASA in 1960. He joined private industry before becoming, in 1961, the director of the NASA-DOD large launch vehicle planning group. He joined the Office of Science and Technology at the White House in 1962 as a technical advisor for aviation and space and remained there until 1968 when he took a leave of absence as a research associate at Harvard and as a fellow at the Brookings Institution. (Obituaries, Washington Star, 30 Apr. 1969, p. B-6, and Washington Post, 30 Apr. 1969, p. B14.)
Andrew Jackson Goodpaster (1915- ) was a career Army officer who served as defense liaison officer and secretary of the White House staff from 1954 to 1961, being promoted to brigadier general during that period. He later was deputy commander, U.S. forces in Vietnam, 1968-1969, and commander-in-chief, U.S. forces in Europe, 1969-1974. He retired in 1974 as a four-star general but returned to active duty in 1977 and served as superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy, a post he held until his second retirement in 1981.
 Albert A. Gore (1907- ) (D-TN) was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1938. He was reelected to each succeeding Congress until 1952 when he won election to the Senate. He served there until 1970.
Melvin N. Gough (1906- ) earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Johns Hopkins in 1926 and joined the wind tunnel staff of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Taking a leave of absence, he learned to fly with the Navy at Pensacola and became an NACA test pilot in 1929. He logged more than 6,000 hours of flying time and flew more than 300 different airplanes under test conditions. In 1943 he became director of flight research activities at Langley. He was assigned in 1958 as director of NASA activities at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. In 1960 he became director of the bureau of safety at the Civil Aeronautics Board. Two years later, he joined the FAA as director of the new aircraft development service. He retired in 1963. ("Melvin N. Gough," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Theodore Granik was a lawyer and the founder of "American Forum of the Air," a weekly radio program for discussion of national problems, inaugurated in 1928 and later broadcast on television as well.
Edward Z. Gray (1915- ) worked for Boeing Co. from 1943-1963 as a design engineer for the Boeing jet aircraft series as well as the DynaSoar and Minuteman programs. He held a number of positions in systems engineering management, the last one being as development program manager of advanced space systems. He served on numerous committees for the government and aerospace industry, including the NASA research advisory committee on structural loads in 1958-1959, of which he was chairman. In 1963 NASA appointed him to the directorship of its advanced manned missions programs. He worked in that position through 1967, transferred to a position as assistant to the president of Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. from 1967-1973, and then returned to NASA as assistant administrator for industry affairs and technology utilization. By 1978 he had assumed a position as director of government/industry affairs. In 1979 he joined Bendix Corp.'s aerospace-electronics group as director of systems development. ("Edward Z. Gray," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Gordon Gray (1909-1982) was a former publishing company executive and past president of the University of North Carolina who had served in various positions in the DOD and presidential administrations, including a period as secretary of the Army from 1949-1950. He served as special assistant to the president for national security affairs from 1958 to 1961. (Bell, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, p. 134; New York Times, 28 November 1982, p. 44.)
Crawford H. Greenewalt (1902- ) had been president of E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co. since 1948 and had been with the company in a series of positions since 1922. The Greenewalt committee, appointed by Glennan to advise him on the goals of the NASA space program and consisting of ten members including Greenewalt, convened in late 1959 and continued into 1960 to explore and identify  the national objectives to be served by a program of non-military space activities and in particular to examine the significance of competition with the Soviet Union in that arena. The committee deemphasized the issue of preeminence in space. ("Greenewalt Committee" and "Ad Hoc Advisory Committee" files, Glennan subseries, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
H. R. Gross (1899-1987) (R-IA) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1948 and served through the mid-1970s.
Robert Ellsworth Gross (1897-1961) had worked for Lee Higginson Corp. (1919-1927), Stearman Aircraft Co. (1927-1928), and the Viking Flying Boat Co. (as president, 1928-1930). In 1932 he became president and chairman of the board of Lockheed Aircraft Corp., a position he held until at least 1960.
John P. Hagen (1908-1990) was a solar radio astronomer who earned an M.A. from Wesleyan in 1931 and began working for the Naval Research Laboratory in 1935. There he worked on improving radar techniques and helped develop an automatic ground speed indicator for aircraft. After World War II he headed NRL's radio physics research group, which developed the world's most precise radio telescope in 1950, a year after he earned a Ph.D. in astronomy at Georgetown. In 1955 he became director of the Vanguard earth satellite program and, when that program became part of NASA on 1 October 1958, he remained chief of the NASA Vanguard division and then (1958-1960) became assistant director of space flight development. In February 1960 he became director of NASA's office for the United Nations conference and later, assistant director of NASA's office of plans and program evaluation. In 1962 he set up a graduate program of radio astronomy at Pennsylvania State University, retiring from there as head of the astronomy department in 1975. ("John P. Hagen," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
James C. Hagerty (1909-1981) had been on the staff of the New York Times from 1934 to 1942, the last four years as legislative correspondent in the paper's Albany bureau. He served as executive assistant to New York Governor Thomas Dewey from 1943 to 1950 and then as Dewey's secretary for the next two years before becoming press secretary for President Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961.
Leonard W. Hall (1900-1979) (R-NY) was a congressman from 1939-1952 and then served as chairman of the Republican national committee from 1953-1957. A lawyer, he then became the senior partner in the Long Island law firm of Hall, Casey, Dickler, & Brady.
Richard Harkness (1907-1977) was a radio and television news commentator who became NBC's Washington correspondent in 1943 and stayed in that position through 1970.
Bryce N. Harlow (1916-1987) was deputy assistant to the president for congressional Affairs, a position he had held since 1959. He had held other positions on the White House staff since 1953. From 1938 to 1951 he was on the congressional staff, rising to be chief clerk, 1950-1951. In 1951-1952 he was vice president of Harlow Pub. Corp in Oklahoma City. He became director of  governmental relations for Proctor and Gamble Manufacturing Company from 1961 to 1969 and then rejoined the White House as assistant to the president for legislative and congressional Affairs, becoming counselor to the president, 1969-1970. He served as vice president of Proctor and Gamble, 1970-1973, then returned as counselor to the president at the height of the Watergate scandal, remaining until April 1974, when he resigned and returned to private life.
Karl G. Harr, Jr. (1922- ) was special assistant to the president and vice chair of the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB) between 1958 and 1961. Before that he had been a special intelligence officer with the U.S. Army in World War II, attended Yale Law School, and practiced law until 1954 when he began work with the Department of State. In 1963 he assumed the presidency of the Aerospace Industries Association and served until 1988. In 1989 he was named a senior fellow with the Eisenhower Institute for World Affairs. ("Karl G. Harr, Jr.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Rupert Vance Hartke (1919- ) (D-IN) was first elected to the Senate in 1958 and served until 1977.
Carl T. Hayden (1877-1972) (D-AZ) served the new state of Arizona in Congress from 1912 to 1927. Elected to the Senate in 1926, he remained a senator until 1969 and was president pro tempore of the Senate from 1957-1969.
John Tucker Hayward (1910- ) was a career naval officer and naval aviator whose assignments had included the Manhattan Project and the Armed Forces Special Weapons Base, Sandia, NM. He was serving as deputy commanding officer for research and development, Navy Department, from 1957 to 1963. He became a vice admiral in 1959, retired in 1968, and became vice president of General Dynamics Corporation in that year.
Donald H. Heaton was an Air Force officer who from 1951 to 1957 as a lieutenant colonel and colonel had served on various subcommittees of the NACA committee on power plants for aircraft as well as on the committee itself. Available information does not indicate just when he joined NASA Headquarters, but the August 1959 telephone directory shows him working in the office of the assistant director of propulsion within the office of space flight development. He served in a variety of positions connected with launch vehicles, and in June 1961 Associate Administrator Robert Seamans appointed him chairman of an ad hoc task group to formulate plans and determine the resources necessary to carry out a manned lunar landing. His group submitted its summary report in August 1961. He appears to have left NASA Headquarters sometime between June and October 1963. ("Donald H. Heaton," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection and headquarters telephone directories for the period; on his committee's report, see especially Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, pp. 45, 70-72.)
Harlow J. Heneman (1906-1983), besides being a general partner of Cresap, McCormick and Paget, was a management consultant. He held a Ph.D. from the University of London and was on the political science faculty of the University of Michigan from 1933-1945. Thereafter, he held a number of positions  in and outside of government, including that of management analyst with the Bureau of the Budget, 1944-1945.
Christian A. Herter (1895-1966) was undersecretary of state, 1957-1959, and then succeeded John Foster Dulles as secretary of state from 1959-1961. He never achieved the level of mutual understanding with President Eisenhower that Dulles had enjoyed, however, and thus failed to have the sort of influence in developing the administration's foreign policy that his predecessor had achieved. (Pach and Richardson, Presidency of Eisenhower, p. 204.)
Bourke B. Hickenlooper (1896-1971) (R-IA), a former governor of Iowa (1943-1944), was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1944 and served until 1969.
Daniel C. Hickson (1906- ) had been the vice president of Bankers Trust Co. since 1947.
Lister Hill (1894-1984) (D-AL) was elected to fill a vacant position in the House of Representatives in 1923 and served until 1939. The previous year, he had been elected to fill an unexpired term in the Senate, where he served through 1969.
John H. Hinrichs (1904- ) was a career army officer and at this time was deputy chief of ordnance, U.S. Army Field Services Division. He had been promoted to major general in 1954.
Wesley L. Hjornevik (1926- ) began federal service in 1949 as a budget examiner and program analyst. In 1957 he became assistant to the under secretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and in October of the next year he moved to NASA as assistant to T. Keith Glennan. He became deputy director of business administration on 15 December 1959. In 1961 he became associate director for manned space flight in Houston, Texas, serving until October 1969 when he became the deputy director of the Office of Economic Opportunity. In 1974 he became the director of public administration for the state of Texas. ("Wesley L. Hjornevik," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Alfred S. Hodgson was NASA's director of management analysis from 1958-1960 and then became director of business administration in the headquarters. By 1962 he was assistant to the director of administration, and thereafter he became the director of the headquarters administration office, a position from which he appears to have retired during 1968. (Miscellaneous biographical file and headquarters telephone directories, Sept. and Dec. 1968, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
William M. Holaday (1901- ) was special assistant to the secretary of defense for guided missiles between 1957 and 1958, then DOD director of guided missiles in 1958 and chairman of the civilian-military liaison committee, 1958-1960. Previously Holaday had been associated with a variety of research and development activities, notably as director of research for the Socony-Mobil Oil Co., 1937-1944. ("William M. Holaday," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Chester E. Holifield (1903- ) (D-CA) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1942 and served until the mid-1970s.
 Spessard L. Holland (1892-1971) (D-FL) was first appointed and then elected to the Senate in 1946 and served there until 1970.
George W. Hoover was an early space enthusiast who had entered the Navy in 1944 and become a pilot. He moved to the Office of Naval Research to conduct a program in all-weather flight instrumentation. Later he helped originate the idea of high-altitude balloons that were used in a variety of projects like Skyhook, which supported cosmic-ray research and served as a research vehicle for obtaining environmental data relevant to supersonic flight, among other uses. In 1954 he was project officer in the field of high-speed, high-altitude flight, with involvement in the Douglas D558 project leading to the X-15. Hoover was also instrumental in establishing Project Orbiter with von Braun and others, resulting in the launch of Explorer I, the first American satellite. "George W. Hoover," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.
Richard E. Horner (1917- ) was associated with aerospace activities through out his career. He served as a pilot in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II and on active duty between 1945 and 1949 as director of flight test engineering at Wright Field, Ohio (1944-1945 and 1947-1949). He was promoted to colonel in 1948. Between 1950 and 1955 he was first technical director and then senior engineer for the Air Force Flight Test Center at Muroc, California. In May 1955, Horner became deputy for requirements in the office of the assistant secretary of the Air Force, R&D, and in 1957 he became assistant secretary for research & development. In June 1959 he left the USAF to become NASA associate administrator. He resigned from NASA in July 1960 and became senior vice president of the Northrop Corp. In 1970 he joined the E.F. Johnson Co. as president and chief executive officer. ("Richard E. Horner," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Donald F. Hornig (1920- ), a chemist, was a research associate at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Lab, 1943-1944, and a scientist and group leader at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 1944-1946. He taught chemistry at Brown University starting in 1946, rising to the directorship of Metcalf Research Lab, 1949-1957, and also serving as associate dean and acting dean of the graduate school from 1952-1954. He was Donner Professor of Science at Princeton from 1957-1964 as well as chairman of the chemistry department from 1958-1964. He was a special assistant to the president of the U.S. on science and technology from 1964-1969 and president of Brown University from 1970-1976.
Roman Lee Hruska (1904- ) (R-NB) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1952 and to the Senate in 1954. He remained in the Senate until 1976.
Abraham Hyatt (1910- ) earned a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1933. After working for the U.S. Geodetic Survey and private industry, in 1948 he became head of the design research branch for the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics and advanced to chief scientist and research analysis officer there, 1956-1958. In 1959 he became assistant director for propulsion in NASA. The following year he became director of NASA's office of program planning and  evaluation. He remained in that position until 1964 when he became a professor at MIT and then, in 1965, executive director for corporate planning at North American Aviation, Inc. ("Abraham Hyatt," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Henry M. ("Scoop") Jackson (1912-1983) (D-WA) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1940 and to each succeeding Congress until 1952, when he was elected to the Senate, where he served until the mid-1980s. During the Eisenhower administration, he was a leading advocate of greater attention to the development of the U.S. missile program.
Robert Jastrow (1925- ) earned a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia in 1948 and pursued post-doctoral studies at Leiden, Princeton (Institute for Advanced Studies), and the University of California at Berkeley before becoming an assistant professor at Yale in 1953-1954. He then served on the staff at the Naval Research Laboratory from 1954-1958. In the latter year he was appointed chief of the theoretical division of the Goddard Spaceflight Center. He became director of the Goddard Institute of Space Studies in 1961 and stayed at its helm for 20 years before becoming professor of earth sciences at Dartmouth. He specialized in nuclear physics, plasma physics, geophysics, and the physics of the moon and terrestrial planets. ("Robert Jastrow," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Jacob K. Javits (1904-1986) (R-NY) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served through 1954. After a term as attorney general of New York, he was elected to the Senate in 1956 and served until 1980.
Ben Franklin Jensen (1892-1970) (R-IA) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1938 and served into the mid-1960s.
John A. Johnson (1915- ), after completing law school at the University of Chicago in 1940, practiced in Chicago until 1943 when he entered military service with the Navy. From 1946 to 1948 he was an assistant for international security affairs in the Department of State. He joined the office of the general counsel of the Department of the Air Force in 1949 and served until 7 October 1958 (for the last six years as the general counsel) when he accepted the general counsel position in NASA. In 1963 he left NASA to become director of international arrangements at the Communications Satellite Corporation. The next year he became a vice president of COMSAT, and in 1973, senior vice president and then chief executive officer. He retired in 1980. ("John A. Johnson," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) (D-TX) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1937 and served until 1949. He was a senator from 1949-1961, vice president of the U.S. from 1960-1963, and president from then until 1969. Best known for the social legislation he passed during his presidency and for his escalation of the war in Vietnam, he was also highly instrumental in revising and passing the legislation that created NASA and in supporting the U.S. space program as chairman of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences and of the preparedness subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee, then later as  chairman of the National Aeronautics and Space Council when he was vice president. (On the NASA legislation, Griffeth, National Aeronautics and Space Act, passim; on his role in support of the space program, Robert A. Divine, "Lyndon B. Johnson and the Politics of Space," in The Johnson Years, vol. II: Vietnam, the Environment, and Science, ed. Robert A. Divine [Lawrence, KS, 1987] and Robert Dallek, "Johnson, Project Apollo, and the Politics of Space Program Planning," unpublished paper delivered at a symposium on "Presidential Leadership, Congress, and the U.S. Space Program," sponsored by NASA and American University, 25 March 1993.)
Roy W. Johnson (1906-1965) was named director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency for the Department of Defense in 1958, serving until 1961. Previously he had been with the General Electric Co. He was a strong proponent of exploiting space for national security objectives. ("Roy W. Johnson Dead; First U.S. Space Chief," Washington Post, 23 July 1965.)
Roger W. Jones (1908- ) worked in various capacities for the Bureau of the Budget from 1939 to 1959, rising in the last two years to be deputy director. He was chairman of the Civil Service Commission from 1959 to 1961. He held various other government posts thereafter, including that of assistant director, Office of Management and Budget, 1969-1971.
Robert W. Kamm (1917- ) graduated from New York University in 1939 with a bachelors degree in aeronautical engineering and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, where he investigated spin characteristics of various military aircraft in wind tunnels. In 1946 he left the NACA to become senior aerodynamicist with the Glenn L. Martin Company. In 1950 he went to work for the Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center, where he became chief of the plans and policy office in 1957. In 1959 he accepted an appointment as director of NASA's western operations office in Santa Monica, responsible for contract negotiations and administration, public information, technical representation, financial management, security, legal and patent administration. In 1968 he retired from that position and NASA to become assistant to the director of the Space Institute at the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma.
Arthur Kantrowitz (1913- ) earned his Ph.D. in physics from Columbia in 1947 after having worked as a physicist for the NACA from 1936 to 1946. He taught at Cornell for the next decade, meanwhile founding the Avco-Everett Research Lab in Everett, Massachusetts, in 1955. He served as its director, senior executive officer, and chairman until 1978 when he became a professor at Dartmouth. From 1956 to 1978 he also served as a vice president and director of Avco Corporation.
Joseph E. Karth (1922- ) (Democrat-Farmer-Labor-MN) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1958 and served through the mid-1970s.
Kenneth B. Keating (1900-1975) (R-NY) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served there through 1958. Elected to the Senate the latter year, he served through 1965 and then became an associate justice in the New  York Court of Appeals for three years before becoming ambassador to India in 1969.
William B. Keese (1910- ) was a career Air Force officer who became a major general in 1960 and was the director of developmental planning at Headquarters, U.S. Air Force from 1960-1962.
Robert F. Keller (1913-1980) had worked for the General Accounting Office from 1935-42 and 1946-69. He became general counsel in 1958. In 1969 he became controller general of the U.S.
Mervin J. Kelly (1894-1971) was a longtime research physicist with Bell Telephone Laboratories, becoming director of research in 1934, vice president in 1944, and president of the organization between 1951 and 1959. His work at the laboratories focused on radar, gunfire control, and bombsights. After his retirement from Bell, Kelly was named advisor to NASA Administrator James E. Webb in 1961. (Obituary, New York News Herald, 20 March 1971, p. 32.)
David W. Kendall (1903-1976) served as special counsel to the president from 1958-1961. He had previously been general counsel of the U.S. Treasury, 1954-1955 and then assistant secretary of the Treasury, 1955-57.
Robert S. Kerr (1896-1963) (D-OK) had been governor of Oklahoma from 1943-1947 and was elected to the Senate the following year. In 1961 he chaired the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee.
Seymour S. Kety (1915- ) was a physician who worked with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) throughout the 1950s. In 1951 he became associate director in charge of research for NIMH and for neurological diseases and blindness, and in 1956 he moved to the directorship of the Laboratory of Clinical Sciences. In 1959 Kety was the chair of NASA's bioscience advisory committee. In 1967 he left NIMH and became a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, where he assumed emeritus status in 1983. (See esp. "Seymour S. Kety" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
David Keyser (1918- ) became chief congressional liaison officer for NASA in 1959. He had worked from 1951-1955 as administrative assistant to Congressman Charles J. Kersten of Wisconsin. Just before his NASA appointment, he had worked as a municipal consultant to various city governments.
Nikita S. Khrushchev (1894-1971) was premier of the USSR from 1958 to 1964 and first secretary of the Communist party from 1953 to 1964. He was noted for an astonishing speech in 1956 denouncing the crimes and blunders of Joseph Stalin and for gestures of reconciliation with the West in 1959-1960, ending with the breakdown of a Paris summit with President Eisenhower and the leaders of France and Great Britain in the wake of Khrushchev's announcement that the Soviets had shot down an American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over the Urals on 1 May 1960. Then in 1962 Khrushchev attempted to place Soviet medium range-missiles in Cuba. This led to an intense crisis in October, following which Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the U.S. promised to make no more attempts to overthrow Cuba's Communist government. Although he could be  charming at times, Khrushchev was also given to bluster (extending even to shoe-pounding at the U.N.) and was a tough negotiator, although he believed, unlike his predecessors, in the possibility of Communist victory over the West without war. See his Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974); Edward Crankshaw, Khrushchev: A Career (New York: Viking, 1966); Michael R. Beschloss, Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and The U-2 Affair (New York: Harper & Row, 1986); and Robert A. Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) as well as Eisenhower's Waging Peace for further information about him.
James R. Killian, Jr., (1904-1988) was president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology between 1949 and 1959, on leave between November 1957 and July 1959 when he served as the first presidential science advisor. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), which Killian chaired, following the Sputnik crisis. After leaving the White House staff in 1959, Killian continued his work at MIT but in 1965 began working with the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to develop public television. Killian described his experiences as a presidential advisor in Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977). For a discussion of the PSAC see Gregg Herken, Cardinal Choices: Science Advice to the President from Hiroshima to SDI (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
David S. King (1917- ) (D-UT) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1958 and served through 1962. He was reelected in 1964 for one term and then became an ambassador to the Malagasy Republic.
George B. Kistiakowsky (1900-1982) was a pioneering chemist at Harvard University, associated with the development of the atomic bomb, and later an advocate of banning nuclear weapons. He served as science advisor to President Eisenhower from July 1959 to the end of the administration. He later served on the advisory board to the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency from 1962 to 1969. (New York Times, 9 December 1982, p. B21; "George B. Kistiakowsky," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
William F. Knowland (1908-1974) (R-CA) served in the Senate between 1945 and 1959. (Washington Post, 5 October 1959, p. C3; Guide to Research Collections of Former United States Senators, 1789-1982 [Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983], p. 291).
Robert L. Krieger (1916-1990) began his career with the NACA and NASA at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1936 as a laboratory apprentice. Leaving the NACA for college, he earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech in 1943 and returned to Langley. From there, he was part of the group that set up the Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island under Robert R. Gilruth in 1945. In 1948 he became the head of the Wallops facility, which performed aerodynamic tests on instrumented models propelled at high speeds. In 1958 Wallops became an independent field center of NASA; there, Krieger led the  first successful test flight of the Mercury capsule. During his career there, Wallops launched thousands of test vehicles, including 19 satellites. He retired as director in 1981. ("Robert L. Krieger," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Hermann H. Kurzweg (1908- ) was born in Germany and earned his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1933. During the Second World War, he was chief of the research division and deputy director of the aerodynamic laboratories at Peenemünde, where he did aerodynamic research on the V-2 rocket and the antiaircraft rocket Wasserfall as well as participated in the design of the supersonic wind tunnels there. In 1946 he came to the U.S. and worked for the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, Maryland, doing aerodynamics and aeroballistics research and becoming associate technical director of the lab in 1956. He joined NASA Headquarters in September 1960 as assistant director for aerodynamics and flight mechanics in the office of advanced research programs. In 1961 he became director of research in the office of advanced research and technology. Nine years later, he was appointed chief scientist and chairman of the research council in the same office. He retired in 1974. ("Hermann H. Kurzweg," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Robert J. Lacklen had joined the NACA in 1945 as classification and organization officer. He became head of the NACA personnel administration two years later. When NASA succeeded the NACA, he became director of the personnel division, a position he held until 1964, when he resigned to become head of a personnel research institute at the Richardson Foundation in Greensboro, North Carolina. ("Robert J. Lacklen," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Thomas G. Lanphier, Jr. (1915- ) was a special assistant to the secretary of the Air Force, 1949-1950, and became vice president of Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp., 1951-1960; then president of Fairbanks, Morse, and Co, 1960-1962; before becoming vice president for corporate planning of Raytheon in 1962.
Richard E. Lankford (1914- ) (D-MD) was elected as a representative of Maryland's fifth district in Congress in 1954, a seat he retained through 1964.
Ludwig George Lederer (1911-1978) was a specialist in internal and aviation medicine. He was medical director for Capital Airlines from 1942-1960 and was simultaneously medical examiner and physician in chief of the Washington National Airport. In 1960 he became medical director for American Airlines. At about this time he was president of the aerospace medical association.
Max Lehrer was the assistant staff director of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences of the U.S. Senate at this time. (Letter, T. Keith Glennan to Max Lehrer, 30 March 1960, "Congress" file, Glennan subseries, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Lyman L. Lemnitzer (1899-1988) was a career army officer who served as Army vice chief of staff between 1957 and 1959; Army chief of staff, 1959-1960; chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1960-1962; commanding general of United  States Forces, Europe, 1962-1969; and Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, 1963-1969. (Bell, Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, p. 132; New York Times, 13 November 1988, p. 44).
William E. Lilly (1921- ) entered federal civilian service in 1950 as a budget and program analyst with the Navy Ordnance Test Station in California and held a variety of positions with the Navy and the Bureau of Standards until 1960 when he joined NASA as chief, plans and analysis, office of launch vehicles. He served NASA for 21 years, becoming its first comptroller - a position with associate administrator status - in 1973. He retired in 1981 with 37 years of federal service including service in the Navy from 1940-1946.
Ernest K. Lindley (1899-1979) was a Rhodes scholar in 1923 and served as a reporter and political writer for the New York World from 1924-1931, then wrote for the Herald Tribune from 1931-1937. He became chief of the Washington bureau of Newsweek from 1937-1961 and also served as a political commentator for the Washington Post for part of that period.
John V. Lindsay (1921- ) (R-NY) served in the House of Representatives from 1959-1965, when he became mayor of New York City.
Albert W. Lines (1914- ) was a British physicist who had previously been the principal scientific officer at the U.K. Ministry of Supply. His appointment to the directorship of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnsborough apparently was quite recent because the 1959 Directory of British Aviation listed Sir George Gardner in that position and its "Who's Who in British Aviation" did not even mention Lines.
Donald P. Ling was on the staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories. In 1954 he had co-authored a two-volume report entitled "Command Guidance for a Ballistic Missile." He continued working in this area and later became vice president of Bell Labs and, in 1970, president of Bellcom, Inc., a subsidiary incorporated in 1962. He retired in 1971. (A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: National Service in War and Peace (1925-1975), M. D. Fagen, ed. [Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1978], pp. 396, 447, 506, 699.)
Walter Lippmann (1889-1974) was perhaps the most eminent and influential journalist of his day. He helped found and then edit The New Republic in 1914. He wrote editorials for and then edited the World from 1921 to 1931 and then began a column for the New York Herald Tribune that was eventually syndicated in more than 250 newspapers and won two Pulitzer Prizes (1958, 1962).
William Littlewood (1898-1967) was a vice president of American Airlines in charge of engineering from 1937 to 1963. Before that, he was regarded as the developer of the DC-3 that helped revolutionize air travel. From 1946 to 1964 he chaired the NACA committee on operating problems and its NASA successor, the committee on aircraft operating problems and was one of the country's most highly regarded aircraft engineers, known as an advocate of the government's devoting more resources to the research and development of aircraft rather than spacecraft. ("William Littlewood," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902-1985) had been a senator from Massachusetts (1937-1944, 1947-1952) and had been active in promoting President  Eisenhower's presidential candidacy. Eisenhower appointed him permanent representative to the U.N. (1953-1960), from which position he advised the president on domestic affairs as well as U.N. issues. He was Richard M. Nixon's vice presidential running mate in 1960 and then U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1963-1964, 1965-1967). See his As It Was: An Inside View of Politics and Power in the '50s and '60s (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976).
A. C. Bernard Lovell (1913- ) taught physics at the University of Manchester in England before World War II, specializing in cosmic ray investigations. During the war he worked on radar development. Upon return to Manchester, he established the Jodrell Bank station in nearby Cheshire, setting up a radio telescope with a 250-foot antenna. It was completed in 1957 and was used by NASA to receive signals from the Pioneer series of moon probes and as a sensitive receiver of signals bounced off the passive Echo satellite in the period of this diary. ("Bernard Lovell," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
George M. Low (1926-1984), a native of Vienna, Austria, came to the U.S. in 1940 and received an aeronautical engineering degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in 1948 and an M.S. in the same field from that school in 1950. He joined the NACA in 1949 and at Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory he specialized in experimental and theoretical research in several fields. He became chief of manned space flight at NASA Headquarters in 1958. In 1960, he chaired a special committee that formulated the original plans for the Apollo lunar landings. In 1964 he became deputy director of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, the forerunner of the Johnson Space Center. He became deputy administrator of NASA in 1969 and served as acting administrator in 1970-1971. He retired from NASA in 1976 to become president of RPI, a position he still held at his death. In 1990 NASA renamed its quality and excellence award after him. ("George M. Low," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Alvin R. Luedecke (1910- ) served in the Army Air Corps and the Air Force from 1934 to 1958, rising through the ranks to become a major general. He served as the executive secretary of the military liaison committee to the Atomic Energy Commission from 1949-1951 and was thereafter deputy chief and then chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, 1951-1957, and commander of Joint Task Force 7, 1957-1958. From 1958 to 1964 he was general manager of the AEC. Thereafter, he became deputy director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1964-1967; associate dean of engineering at Texas A&M, 1968-1970; acting president of Texas A&M, 1970; and the university's executive vice president beginning in 1971. ("Alvin R. Luedecke," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Bruce T. Lundin (1919- ) earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California in 1942 and worked for Standard Oil of California before joining the staff at Lewis Laboratory in 1943. He investigated heat transfer and worked to improve the performance of World War II aircraft engines. Then in 1946 he became chief of the jet propulsion research section, which conducted some of America's early research on turbojet engines. He became assistant director of Lewis in 1958 and directed much of the center's efforts in space propulsion and power generation. He advanced through the positions of associate director for development (1961) at Lewis, managing the development and operation of the  Centaur and Agena launch vehicles, and of deputy associate administrator for advanced research and technology at NASA Headquarters (1968), before becoming acting associate administrator for advanced research and technology there (1969). Later that year, he received the appointment as director of the Lewis Research Center, where he remained until his retirement in 1977. ("Bruce T. Lundin," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Warren G. Magnuson (1905-1989) (D-WA) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1936 and served until 1944 when he was appointed to fill an unexpired term in the Senate. He was subsequently elected to the Senate later that year and remained a senator until 1981.
George C. Marshall (1880-1959) was a career Army officer who served as general of the army and U.S. Army chief of staff during World War II. He became secretary of state (1947-1949) and of defense (1950-1951) and was the author of the European recovery program known to the world as the Marshall Plan; it played a critical role in reconstructing a Europe ravaged by the war that Marshall had done so much to direct to a victorious end. In recognition of the effects of the Marshall Plan and his contributions to world peace, he received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1953. It was fitting that a NASA center should be named after the only professional soldier to receive the prize, given NASA's charter to devote itself to the peaceful uses of outer space and yet to cooperate with the military services. (The standard source on Marshall is the magisterial, multivolume biography by Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall [New York: Viking, 1963-1966], but there are several recent one-volume studies, including Mark A. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century [Boston: Twayne, 1989].)
Joseph W. Martin, Jr. (1884-1968) (R-MA) had been a member of Congress since 1924 and until 1958, minority leader of the House of Representatives every session since 1939 except for the years 1947-1949 and 1953-1955, when he was speaker of the House.
Paul Logan Martin (1912-1978) worked for a variety of newspapers and the Press Association, Inc. before becoming the political and legal correspondent for Gannett Newspapers from 1947-1950. From 1950 to 1966, he was chief of Gannett's bureau before becoming an editor for U.S. News and World Report.
Edward A. McCabe (1917- ) was part of Eisenhower's congressional liaison staff. His formal titles were associate counsel to the president, 1956-1958, and administrative assistant, 1958-1961. After the end of the Eisenhower administration, McCabe became a partner in the law firm Hamel, Park, McCabe & Saunders.
John A. McCone (1902-1991) began his career as a construction engineer in 1929 and became executive vice president and director of the Consolidated Steel Corporation, 1933-1937. He was organizer and president of Bechtel-McCone Corporation (an engineering firm), 1937-1945, and subsequently served as a business executive with several other firms. He worked in the Defense Department  from 1948 to 1951 and as chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1958-1960. He was appointed director of the Central Intelligence Agency in 1961 and remained in that position until 1965.
John W. McCormack (1891-1980) (D-MA) was a member of the House of Representatives serving the district in which Boston was located. He first entered the House in 1929 to fill the unexpired term of the late James A. Gallivan and served until his retirement in 1970. He was House majority leader from 1955 to 1962 and speaker of the House between 1962 and 1970. (Official Congressional Directory for the Use of the United States Congress [Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970], p. 81).
James S. McDonnell, Jr. (1899-1980) graduated from MIT with an M.S. in aeronautical engineering in 1925 and worked as an engineer and pilot with a variety of aircraft companies before he founded McDonnell Aircraft Corp. in St. Louis in 1939. He served as its president until 1962. The FH-1 Phantom, which first flew in 1946, was the first in a line of fighter aircraft his company produced, including the F-4 Phantom 2, the F-15 Eagle, and the F-18 Hornet. In 1959 the company became the contractor for the Mercury spacecraft; almost three years later it also became contractor for the Gemini spacecraft. In 1967, McDonnell Aircraft merged with Douglas Aircraft Co. to form McDonnell Douglass Corp., with James McDonnell serving as chairman and chief executive officer until 1972 and chairman thereafter. (See esp. obituaries in Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1 Sept. 1980, p. 50 and the New York Times, 23 Aug. 1980, p. 11.)
Neil H. McElroy (1904-1972) became secretary of defense in 1957 and served through 1959. He had previously been president of Procter & Gamble and returned there in December 1959 to become chair of the board. He served in that position until October 1972, a month before his death.
H. Roemer McPhee (1925- ) served at this time as associate special counsel to the president in the White House, where he began work in 1957. A lawyer educated at Princeton and Harvard, at the end of the Eisenhower administration he became a partner in the law firm of Hamel, Morgan, Park and Saunders.
John M. McSweeney (1916-1979) was a career foreign service officer. From 1959 to 1961 he was deputy director and then director of the office of Soviet Union affairs in the State Department. He became the U.S. ambassador to Bulgaria from 1967 to 1970.
George Meader (1907- ) (R-MI) began serving in the House of Representatives in 1950 and served until 1964.
John B. Medaris (1902-1990) was a major general commanding the Army Ballistic Missile Agency when Glennan tried to incorporate it into NASA. He attempted to retain the organization as part of the Army, but with a series of DOD agreements the Air Force obtained primacy in space activities and Medaris could not succeed in his effort. Medaris also worked with Wernher von Braun to launch Explorer I in early 1958. He retired from the Army in 1969 and became an Episcopal  priest, later joining an even more conservative Anglican-Catholic church. ("John Bruce Medaris," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; John B. Medaris with Arthur Gordon, Countdown for Decision [New York: Putnam, 1960].)
John T. Mengel (1918- ) taught physics at Lafayette College from 1939-1940, worked for General Electric from 1940-1942, and then developed and evaluated special detection devices at the Bureau of Ships from 1942-1946. He joined the Naval Research Laboratory in 1946, becoming head of the electronic instrument section in 1947. In 1955 he became head of the tracking and guidance branch for Project Vanguard. He joined NASA in 1958 in the same position. From 1959-1973 he was director for tracking and data systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. ("John T. Mengel," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Livingston T. Merchant (1903-1976) was under secretary of state for political affairs during the period of the Glennan diary. He served in the Department of State from 1942 to 1962.
Robert E. Merriam (1918-1988) was deputy assistant to the president for interdepartmental affairs between 1958 and 1961. Previously he had been an urban planner and housing administrator in Chicago, 1946-1955, and deputy director of the Bureau of the Budget, 1955-1958. At the conclusion of the Eisenhower administration, Merriam became president successively of Spaceonics, Inc., 1961-1964 and Universal Patents, Inc., 1964-1971; then chair of the board of MGA Tech., Inc., 1971-1988.
Elliott Mitchell earned a B.S. in chemistry from William and Mary in 1941 and served from 1942 to 1950 as a physical chemist and chemical engineer in the Department of the Navy. From then until 1958 he was physical sciences administrator and then chief of propulsion research and development in the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. In 1958 he joined NASA as chief of the solid rocket development program. When he left NASA in 1961, he was assistant director of manned space flight programs for propulsion. Thereafter, he became a consultant. ("Elliott Mitchell," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
James P. Mitchell (1900-1964) had served as director of personnel and industrial relations for R. H. Macy & Co. from 1945-1947 and became vice president of Bloomingdale's in the latter year, with responsibility for labor relations. He became secretary of labor in 1953 after his predecessor had resigned over the failure of the Eisenhower administration to amend the Taft-Hartley law to abolish its right-to-work provision in favor of organized labor. Mitchell served as secretary of labor until 1961, making some efforts to recommend amendments to Taft-Hartley but without either success or the fervor his predecessor had exhibited in the interests of organized labor. (See Ambrose, Eisenhower, the President, pp. 116-118.)
Richard T. Mittauer (1927-1973) had worked as a news editor for radio station WOW in his native Omaha, Nebraska, and as a newswriter for ABC in Chicago before coming to Washington, D.C., in 1954 as a congressional intern at  the American Political Science Association. From 1955-1959 he was press secretary for Senator Roman L. Hruska before joining NASA's office of public information the latter year. He became director of that office in 1972.
James J. Modarelli had headed the research reports division at Lewis Laboratory when NACA Executive Secretary John Victory requested suggestions for a NASA seal. Members of the illustration section in Modarelli's division sent in some designs, one of which (referred to as the "meatball" to distinguish it from a later insignia called the "worm") was selected and approved. Modarelli is generally credited as the designer. By 1959, Modarelli had moved to NASA Headquarters as head of the exhibits branch of the office of public information. ("James J. Modarelli," biographical file and headquarters telephone directories, 1959-1960, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Jack Pendleton Monroe (1904- ) was a career naval officer who became a rear admiral in 1956. He served as commander of the Pacific Missile Range from 1957-1961 before becoming the director of astronautics for the chief of naval operations from 1961-1963.
A. S. Mike Monroney (1902-1980) (D-OK) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1938 and served there through 1950 when he won election to the Senate, where he served through 1969.
Gerald D. Morgan (1908-1976) served in a variety of capacities in the Eisenhower White House - special assistant, 1953; administrative assistant to the president, 1953-1955; special counsel to the president, 1955-1958; and deputy assistant, 1958-1961. Previously he had been a partner with the Washington law firms of Morgan and Calhoun (1946-1950) and Hamel, Park, and Saunders (1950-1953), and assistant legislative counsel with the U.S. House of Representatives (1935-1945).
Robert S. Morison (1906-1986) was at this time director of the natural and medical sciences for the Rockefeller Foundation and a member of the Kety committee (see entry under Kety). He had worked for the Rockefeller Foundation in various capacities since 1944.
Delmar M. Morris (1913-1961) was deputy director for administration at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Until his untimely death from a heart attack, he had worked since March 1960 helping Wernher von Braun transfer his organization from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to NASA. At his death, Morris had almost 25 years of government service with a variety of agencies, most recently the Atomic Energy Commission. ("Delmar M. Morris," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Richard S. Morse (1911-1988) was at this time director of research and development for the Army (1959-1961). He had previously served as director of the National Research Corporation from 1940-1959.
Frank E. "Ted" Moss (1906- ) (D-UT) was first elected to the Senate in 1958 and served until 1977.
Karl E. Mundt (1900-1974) (R-SD) was a member of Congress, 1939-1949, and was elected to the Senate in 1948, being reelected thereafter until 1973.
 Jason John Nassau (1893-1965) earned a Ph.D. from Syracuse in 1920 and became an assistant professor of astronomy at Case Institute of Technology in 1921. He continued to teach there, serving as chairman of the graduate division from 1936-1940, and became the director of the Warner and Swasey Observatory from 1924-1959. Thereafter he was a professor emeritus at Case.
Homer E. Newell (1915-1983) earned his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Wisconsin in 1940 and served as a theoretical physicist and mathematician at the Naval Research Laboratory from 1944-1958. During part of that period, he was science program coordinator for Project Vanguard and was acting superintendent of the atmosphere and astrophysics division. In 1958 he transferred to NASA to assume responsibility for planning and development of the new agency's space science program. He soon became deputy director of space flight programs. In 1961 he assumed directorship of the office of space sciences; in 1963, he became associate administrator for space science and applications. Over the course of his career, he became an internationally known authority in the field of atmospheric and space sciences as well as the author of numerous scientific articles and seven books, including Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science (Washington, D.C.: NASA SP-4211, 1980). He retired from NASA at the end of 1973. ("Homer E. Newell," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Frank Clarke Newlon (1905- ) had been city editor and then managing editor for the Dallas Dispatch-Journal and then managing editor of the National Education Association Service in Cleveland. Following military service during World War II and a subsequent career in the Air Force, he became editor of Missiles and Rockets Magazine from 1958-1961. Thereafter, he became a free-lance writer.
Paul H. Nitze (1907- ) had been with the investment firm of Dillon, Read, and Co., before World War II, and then entered federal service. He held a variety of posts, including director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-1946, and served with the State Department during the remainder of the Truman administration. Between 1953 and 1961 he was president of the Foreign Service Educational Foundation. He was assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs, 1961-1963; secretary of the Navy, 1963-1967; and deputy secretary of defense, 1967-1969.
Warren J. North (1922- ) earned a B.S. from the University of Illinois in 1947. From then until 1955 he was an engineer and test pilot for the Lewis Laboratory. From 1956-1959 he served as assistant chief of the aerodynamics branch at Lewis. He then transferred to NASA Headquarters, where he took part in early planning for Project Mercury, including the selection and training of the seven Mercury astronauts. He moved in 1962 to the Manned Spacecraft Center (later the Johnson Space Center), where he headed the division responsible for training the astronauts for the Gemini rendezvous and docking operations and the Apollo lunar landings. He continued to work in the fields of astronaut selection and training until he retired in 1985 as special assistant to the director of flight operations in planning space shuttle crew training. ("Warren North," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 Robert G. Nunn, Jr. (1917-1975) earned a law degree from the University of Chicago in 1942. After four years in the Army during World War II, then private practice of law for eight years in Washington, D.C., and in his home town of Terre Haute, Indiana, he joined the office of general counsel of the Air Force in 1954. He became NASA assistant general counsel in November 1958 and then special assistant to Glennan in September 1960. He helped draft many legal and administrative regulations for NASA, then went to work for the Washington law firm of Sharp and Bogan. Later he formed the firm of Batzell and Nunn, specializing in energy legislation and administrative law.
John B. Oakes (1892- ) had been a writer and then editor for the New York Times since 1946 and became editor of the editorial page in 1961.
Hugh Odishaw (1916-1984) became assistant to the director of the National Bureau of Standards 1946-1954, served as executive director of the U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year from 1954-1965, and then became the executive secretary of the division of physical sciences in the National Academy of Sciences, 1966-1972.
Frank C. Osmers, Jr. (1907-1977) (R-NJ) was first elected to Congress in 1951 and served through the 88th Congress (1963-1965).
Harold C. Ostertag (1896-1985) (R-NY) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1950 and served through 1964.
Don Richard Ostrander (1914-1972) was a career Air Force officer who became a major general in 1958. He was deputy commander of the Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1959 and became director of NASA's launch vehicle programs in late 1959 as NASA began taking over responsibility for the Saturn program. He left NASA in 1961 and retired from the Air Force in 1965 as vice commander of the Ballistic Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, to become vice president for planning of the Bell Aero Systems Corporation. ("Don Richard Ostrander," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Carl F. J. Overhage (1910- ) earned his Ph.D. in physics at Caltech in 1937 and served as acting director of research for Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. until 1941, when he joined the staff of the radiation laboratory at MIT from 1942-1945. After a stint with Eastman Kodak from 1946-1954, he joined the Lincoln Laboratories of MIT, becoming its director from 1957-1964, after which he served as a professor of engineering.
Frank Pace, Jr. (1912-1988) was president of General Dynamics, Inc. Previously he had been Secretary of the Army, 1950-1953, and had held several other key posts in the Truman administration during the latter 1940s. (Bell, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, p. 136).
John F. Parsons (1908-1969) had been associate director of the Ames Research Center since 1952. He had joined the staff of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory as a junior aeronautical engineer in 1931. He worked there with wind tunnels. He moved to Ames in the 1939-1940 period when it was being set up and worked on planning, design, and construction of the new center. He continued wind tunnel work there and was also chief of the construction division. In 1948-1949  he was assistant to the director of the center. Then from 1949-1956 he supervised the wind tunnel construction program among other duties. ("John F. Parsons," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Morehead Patterson, chairman of the board of the American Machine & Foundry Co., was a member of the [Kimpton] Advisory Committee on Organization (see Chapter One, note 31).
Nathan W. Pearson, vice president of T. Mellon & Sons, was also a member of the Kimpton committee.
James A. Perkins (1911- ) was vice president of the Carnegie Corp. from 1951 to 1963 and president of Cornell University, 1963-1969. He, too, served on the Kimpton committee.
Milo Randolph Perkins (1900-1972) began his career as a salesman in 1919, but by 1926 he had become a partner in the King-Perkins Bag Co. He served in a variety of capacities in the Roosevelt administration, ending as executive director of the Board of Economic Warfare in 1941. Thereafter he became a foreign investment consultant.
Wilton B. Persons (1896-1977) was a career Army officer who had entered the U.S. Army Coast Artillery in 1917 and advanced through the ranks to major general in 1944. He had served in both the A.E.F. in World War I and in Europe in World War II. He headed the office of legislative liaison for the Department of Defense between 1948 and his retirement in 1949. He was called back to active duty as a special assistant to General Dwight D. Eisenhower at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe from 1951-1952 and was active on behalf of Eisenhower's presidential campaign in 1952. He became a deputy assistant to the president in 1953 and then was made an assistant to the president in 1958. He served throughout the Eisenhower presidency, handling congressional liaison before he replaced Sherman Adams in 1958 as, effectively, Eisenhower's chief of staff.
Franklyn W. Phillips (1917- ) graduated from MIT in 1941 with a degree in mechanical engineering and went to work at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, later moving to Lewis where he did research on aircraft engine materials and stresses. In 1945 he became a member of the NACA director's staff and served as administrator for a variety of NACA research programs in aircraft engines and aircraft and missile structures and loads. In October 1958 he became special assistant to Glennan. He gave up that position in January 1959 to become acting secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, but in February 1960 he returned to his position as Glennan's assistant. He continued in that job under James E. Webb until 1962, when he became director of NASA's new North-Eastern Office. In 1964 he became assistant director for administrative operations at the new NASA Electronics Research Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Clifford P. Phoebus (1910-1984 [or early 1985]) was a naval aviator, flight surgeon and medical corps officer who rose to the rank of captain in 1953 and was commander of the U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine in Pensacola,  Florida, from 1960-1964. (See obituary notice, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine [February 1985]: 192, which does not give a date of death but does state he died "recently" and gives his age at death as 74.)
William H. Pickering (1910- ) obtained his bachelors and masters degrees in electrical engineering, then a Ph.D. in Physics from Caltech before becoming a professor of electrical engineering there in 1946. In 1944 he organized the electronics efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to support guided missile research and development, becoming project manager for Corporal, the first operational missile JPL developed. From 1954 to 1976 he was director of JPL, which developed the first U.S. satellite (Explorer I), the first successful U.S. cislunar space probe (Pioneer IV), the Mariner flights to Venus and Mars in the early to mid-1960s, the Ranger photographic missions to the moon in 1964-65, and the Surveyor lunar landings of 1966-67. ("William H. Pickering," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Harvey F. Pierce (1909- ) was an electrical engineer who worked in the 1930s for the Florida Power & Light Co. and then became a partner in the firm of Maurice H. Connell & Assoc., 1937-1946; its secretary-treasurer in 1946; and a partner in Connell, Pierce, Garland & Friedman beginning in 1956.
I. Irving Pinkel (1913- ) graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied physics and mathematics, in 1934 and entered government service in 1935 as a physicist with the U.S. Bureau of Mines, with which he did research on the problem of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. He joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1940 and transferred to the Lewis Laboratory in 1942. There, he worked on hydraulics problems of aircraft engine lubricating systems operating at high altitudes. This effort led to the development of a method to control foaming in lubricating oil and to a new lubricant pump that met the stringent demands of high-altitude flight. In 1949 he became associate chief of the physics division at Lewis with responsibility for studying aircraft operating problems. Among other results of this work was a means of reducing the incidence of fire after airplane crashes. Pinkel became chief of the flight problems division in 1956 and of the aerospace safety research and data institute in 1968. ("I. Irving Pinkel," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Allen E. Puckett (1919- ) earned his Ph.D. at Caltech in 1949 and went to work for Hughes Aircraft Co. that year, becoming its executive vice president from 1965-1977 and its president thereafter.
Edward M. Purcell (1912- ) was a professor of physics at Harvard University during this period and also served on the president's Scientific Advisory Committee from 1957 to 1960 and 1962 to 1965. He had been co-winner of the Nobel prize in physics in 1952 (with Felix Bloch) for the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in solids.
Donald A. Quarles (1894-1959) was a deputy secretary of defense between 1957 and 1959. Just after World War II he had been a vice president first at Western Electric Co. and later at Sandia National Laboratories, but in 1953 he  accepted the position of assistant secretary of defense (research and development). He was also secretary of the Air Force between 1955 and 1957.
Elwood R. ("Pete") Quesada (1904-1993) was a career Army aviation and Air Force officer who rose through the ranks from private to lieutenant general. He commanded fighter forces in Africa and Europe during World War II and served as the first commander of Tactical Air Command from 1946-1948. A supporter of air-ground cooperation with the Army, he retired in 1951, perhaps because he believed the new Air Force's treatment of tactical air power as less important than the strategic air arm violated a promise to General Eisenhower that there would always be a tactical force to support the Army. He subsequently served as manager at Olin Industries, organizer and director of Lockheed's Missile Systems Division, the controversial but highly successful first administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency, and president of L'Enfant Properties, among other duties. (John Schlight, "Elwood R. Quesada: TAC Air Comes of Age," Makers of the United States Air Force, pp. 177-204; Rochester, Takeoff at Mid-Century, esp. pp. 288-289.)
James M. Quigley (1918- ) was a member of Congress from Pennsylvania in 1955-1957 and 1959-1961, then served as assistant secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1961 to 1966.
Clark T. Randt (1917- ) worked throughout the 1950s as a professor of neurology at Western Reserve University, moving to NASA in 1959 as director of life sciences. In 1961 he left NASA to accept a professorship in neurology at the New York University School of Medicine. In 1970 he became chair of the department of neurology at NYU. ("Clark T. Randt," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Eberhard F. M. Rees (1908- ) was at this time deputy director for technical and scientific matters at the Marshall Space Flight Center. A graduate of the Dresden Institute of Technology, he began his career in rocketry in 1940 when he became technical plant manager of the German rocket center at Peenemünde. He came to the U.S. in 1945 with von Braun's rocket team and worked with von Braun at Fort Bliss, Texas, moving to Huntsville in 1950 when the Army transferred its rocket activities to the Redstone Arsenal. He served as deputy director of development operations at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency from 1956 to 1960. In 1970 he succeeded von Braun as director of the Marshall center. He retired in 1973. ("Eberhard Rees," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Francis W. Reichelderfer (1895-1983) joined the Naval Air Service in World War I after graduating from Northwestern in science in 1917 and studying meteorology at Harvard. He became a weather forecaster despite earning his pilot's wings in 1919. While in the Navy, he earned his masters degree at the University of Bergen in Norway. In 1938 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him head of the Weather Bureau. He stated that one of the most significant advances in weather forecasting during his tenure was the orbiting of the Tiros I weather satellite, although he also expanded hurricane forecasting, instituted the use of the telephone in the weather service, provided crop and marine forecasts, instituted  frost warnings, and provided hourly reports for aircraft. On his retirement, President John F. Kennedy wrote him, "You presided over the evolution of meteorology . . . from an art to a science." ("Francis W. Reichelderfer," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Henry J. E. Reid (1895-1968) graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1919 with a B.S. in electrical engineering. After a brief stint in private industry, he joined Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1921 as one of a small group of engineers and scientists then on the professional staff there. His principal field of research was the design and improvement of basic instruments for flight research. He became director of the center in 1926 and presided over the extensive growth that accompanied its becoming a leading aeronautical and space research facility. He retired in 1961. ("Henry J. E. Reid," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John T. Rettaliata (1911- ) was president of the Illinois Institute of Technology between 1952 and 1973. He then became chair of the Board of Directors of the Banco di Roma, Chicago. Previously Rettaliata had been involved in business, government, and educational activities associated with scientific research and development. Among many other duties and honors, in 1959 he became a nongovernmental member of the National Aeronautics and Space Council.
Victor G. Reuther (1912- ) became director of the United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (AFL-CIO) in Indiana in 1937 and rose through a number of other positions to become administrative assistant to the president of the union, a position he held throughout the 1960s.
Richard V. Rhode (1904- ) received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Wisconsin in 1925 and joined the NACA as an aeronautical engineer at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. In 1945 he became chief of the aircraft loads division. In 1949 he transferred to the NACA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and became assistant director for research (aircraft construction and operating problems). When NASA came into existence in 1958, he became assistant director for advanced design criteria in the space vehicle technology division. There, he was responsible for advanced technology supporting the development of space vehicles. He retired in early 1967 and was awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. ("Richard V. Rhode," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Sid Richardson was a Texas oil millionaire who had contributed money to the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee and to Lyndon Johnson's campaigns. Robert Dallek describes him as "an exceptionally charming conversationalist and a lonely bachelor" who invited Johnson to visit his "privately owned island in the coastal Gulf." (Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960 [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991], pp. 160, 201-2, 249, 308-9, quotations from p. 309.) Eisenhower had first met Richardson in 1941, knew he was a Johnson supporter, and through an intermediary got him to put pressure on Johnson at least once. (Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency, p. 59.)
 R. Walter Riehlman (1899-1978) (R-NY) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served through 1964.
Charles E. Robbins (1906- ) worked for the Wall Street Journal in various capacities from 1929-1941. He departed the job there of managing editor to become a member of the business department of the New York Times, 1941-1949. In 1953 he became executive manager of the Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.
Herbert H. Rosen was deputy director of the office of public information in NASA in early 1960. He was an engineer who had previously worked for Hayden Publications Corp. as editor of Electronic Design and for the Bureau of Standards both as an engineer and in the areas of public relations and technical information. ("Herbert H. Rosen," biographical file, and Headquarters Telephone Directory for May 1960, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Milton W. Rosen (1915- ), an electrical engineer by training, joined the staff of the Naval Research Laboratory in 1940, where he worked on guidance systems for missiles during World War II. From 1947 to 1955, he was in charge of Viking rocket development. He was technical director of Project Vanguard, the scientific earth satellite program, until he joined NASA in October 1958 as director of launch vehicles and propulsion in the office of manned space flight. In 1963 he became senior scientist in NASA's office of the deputy associate administrator for defense affairs. He later became deputy associate administrator for space science (engineering). In 1974 he retired from NASA to become executive secretary of the National Academy of Science's Space Science Board. ("Milton W. Rosen," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; see also his The Viking Rocket Story [New York: Harper, 1955].)
Aaron Rosenthal became director of financial management at NASA in February 1960, assuming oversight over the budget and fiscal offices. Before coming to NASA, he had been controller for the Veterans Administration, an agency for which he had worked since 1936. In September 1961 he transferred to the National Science Foundation. (Two announcements under his name in "biography NASA miscellaneous," NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Walt W. Rostow (1916- ) has spent his career, since completing his Ph.D. at Yale in 1940, moving between academic and government positions. He began his career in the economics department of Columbia University, but he served with the State Department in European recovery efforts following the war. Throughout the 1950s he was a professor of economic history at MIT. In 1961 he returned to Washington as an assistant to the president for national security affairs and served in that and other similar capacities throughout the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Thereafter he accepted an academic post with the University of Texas.
Addison M. Rothrock (1903-1971) graduated from Penn State in 1925 with a B.S. in physics and began working at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory the next year. He worked in the areas of fuel combustion and fuel rating, rising to the position of chief of the fuel injection research laboratory and writing more than 40 papers and reports. In 1942 he made the move to Lewis Laboratory, where he  was chief of the fuels and lubricants division and then chief of research for the entire laboratory. In 1947 he became assistant director for research at NACA Headquarters. With the foundation of NASA, he assumed the duties of assistant director of research (power plants). Two months later, he became the scientist for propulsion in and then (1961), the associate director of, the office of program planning and evaluation. He retired in 1963 and taught for five years at George Washington University. ("Addison M. Rothrock," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John Edward Roush (1920- ) (D-IN) served in the House of Representatives from 1959-1964.
Leverett Saltonstall (1892-1979) (R-MA) was governor of Massachusetts from 1939-1944, when he won election to the U.S. Senate. He served in the Senate from then until 1967 and became one of its Republican leaders.
August Schomburg (1908-1972) was a career Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. From 1960 to 1962 he was commander of the Army missile ordnance command at Redstone Arsenal.
Bernard A. Schriever (1910- ) earned a B.S. in architectural engineering from Texas A&M in 1931 and was commissioned in the Army Air Corps Reserve in 1933 after completing pilot training. Following broken service, he received a regular commission in 1938. He earned an M.A. in aeronautical engineering from Stanford in 1942 and then flew 63 combat missions in B-17s with the 19th Bombardment Group in the Pacific Theater during World War II. In 1954, he became commander of the Western Development Division (soon renamed the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division), and from 1959-1966 he was commander of its parent organization, the Air Research and Development Command, renamed Air Force Systems Command in 1961. As such, he presided over the development of the Atlas, Thor, and Titan missiles, which served not only as military weapon systems but also as boosters for NASA's space missions. In developing these missiles, Schriever instituted a systems approach, whereby the various components of the Atlas and succeeding missiles underwent simultaneous design and test as part of an overall "weapons system." Schriever also introduced the notion of concurrency, which has been given various interpretations but essentially allowed the components of the missiles to enter production while still in the test phase, thereby speeding up development. He retired as a general in 1966. (Jacob Neufeld, "Bernard A. Schriever: Challenging the Unknown," Makers of the United States Air Force, pp. 281-306; Perry, "Atlas, Thor . . .," A History of Rocket Technology, Eugene M. Emme, ed. (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1964), pp. 144-160; Divine, The Sputnik Challenge, p. 25.)
Robert C. Seamans, Jr. (1918- ) had been involved in aerospace issues since he completed his Sc.D. degree at MIT in 1951. He was on the faculty at MIT's department of aeronautical engineering between 1949 and 1955, when he joined the Radio Corporation of America as manager of the Airborne Systems Laboratory. In 1958 he became the chief engineer of the Missile Electronics and Control Division  and joined NASA in 1960 as associate administrator. In December 1965 he became NASA deputy administrator. He left NASA in 1968, and in 1969 he became secretary of the Air Force, serving until 1973. Seamans was president of the National Academy of Engineering from May 1973 to December 1974, when he became the first administrator of the new Energy Research and Development Administration. He returned to MIT in 1977, becoming dean of its School of Engineering in 1978. In 1981 he was elected chair of the board of trustees of Aerospace Corp. ("Robert C. Seamans, Jr.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Willis H. Shapley (1917- ), son of famous Harvard astronomer Harlow Shapley, earned a B.A. from the University of Chicago in 1938. From then until 1942, he did graduate work and performed research in political science and related fields at the latter institution. He joined the Bureau of the Budget in 1942 and became a principal examiner in 1948. From 1956-1961 he was assistant chief (Air Force) in the bureau's military division, becoming progressively deputy chief for programming (1961-1965) and deputy chief (1965) in that division. He also served as special assistant to the director for space program coordination. In 1965 he moved to NASA as associate deputy administrator, with his duties including supervision of the public affairs, congressional affairs, DOD and interagency affairs, and international affairs offices. He retired in 1975 but rejoined NASA in 1987 to help it recover from the Challenger disaster. He served as associate deputy administrator (policy) until 1988, when he again retired but continued to serve as a consultant to the administrator. ("Willis H. Shapley," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Timothy E. Shea (1898- ) was a manufacturing executive who had held a variety of positions. Since 1957 he had been vice president for engineering with Western Electric.
Gerald Siegel served during the 1950s in various staff positions in the Senate, including those of counsel to the Democratic Policy Committee and the preparedness investigating subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He also served de facto as staff director of the Senate Special Committee on Space and Aeronautics during 1958 when it considered the Eisenhower administration's proposal for what became the Aeronautics and Space Act. Soon thereafter, Siegel left the Senate to lecture for three years at Harvard and then became vice president and chief counsel of the Washington Post. ("The Legislative Origins of the Space Act," [transcribed] proceedings of a videotape workshop conducted on 3 April 1992 by Professor John Logsdon of the George Washington University Space Policy Institute, copy available in NASA Historical Reference Collection; Griffith, National Aeronautics and Space Act, p. 28.)
Albert F. Siepert (1915- ) was a longtime federal employee who entered federal service in 1937 and moved from being executive officer for the National Institutes of Health to NASA in 1958. In 1959 he was NASA's chief negotiator in the transfer of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to the space agency from his  position as director of business administration, and in 1963 he moved to the deputy director position at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In 1969 Siepert left NASA to become a program associate at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. ("Albert F. Siepert," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Abe Silverstein (1908- ), who earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering (1929) and an M.E. (1934) from Rose Polytechnic Institute, was a longtime NACA manager. He had worked as an engineer at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory between 1929 and 1943 and had moved to the Lewis Laboratory (later, Research Center) to a succession of management positions, the last (1961-1970) as director of the center. Interestingly, in 1958 Case Institute of Technology had awarded him an honorary doctorate. When Glennan arrived at NASA, Silverstein was on a rotational assignment to the Washington headquarters as director of the office of space flight development (later, space flight programs) from the position of associate director at Lewis, which he had held since 1952. During his first tour at Lewis, he had directed investigations leading to significant improvements in reciprocating and early turbojet engines. At NASA Headquarters he helped create and direct the efforts leading to the space flights of Project Mercury and to establish the technical basis for the Apollo program. As Lewis's director, he oversaw a major expansion of the center and the development of the Centaur launch vehicle. He retired from NASA in 1970 to take a position with Republic Steel Corp. On the career of Silverstein see, Dawson, Engines and Innovation, passim; "Abe Silverstein," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.
B[ernice] F. Sisk (1910- ) (D-CA) was first elected to Congress in 1954 and served in every successive Congress through the 95th (1977-1979), although he represented three different districts over that period.
Howard K. Smith (1914- ) graduated from Tulane University in 1936 and became a Rhodes scholar the next year. He was the foreign correspondent of United Press in London in 1939 and the Berlin correspondent for CBS in 1941. He served as a war correspondent in Europe in 1944 and covered the Nuremberg trials in Germany the following year. He was the chief European correspondent and European director for CBS in London from 1946-57 and then moved to the CBS Washington bureau from 1957-1961 as chief correspondent and general manager. In 1962 he became a news analyst for ABC, also in Washington, D.C. A winner of many awards for his journalism, Smith also wrote several books, including Last Train from Berlin (1942).
Kent H. Smith (1894-1980) served as acting president of Case Institute of Technology during Glennan's absence at NASA. A life-long Cleveland resident, he was the son of Albert W. Smith, who had been on the faculty at CIT. In 1917, as a young man, Smith had enlisted in the aviation section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, been commissioned a second lieutenant, and sent to France. During World War I he commanded ground personnel supporting combat air operations. He also learned to fly and maintained a lifelong interest in aerospace developments.  Afterward he entered business, in several capacities, but especially as the head of the Lubrizol firm, which he helped found and which made lubrication products for automobiles and other vehicles. Kent was chairman of the board of Lubrizol from 1951-1959 and served as its director from 1928-1980. (Cramer, Case Institute of Technology, pp. 202-206).
Murray Snyder (1911-1969) had been assistant White House press secretary between 1953 and 1957 and then became assistant secretary of defense for public affairs (1957-1961). Prior to that time he had been political journalist for several media organizations, and after leaving public office he became vice chairman of a public relations firm.
Walter D. Sohier (1924- ), a graduate of Columbia Law School, had worked for the CIA and the Air Force before joining NASA in 1958 as assistant general counsel. He became deputy general counsel in 1961 and general counsel in 1963. He left NASA in 1966 to become a partner in a New York law firm. ("Walter D. Sohier," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
John J. Sparkman (1899-1985) (D-AL) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1936 and served until 1946, when he was elected to the Senate. He served in the Senate into the late 1970s.
Elmer B. Staats (1914- ) was deputy director at the Bureau of the Budget. A career government official, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1939 and joined the BOB staff that year. He became deputy director from 1950 to 1953 and again from 1958 to 1966, serving in the interim with the National Security Council. In 1966 he became comptroller general of the U.S., a post he held until the early 1980s.
John Stack (1906-1972) graduated from MIT in 1928 and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory as an aeronautical engineer. In 1939 he became director of all the high-speed wind tunnels and high-velocity airflow research at Langley. Three years later he was named chief of the compressibility research division there. He was promoted to assistant chief of research in 1947 and subsequently had that title changed to assistant director of the research center. He guided much of the research that paved the way for transonic aircraft, and in 1947 he was awarded the Collier Trophy together with the pilot of the X-1 who broke the sound barrier, (by then) Major Charles E. Yeager. He won the award again in 1952 and later won the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy among other awards. From 1961-1962 he was director of aeronautical research at NASA Headquarters before retiring to become vice president for engineering at Republic Aircraft Corp (later part of Fairchild Industries) from which he retired in 1971. ("John Stack," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Maurice H. Stans (1908- ) was a longtime Republican in Washington. He served in several positions with the Eisenhower administration, notably as deputy director of the Bureau of the Budget between 1957 and 1958, then director from 1958-1961. In 1969 he was appointed as secretary of commerce for the Nixon administration and served until 1972. He was finance director of the 1972 Nixon  re-election campaign and pleaded guilty in 1975 to five misdemeanor charges of violating campaign laws during the campaign. ("Maurice H. Stans," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Frank Stanton (1908- ) earned a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1935 and went on to become a business executive, serving most notably as president of CBS, Inc. from 1946 to 1971 and its vice chairman from 1971 to 1973.
Joseph A. Stein (1912- ) was an aviator in the U.S. Navy during World War II and then became a reporter for Portland, Oregon, newspapers. In 1954-1955 he was an information specialist at Lewis Laboratory before becoming (1955-1958) an aeronautical information specialist for NACA Headquarters. With the creation of NASA he became chief of the news division in the office of public information, and in July 1960 he was promoted to deputy director of the office.
John C. Stennis (1901- ) (D-MS) was elected to the Senate in 1947 and served until 1989. He was a member of the Appropriations, Armed Services, and Aeronautical and Space Sciences committees in the early 1960s. In 1988, NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories in Mississippi became the John C. Stennis Space Center in his honor. ("John C. Stennis," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Robert Ten Broeck Stevens (1899-1983) was secretary of the Army for President Eisenhower between 1953 and 1955. He had long been associated with the textile industry, notably as president of the J.P. Stevens & Co. between 1929 and 1942 and chair of the board between 1945 and 1953. Stevens served in the Army in World Wars I and II. After leaving the Department of the Army in 1955 he returned to his business activities in New York City, serving as president of J.P. Stevens Co., 1955-1959, and chair of its executive committee, 1969-1974. (Bell, Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army, p. 138; New York Times, 1 February 1983, p. D23; "Stevens, Robert T[en Broeck)," Current Biography 1953, pp. 591-92).
Horton Guyford Stever (1916- ) earned a Ph.D. in physics at Caltech in 1941 and became a member of the staff at the Radiation Lab of MIT until 1942, when he went to London as a scientific liaison officer through the end of World War II. He then returned to MIT as a member of the faculty, rising to become associate dean of engineering from 1956-1959. He remained a professor of aeronautical engineering until 1965 and then served as president of Carnegie-Mellon University until 1972. Meanwhile, he had begun an extensive and distinguished additional career of service to government. For example, he was chief scientist of the Air Force from 1955-1956 and served on its scientific advisory board from 1947-1969 (as chairman, 1962-1969). He was director of the National Science Foundation, 1972-1976, and in 1973 he became scientific and technical advisor to President Gerald R. Ford, Jr., a post he held until 1977. Along the way, he served on advisory committees to the NACA, including its special committee on space technology, and to NASA, including a stint as chairman of an independent panel of experts established by the National Research Council to advise NASA and monitor its compliance with the recommendations of the Rogers Commission that investigated the Challenger  explosion in 1986. ("H. Guyford Stever," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Homer J. Stewart (1915- ) earned his doctorate in aeronautics from Caltech in 1940, joining the faculty there two years before that. In 1939 he participated in pioneering rocket research with other Caltech engineers and scientists, including Frank Malina, in the foothills of Pasadena. Out of their efforts, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) arose, and Stewart maintained his interest in rocketry at that institution. He was involved in developing the first American satellite, Explorer I, in 1958. In that year, on leave from Caltech, he became director of NASA's program planning and evaluation office, returning to Caltech in 1960 to a variety of positions, including chief of the advanced studies office at JPL from 1963 to 1967 and professor of aeronautics at Caltech itself. ("Homer J. Stewart," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; Koppes, JPL, pp. 23, 32, 44, 47, 79-80, 82.)
Julius A. Stratton (1901- ) earned an Sc.D. from the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (technical institute of the Swiss Confederation), Zurich, in 1928 and began as a research associate at MIT in 1924, rising to the rank of professor in 1941. He became chancellor of MIT in 1956 and president in 1959.
Samuel S. Stratton (1916-1990) (D-NY) was first elected to Congress in 1958 and served into the late 1980s. In the early 1960s he was a member of the House Armed Services Committee.
Lewis L. Strauss (1915-1974) was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1953-1958 and secretary of commerce 1958-1959.
William G. Stroud, Jr. (1923- ) was chief of meteorology in the satellite applications systems division of the Goddard Space Flight Center and had been project manager for Tiros I. He later became chief of the aeronomy and meteorology division at Goddard and, still later, special assistant to the director of flight projects there. ("William G. Stroud," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Ernst Stuhlinger (1913- ) was a physicist who earned his Ph.D. at the University of Tübingen in 1936 and continued research into cosmic rays and nuclear physics until 1941 while serving as an assistant professor at the Berlin Institute of Technology. He then spent two years as an enlisted man in the German army on the Russian front before being assigned to the rocket development center at Peenemünde, Germany. There he worked principally on guidance and control of rockets. After World War II, he came to the United States as part of Project Paperclip and worked with Wernher von Braun at Fort Bliss, Texas, and then at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1960, he was director of its space science lab from 1960 to 1968 and then its associate director for science from 1968 to 1975, when he retired and became an adjunct professor and senior research scientist with the University of Alabama at Huntsville. He directed early planning for lunar exploration and the Apollo telescope mount, which flew on Skylab and produced a wealth of scientific information about the sun. He was also  responsible for the early planning on the high energy astronomy observatory and contributed to the initial phases of the space telescope project. His work included studies of electric propulsion and of scientific payloads for the Space Shuttle. ("Ernst Stuhlinger," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Stuart Symington (1901-1988) (D-MO) served in the Senate between 1953 and 1977. He entered government in 1945 when his fellow Missourian, Harry S. Truman, appointed him chair of the Surplus Property Board. He later served Truman as secretary of the Air Force and was an outspoken advocate of building a strong aerospace presence. As such, he repeatedly charged the Eisenhower administration with balancing the budget at the expense of national security and was one of its most vocal critics after the launch of Sputnik, predicting what proved to be a fallacious missile gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. He left the Senate in 1977. (New York Times, 15 December 1988, p. D26; Divine, Sputnik Challenge, pp. 20, 43, 125, 178-183.)
John Taber (1880-1965) (R-NY) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1923 and served through 1962.
Olin E. Teague (1910-1981) (D-TX) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served in each succeeding Congress through the 95th (1977-1979). He was appointed to the new Science and Astronautics Committee in the 86th Congress (1959-1961).
Edward Teller (1908- ) was a naturalized American physicist born in Hungary who made important contributions to the development of both fission- and fusion-type bombs. As a member of the advisory committee of the AEC, he advocated the hydrogen bomb as a U.S. tactical weapon, arousing a great deal of controversy. He also spoke publicly about Sputnik as showing that the Soviets were beginning to gain a lead on the U.S. in the fields of science and technology. Among other works on Teller, see the view of the insider, Herbert York, The Advisors: Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976). For one perspective on Teller's more recent and still controversial activities in the world of science and defense technology, see William J. Broad, Teller's War: The Top-Secret Story Behind the Star Wars Deception (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992).
Morris Tepper (1916- ) earned a Ph.D. in fluid mechanics from Johns Hopkins in 1952. Before that but after earning an M.A. in mathematics from Brooklyn College, he had joined the Air Force in 1943 and served as a meteorologist in the Pacific Theater during World War II. In 1946 he joined the Weather Bureau as a research meteorologist. After becoming chief of the severe local storms research unit there in 1951, he transferred to NASA in 1959 as a meteorologist in the office of space flight development. By 1962, he had become director of meteorological systems in the office of applications (later, office of space science and applications). In 1969 he added the title of deputy director of the earth observations programs division. He also worked through the U.N. Committee on Space Research and elsewhere to promote international cooperation in the field of  meteorology in space. After serving as a special project officer at Goddard in 1978-1979, he left NASA in the latter year to become a professor of mathematical physics at Capitol College, Maryland. ("Morris Tepper," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Albert Thomas (1898-1966) (D-TX), a lawyer and World War I veteran, had first been elected to the House of Representatives in 1936 and served successively until 1962. In 1960 he was chair of the independent offices subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee and thus exercised considerable congressional power over NASA's funding.
Floyd L. Thompson (1898-1976) served in the Navy for four years after 1917 and entered the University of Michigan, earning a B.S. degree in aeronautical engineering in June 1926. He then joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory as part of a staff of only about 150. He worked in the flight research division, where he was author or co-author of more than 20 technical reports. He became chief of the division in 1940 and assistant chief of research for all of Langley in 1943. From 1945-1952 he served as chief of research before becoming associate director of the center in 1952 and director in 1960. He was briefly a special assistant to the NASA administrator in 1968 before retiring later that year. ("Floyd L. Thompson," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; see also Hansen, Engineer in Charge, passim.)
Shelby Thompson (1907- ) worked for the Atomic Energy Commission from 1947-1955 as the chief of its public information service and from 1955-1960 as deputy director, division of information services. He joined NASA in June 1960 as director of the office of technical information and educational programs. In 1964 he became special assistant to the NASA assistant administrator for public affairs. He retired in 1970. ("Shelby Thompson," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Arthur G. Trudeau (1902-1991) was a career army officer and in 1958 was serving as commanding general of the I United States Corps Korea. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1956.
Nathan F. Twining (1897-1982) was a career pilot in the Army and the Air Force, commanding the 13th Air Force in the Pacific, the 15th Air Force in Europe, and then the 20th Air Force again in the Pacific during World War II. He became chief of staff of the Air Force in 1953 and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1957 to 1960. (Donald J. Mrozek, "Nathan F. Twining: New Dimensions, a New Look," in Makers of the United States Air Force, pp. 257-280.)
Ralph E. Ulmer (1917-1985) began working as an aeronautical engineer at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1938. The next year he transferred to NACA Headquarters and served after 1940 as a technical assistant to the NACA senior staff. In 1950 he became NACA budget officer. From 1958-1961 he was the NASA budget officer. He then became director of facilities coordination in the NASA office of programs. He retired as a program analyst in 1973. ("Ralph E. Ulmer," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
 John F. Victory (1893-1975) began work for the government in 1908 as a messenger for the patent office. After becoming the first employee of the NACA in 1915, he became its secretary in 1921 and its executive secretary in 1948, in general charge of its administration. When NASA came into being, he served as a special assistant to Glennan until his retirement at the end of July 1960. Over the years, he became known as "Mr. Aviation" to his friends, who ranged from Orville Wright to the builders of the fastest jet fighters. Although not an engineer or a technician, he assisted the NACA achieve working relationships with Congress, where he frequently testified, the military services, aerospace industry, and related groups engaged in government-sponsored research and development. ("John F. Victory," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
David Wade (1910- ) was a career Air Force officer who advanced to the rank of lieutenant general in 1964. He was commander of the 1st Missile Division from 1958 to 1961 and later commanded the 16th, 2d, and 8th Air Forces.
James H. Wakelin, Jr. (1911-1990) was assistant secretary of the Navy (research and development) from 1959-1964. He had previously served in various capacities as a research director and administrator and later became president and chairman of the board of Research Analysis Corp.
Abbott McConnell Washburn (1915- ) was deputy director of the U.S. Information Agency from 1954-1961.
Eugene W. Wasielewski (1913-1972) earned a B.S. degree in mechanical and aeronautical engineering and an M.S. in engineering mechanics from the University of Michigan. He worked in the private aircraft industry before going to work for Lewis Laboratory from 1947 to 1956. There he directed the design and construction of major engine-testing laboratories and supersonic wind tunnels; he also served as chief of the engine research division and as assistant director. He returned to private industry and then became associate director of Goddard Space  Flight Center in October 1960. As such, he was the principal institutional manager under the director of the center. ("Eugene W. Wasielewski," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Alan T. Waterman (1892-1967) was the first director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) from its founding in 1951 until 1963. Waterman received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1916, served with the Army's Science and Research Division in World War I, on the faculty of Yale University in the interwar years, with the War Department's Office of Scientific Research and Development in World War II, and then with the Office of Naval Research between 1946 and 1951. He and NASA leaders contended over control of the scientific projects to be undertaken by the space agency, with Waterman's NSF being used as an advisory body in the selection of space experiments. See, "Waterman, First NSF Head, Dies at 75," Science, 158 (8 December 1967): 1293; Norriss S. Hetherington, "Winning the Initiative: NASA and the U.S. Space Science Program," Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives, 7 (Summer 1975): 99-108; John E. Naugle, First Among Equals: The Selection of NASA Space Science Experiments (Washington, D.C.: NASA SP-4215, 1991).
Mark S. Watson (1887-1966) was a longtime journalist with the Baltimore Sun, and had been the military correspondent since 1941. (New York Times, 26 March 1966, p. 29.)
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. (1914- ) started with International Business Machines Corp. in 1937, with a break for service in the Air Corps from 1940-1945, and became president of the firm in 1952. In 1961 he became chairman of IBM.
James E. Webb (1906-1992) was NASA administrator between 1961 and 1968. Previously he had been an aide to a congressman in New Deal Washington, an aide to Washington lawyer Max O. Gardner, and a business executive with the Sperry Corporation and the Kerr-McGee Oil Co. He had also been director of the Bureau of the Budget between 1946 and 1950 and undersecretary of state, 1950-1952. ("James E. Webb," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Alfred John ("Jack") Westland (1904-1982) (R-WA) was first elected to Congress in 1952 and was reelected to each succeeding Congress through the 88th (1963-1965).
Harry A. Wexler (1911-1962) earned a B.S. in mathematics from Harvard in 1932 and joined the Weather Bureau in 1934, earning an Sc.D. in meteorology from MIT in 1939. While with the Army Air Force's weather service during World War II, with Col. Floyd Wood as pilot he made the first penetration of an Atlantic hurricane. He became chief of the Weather Bureau's science services division in 1946 and its director of research in 1955. One of the first scientists to foresee the use of satellites for meteorological purposes, he became known as the father of the Tiros satellite. ("Harry A. Wexler," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Anne W. Wheaton had the title of associate press secretary under Press Secretary James G. Hagerty. She began as a reporter in New York, 1912-1921, then became a public relations consultant for several national women's organizations from 1924 to 1939. She next served as director of women's publicity for the  Republican National Committee, 1939-1957. President Eisenhower states in his memoirs (Waging Peace, 1956-1961 [New York: Doubleday, 1965], p. 320n) that he appointed her in early 1957 and that her experience with the Republican National Committee improved his communications with that office after she joined the White House.
Thomas D. White (1901-1965) was a career Air Force officer who served in a succession of increasingly responsible positions until his retirement in 1961. He was director of legislation for the secretary of the Air Force between 1948 and 1951; USAF deputy chief of staff for operations, 1951-1953; USAF vice chief of staff, 1953-1957; and chief of staff, 1957-1961. ("Gen. T.D. White," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Alexander Wiley (1884-1967) (R-WI) was first elected to the Senate in 1938 and served until 1962. At this time, he was the ranking Republican member of the Senate Judiciary and Foreign Relations Committees and was a member of the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee.
John Bell Williams (1918-1983) (D-MS) was first elected to Congress in 1946 and served in the House until 1968 when he became governor of Mississippi for four years. As an Army Air Forces pilot in World War II, he lost an arm in an airplane crash.
Walter C. Williams (1919- ) earned a bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering from LSU in 1939 and went to work for the NACA in 1940, serving as a project engineer to improve the handling, maneuverability, and flight characteristics of World War II fighters. Following the war, he went to what became Edwards Air Force Base to set up flight tests for the X-1, including the first human supersonic flight by Capt. Charles E. Yeager in October 1947. He became the founding director of the organization that became Dryden Flight Research Facility. In September 1959 he assumed associate directorship of the new NASA space task group at Langley, created to carry out Project Mercury. He later became director of operations for the project, then associate director of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, subsequently renamed the Johnson Space Center. In 1963 Williams moved to NASA Headquarters as deputy associate administrator of the office of manned space flight. From 1964 to 1975, he was a vice president for Aerospace Corporation. Then from 1975-1982 he served as chief engineer of NASA, retiring in the latter year. ("Walter C. Williams," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
William Willner was in charge of construction in the procurement and supply division of NASA Headquarters' office of business administration. By August 1960, he had moved to the office of research grants and contracts. (Headquarters telephone directories, Aug. 1959, p. 3; Aug. 1960, pp. 7, 9, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Dean E. Wooldridge (1913- ) was a member of the technical staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1936-1946. He was co-director of the research and development labs of Hughes Aircraft Company from 1946-1951, rising through the directorship to become vice president for research and development, 1952-1953. He served as president and director of Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. from 1953-1958  and of Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge from 1958-1962, when be became director of the firm's Space Technology Labs.
John David Wright (1905- ) had gone to work for Thompson Products, Inc. in 1933 and rose through the ranks of it and its successor organizations until he became chairman of the board of Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge, Inc. (later, TRW, Inc.) in 1958.
DeMarquis D. Wyatt (1919- ), a graduate in mechanical engineering from the University of Missouri, Rolla, joined the Lewis Laboratory in 1944, where he specialized in supersonic research in propulsion system installations. In 1958 he transferred to NASA Headquarters, where he held a series of positions as research engineer; assistant administrator for programming, program plans and analysis, planning, and for policy and university affairs. He retired in 1973. ("DeMarquis Wyatt," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
E(lmer) E. Yeomans (1902-1983) was a career naval officer who advanced through the ranks to rear admiral. At this time, he was superintendent of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California.
Herbert F. York (1923- ) had been associated with scientific research in support of national defense since World War II. He was director of the Livermore Radiation Laboratory for the University of California before moving to the Department of Defense in March 1958 as chief scientist of the Advanced Research Projects Agency. He became the DOD's director of research and engineering in December 1958, during a DOD reorganization; this was the third-ranking civilian office after the secretary and deputy secretary of defense. He served as director of defense research and engineering until 1961. He then moved to the University of California, San Diego, as chancellor and professor of physics. He also served as a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee under both Eisenhower and Johnson and was later chief negotiator for the camprehensive test ban during the Carter administration. ("Dr. Herbert F. York," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; Herbert F. York, Making Weapons, Talking Peace: A Physicist's Odyssey from Hiroshima to Geneva [New York: Basic Books, 1987].)
John ("Jack") Donald Young (1919- ) earned an M.S. from Syracuse in 1943 and served as a captain in the Marine Corps from 1942-1945. He worked for various government agencies in the next few years and then became a management consultant with McKinsey & Co. from 1954-1960. He served as NASA's director of management analysis from 1960-1961, then became successively deputy director for administration and deputy associate administrator at NASA Headquarters. He left NASA in 1966 for a series of management positions in the Bureau of the Budget and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Thereafter, he became a professor of public management at American University. ("John D. Young," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
Stephen M. Young (1889-1984) (R-OH) was elected to Congress in 1932 and served from then until 1937, again 1941-1943 and 1949-1951. Elected to the Senate in 1958, he served there through 1971.
 Eugene M. Zuckert (1911- ) received an L.L.B. from Yale in 1937 and worked from then until 1940 as an attorney for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. He taught and became an assistant dean at the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration from 1940-1944 and then held a variety of positions in the government including membership on the AEC, 1952-1954, and secretary of the Air Force, 1961-1965.