Thursday, September 1: This was a red letter day. I swore in Bob Seamans at exactly 8:30. The staff meeting was long and thoughtful with a good many policy problems discussed. Among them were the relationships between ourselves and the Air Force on a variety of matters - including prominently the relationship between Discoverer and Mercury. I must lay on a conference with General Schriever about this matter.
I took Bob Seamans to lunch at the White House Mess. I was able to introduce him to several of my friends over there and get him a reasonably good start. During this portion of the day I talked again with Allen Dulles and found that Dick Harkness had been in touch with him about the same U-2 program that had been....
 ....proposed to me. Apparently, Allen had the same response but there seems to be a leak in the dike someplace. It may be late but I think we must try to plug that leak.
During the morning staff meeting, Randt had made some pointed comments about the necessity for getting on with the life science program. I arranged to have him come in early in the afternoon, and we sat down with Seamans and one or two others to try to beat out these problems. Much of his trouble stems from his lack of knowledge of the budgetary process in government. I think we laid on a program that will make him reasonably happy. It is really nothing more nor less than scheduling a series of activities that should have been undertaken anyway. He is an excellent man - very enthusiastic and full of the kind of energy that we so badly need. Later in the afternoon, Seamans met with me, John Johnson and Bob Nunn to set up the program for the communications satellite of the future - the operating satellite system. Bob Nunn will report directly to me as special assistant and will oversee all facets of this program. There is so much in the way of public policy, international relations, public information policy, possible development of legislation, etc., that someone must pull this together. Bob is enthusiastic about the program and should do a good job for us.
At the end of the day, [my friend Millard] Richmond called me and said that the strike on the Pennsylvania Railroad had done him out of a ticket to New York. He was on an airplane but had to give the ticket up to his boss who had had a train reservation. Accordingly, Rich took Bob Seamans and me to dinner. Both being New Englanders, Rich and Bob seemed to have a reasonably good time. Rich had with him a copy of the Congressional Record and pointed out to me a memorandum put in the record by my good friend, Lyndon Johnson. This is a statement commenting on the three important portions of the legislation we have been trying to get Lyndon to do something about. The upshot of it was that there was no urgency about these matters, that we were doing pretty much what we wanted to do anyway. A neat maneuver and a matter of privilege only to the senator. Back home to read a transcript of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing on Monday last. This was a secret document although I wish it weren't. Senator Clinton Anderson, another of my good friends, really beat John McCone about the head. I just don't understand why anyone has to take the kind of chatter, accusation, half-truths and insinuations that persons like Anderson heap upon persons like the Atomic Energy commissioners. Statements made about the integrity and abilities of men of whom Anderson has scant, if any, knowledge are really exceedingly damaging to their reputations. Much of the backing for the senator's statement comes from the members of the committee's staff who, as I have said before, wield a great deal of power. Basically, the committee is determined that it will maintain jurisdiction over the entire Rover program. I'm sorry I am not going to be around to dispute that with them because I think they would have a bit of difficulty beating me to it in this case. In any event, it's a shabby story and one that ought to be removed from the record.
 Friday, September 2: The morning was given over to a variety of activities, the most important of which was a meeting with Johnson, Bonney and Mel Day. We were discussing the desirability of having a "public service" television film prepared on Project Mercury by one of the television networks. It may be remembered that I had decided the Columbia Broadcasting System should have the right to make a series of programs for us next year. The National Broadcasting Corporation, disturbed at having lost this particular privilege, has served notice that it wants the rights to a film on Mercury. It seems clear to me that we should consider this a matter of serious public information and that, regardless of cost, we ought to do this program ourselves. Accordingly, I decided that we would give it to no one of the networks; rather, we will make a film that will become public property. This seemed to please everyone on the staff. I went over to the White House and talked further with General Goodpaster and Jim Hagerty about the NBC program, which is to be filmed for distribution after the election. It is to be remembered that Dick Harkness talked to me about this activity, which centers around the U-2 incident. Clearly, Jim Hagerty has stepped out of bounds on this one - I hope some ground may be recovered. In any event, Allen Dulles and I will not participate. The afternoon was rather routine and I left for Cleveland on Capitol Flight 207 where I found Dr. Clark Randt as a fellow passenger. We had an opportunity to mend the fences that had been breached in the morning and it was, all-in-all, a pleasant flight.
Ruth and Polly met me and I had just a minute or two to board John's jet to say goodbye to him before he flew off for Los Angeles. He seemed very pleased with himself and certainly grateful for the activities he had indulged in during the past two weeks. [Later,] shortly after retiring, I heard a call from below the stairs, "Anyone home?" It turned out to be Kitty and Frank who had driven straight through from Chicago. It was fun to see them again and to see them looking so well and happy. Sally came home shortly thereafter and the house settled down about midnight. At 1:30 in the morning, the phone rang and it was Tom who, in answer to my query, "Well?" said, "Hi, Dad, it's a boy!" Kitty had heard the phone ring and was up and at them as she wanted to talk to Tom. Apparently everything went well on the West Coast although Martha was in labor about nine hours. The household settled down about 2:30 - with a sigh.
Saturday, September 3: Up early for an 8:30 breakfast with [old friends]. At 10, I went to the Case campus to meet with Kent [Smith] and [others].
Sunday, September 4: We had a rather late breakfast and then went over to the Country Club to have lunch. Returning to the house about 3 o'clock, we found that Kitty and Frank were just back from a wedding and were in need of some rest. Shortly thereafter we drove on down to the campus so that Kitty might see the new library. Back home at 5 o'clock, we put the leg of lamb on the grill and had a late dinner.
Monday, September 5: [Discusses various matters of Case business.] We put the roast on the barbecue and managed to have our Monday dinner about 2:30  in the afternoon. Soon thereafter, Kitty and Frank left for Chicago and I packed for the trip back to Washington. It was a pleasant flight although I had little opportunity to contemplate the pleasures of the week-end. A former secretary for Admiral Bennett was on board and took up all of my thinking and reading time.
Tuesday, September 6: This was a rather ordinary day with a briefing at 10 o'clock for the office of launch vehicle programs delineating the study contract program for the coming years. It is clear that the Saturn project is going to be an exceedingly expensive one. I am anxious to receive the results of the integrated study our people are doing in an attempt to bring together the Saturn program and the spacecraft that will use these large vehicles. Dick Horner took Bob Seamans, myself and two or three others to dinner at the Shoreham. We watched Echo cross the heavens twice during the course of the evening. What a thrill!
Wednesday, September 7: This was a full day. Much discussion has taken place with the White House over the last two days as we have attempted to complete arrangements for the president's trip to Huntsville tomorrow to dedicate the Marshall Space Flight Center. Really, if I had had any idea of the problems involved, I doubt that I would have proposed that he make this trip. Questions about who is going to ride with whom seem more important than almost anything else. Discussions with Al Siepert about management training were productive, and I think we are well on the way toward the solution of one of our problems - the training of project managers.
Lunch with Bob Seamans at the White House again and then an afternoon with Jack Young of the McKinsey organization as we worked over the report it is preparing on our procurement activities.
In the midst of the afternoon session, I was called out to discuss a problem that has arisen in our Western Operations Office in Los Angeles. It has to do with the dismissal of a secretary who had apparently become involved with the director of the office. She was about to prefer charges against our organization for dismissing her even though the case seemed pretty solid against her. I decided that we would fight it out and that the man involved would have to answer for his actions at a later date. George Kistiakowsky called me and we had cocktails at his apartment and then went out to a French restaurant for dinner. I talked to Ruth twice - it is rather lonesome here in Washington without her. We have set up a couple of dinner engagements for next week in which I hope Polly will be involved.
Thursday, September 8: Up at 6:30 to greet the day on which I was born some 55 years ago. This has turned out to be a memorable day for me. I left the apartment at 7:30 having put out the laundry and arrived at the Military Air Transport terminal at 8 o'clock. There I joined Hugh Milton, under secretary of the Army and General Lemnitzer, chief of staff of the Army and soon to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. We had a cup of coffee and watched the honor guard dispose itself about the Columbine. At about 8:20, we were told that the helicopter had departed the White House grounds with the president, and we then boarded the plane. We had barely taken our seats when the helicopter appeared over one wing  and it seemed that almost immediately we were underway. Apparently, the president boarded the plane through the forward hatch and the four motors on the Columbine started in unison. This is quite unlike any commercial flight where the motors are started one at a time.
On board with us were Bryce Harlow, Jim Hagerty, Dr. Snyder, Ann Whitman (the president's secretary), Dr. Kistiakowsky and three or four secret service men. One or two additional White House aides were visible. Soon after we were airborne, Bryce Harlow asked me to help him write an ending for the president's speech. This was to provide him a few words that would introduce General Marshall's widow and prepare the stage for the unveiling of the granite bust of General Marshall that we had purchased. We were invited into the president's cabin to see a 14-minute film put together by the Air Force. Believe me, that organization never loses an opportunity to put its propaganda before the people who can help it. It was a film in which the Air Force took credit for practically all of the recent launches, including Echo. Certainly, the Air Force is to be credited with an assist in many of these activities but the blatant nature of its propaganda is a little bit disturbing to me. Following the film, Milton, Lemnitzer and I sat with the president for an hour - oh yes, Kistiakowsky was there too - talking about a variety of matters. He stated he had thought that as soon as the nominees for the presidency were certain, he could relax a bit and avoid the speaking circuit. Instead,...
....he has had a plethora of speaking invitations, most of which he feels he cannot refuse. Interspersed have been many dedications of the type he is participating in today. He is such a human guy! We landed about ten minutes early on the strip at Redstone Arsenal. Colonel William Draper, the president's pilot, is really the captain of the ship, and he is a very great confidante of the president. He pretty much runs the show for the president while he is aloft.
We were met at the arsenal strip by Governor [John Malcolm] Patterson of Alabama, General Schomburg, the commanding general of Redstone Arsenal, Dr. von Braun and others. A motor cavalcade was formed immediately with the president riding in a convertible with the top down. The Ford Motor Company had provided white Fords with NASA decals for the entire party. I rode in the third car along with von Braun and Milton. Arriving at the administration building, the president drove into a courtyard while the rest of us moved directly to the platform. I was seated directly to the president's right in the front row. Just a country boy! After a brief pause, the president came out and the Army band played "Hail to the Chief." There was some sort of a snafu since the band was apparently expected to play an additional number but somehow or other the instructions were mixed. In any event, von Braun picked up the baton as master of ceremonies and introduced the minister, Reverend Wade, plus the congressmen in attendance and several of the distinguished guests on the platform. He then introduced me and I made the shortest speech on the record in introducing the president. I said, very simply but with great fervor, "Ladies and gentlemen, the president of the United States."
His speech was received well although it was not the type that would occasion great outbursts of enthusiasm and applause. The unveiling of General Marshall's bust by the president and Mrs. Marshall was a rather touching ceremony,  and I then handed a bouquet of roses to the president who handed them to Mrs. Marshall. After the benediction and the playing of the national anthem, we returned to our car and the cavalcade started through the NASA area. We made a stop at the assembly building and the president was given a brief but quite thorough and exciting story on the Saturn vehicle, which was being assembled there. He asked intelligent and penetrating questions and received thoughtful and satisfying answers. I suppose that von Braun, the president and I were photographed three or four hundred times at this point. We then boarded the cars again and drove to the test area where the president put on a hard hat and was shown the "battleship" version of the Saturn installed on the stand. He wanted to go up to the firing floor and several of us accompanied him there. Photographers were everywhere in evidence. Again, the president showed substantial interest in the activity and in the giant rocket system that someday may fly.
At this point, we boarded the cars to drive back to the airstrip where the president was to embark for his flight back to Washington. On this leg of the trip, I rode with him. It was interesting to note that, as he drove along the roadway, he had a wave and a word of greeting or farewell for the people standing there. This was genuine on his part, not a perfunctory operation. At the airstrip, he thoughtfully went over to say goodbye to Mrs. Marshall and then was accosted - I can think of no better word - by Senator Wiley of Wisconsin, a Republican and a member of the Senate Space Committee. Wiley "thumbed" a ride back to Washington with the president - something that he had been trying to do on the trip down and had managed to achieve on the trip back. After the president was airborne,  we returned to the officer's club where the top NASA staff, the top Army people and several of the citizens of the community had lunch together. I suppose we missed some people - I didn't see the mayor in attendance - but it was a pleasant party and I made a few remarks to close the luncheon. These were directed principally to an expression of appreciation for the assistance given us by the Army and for the very pleasant relationships that are now developing between the Army and the Marshall Space Flight Center people.
We then boarded our cars and went back to our own Convair for the trip back to Washington. We had three or four congressmen aboard and several of their aides. We arrived at the airport in Washington at 6:30 and I am now at home at about 9 o'clock - ready for bed. One or two comments about the events of the day may be appropriate. When I proposed to the president that he undertake this task, I had indicated the ease with which he could land on the Arsenal's airstrip and make his talk and then get away without further delay. As I may have stated earlier in this chronicle, Jim Hagerty and others had immediately laid on a motor trip through Huntsville, etc. The president had vetoed this. On the aircraft, however, he expressed himself as being disappointed that he hadn't realized that the city of Huntsville had a population of some 70,000 and that he might well have started out an hour or two earlier so that he might ride through the city to see and be seen by the populace. He consoled himself by the fact that he had three engagements in Washington on his return and a dinner and speech in the evening. Apparently, he resists this sort of thing just as I do and then, when the party is in progress, he sort of wishes that he had gone the whole way and exposed himself to some of the inconveniences of the occasion in order that the people might be better satisfied.
On the aircraft coming back, a story was told that is quite appropriate, it seems to me. Edward Teller is credited with having attempted to answer a question from a member of an audience in a manner typical of Edward's quick and sharp wit. Someone had asked, apparently, "What good is all of this space business?" Teller replied without hesitation, "When Columbus set out on his voyage from Spain and Portugal, he was attempting to improve trade relations with China, India and the Far East. We have not yet accomplished his objective, some 350 years later, but just look at the by-products!"
On arrival at the apartment, I found a wonderful letter from Tom telling about the birth of Keith III and some of his thoughts on family relationships. A most satisfying letter that I had to read to Ruth over the phone. How I wish she were here tonight. What a birthday!
Friday, September 9: This turned out to be a very full day. Dick Horner, Bob Seamans and Don Heaton came in at 8:30 to discuss the problem of deciding on the proper location for the next phase of man in space. I had been very much concerned about this and am not satisfied to make the decision on the evidence thus far presented. I guess that is the real trouble - there has been little evidence presented. It does look as though Langley Research Center might be the proper location. In fact, that is where the present space task group is located, and it would  mean a minor disruption to our plans to continue them at that location. At 9 o'clock or shortly thereafter, we started out on a first attempt at a program analysis session. This ran through 12:30. There are many disappointments in the scheduling as we look ahead. Certainly, much of this can be rationalized as part of any research and development program. On the other hand, we are so visable that we must make what appear to be promises in the matter of dates for the accomplishment of program objectives. These rise up to smite us at a later date. Obviously, too, we have not yet evolved a mechanism for the initial approval of development programs. They may be approved in a conference in the hall, through a memorandum or through some oral discussion that is never reduced to writing. I have asked Seamans to get on this job immediately.
We stayed in for lunch and Heaton and Seamans were joined by Abbott in a discussion of the selection of a man to head the study to be made of the site for manned space flight programs. There was much discussion of the probable effect on the morale of the present Mercury group if such a study were handled imprudently. I happen to believe this can be handled properly and am determined to go ahead with the study. We decided to ask Bruce Lundin of the Lewis Research Center to come in on Monday for a discussion of his willingness to serve as chairman of this study group.1
At 2 o'clock, representatives of a company referred to us by Congressman John McCormack came in. The appointment had been made for two people and five appeared. Once again I found myself in a rather bad mood about this situation since I believe it is a reflection on the company concerned when it feels that it must secure an appointment through some congressman. I think we did help these people somewhat.
At 3:30, Silverstein and Seamans came in to discuss further the Manned Space Flight Center location and the method that I propose to use in resolving this issue. Abe is really a logical thinker and a very strong proponent of his own ideas. Fortunately, they are usually right. He stated that be has no problem at all in deciding the proper site for the operation; his real problem is in working out the proper organization. That is a brash statement in face of the fact that we must support our conclusions for a congressional committee one of these days. I am determined that we will not build another new center. I really find myself quite much in agreement with Abe but believe that we must go through with this study. We agreed on Lundin as the chairman, and he will come down on Monday to discuss the matter with us.
Bob Nunn came in to talk about his work in setting up the communications satellite program and the other than technical phases of that operation. He will serve  very much as a special assistant to me and will attempt to deal with public policy, legislative and international aspects of the program, while keeping fully abreast of the technical developments. We are awaiting from Silverstein a development program that should cover the next several years. John Johnson and Jim Gleason came in to talk about the desirability of "calling" Clinton Anderson on the derogatory remarks he made in the Record the other day about Harry Finger and about NASA generally. We finally agreed that this matter ought to be talked over with Senator Hickenlooper, a Republican on the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (JCAE), merely to indicate our concern and to enlist his active support should the matter ever be raised again. One does not take on lightly this senator from New Mexico. Lewis Strauss did this to his sorrow. In many ways, Clinton Anderson approximates McCarthy in his tactics, although very much of his operation is cloaked in the secrecy of executive sessions of the JCAE. I suspect this is the wise course of action, but it is difficult for me to remain silent in a situation of this kind where one of my people is being seriously attacked.
I closed up the desk at 5:30 and came on home to do a bit of shopping. As I entered the apartment, the phone rang and Mrs. Charyk was calling to see whether or not I could have dinner with them. I accepted quickly and hoped to forget some of these problems for the rest of the day. [Not to end on a negative note, however,] one of the very bright spots of the day was the receipt of a personal letter from the president thanking me and NASA for the day at Huntsville and sending me birthday greetings. I shall treasure this one. It is signed D. E., which is the signature he uses on his most personal correspondence.
Saturday, September 10: This has been a dull day. Getting up at a leisurely hour, I had the Falcon washed and then went to the office for an hour-and-a-half discussion with Walter Sohier. He is preparing for submission to the National Security Council, a paper for me entitled "Managing Major New Technologies." He has done an amazing job of writing but is all too inclined to make a social science exercise out of it. Back at the apartment this afternoon for spasmodic attempts at cleaning up - both the apartment and some of my work. As usual, I had put off until tomorrow quite a number of things. Perhaps it is just as well to get a little rest, but I hope to begin planning an automobile trip to the West Coast, which Ruth and I will take we hope, immediately following the inauguration next 20 January.
Enough for another week; all-in-all, it has been a wonderful one. Beginning with the news of the birth of the first grandchild, running through an early celebration of my birthday and the first wedding anniversary for Kitty and Frank, continuing with the Huntsville expedition with the president, which was climaxed by a very welcome call from Kitty, ending with a quiet day at home. What more could one want?!
Sunday, September 11: A dull day with intermittent rain and without Ruth and Polly! I polished the Falcon and worked at various jobs around the apartment. I made a cake and cleared out my closet. Otherwise, just another day and not a very good one, at that.
 Monday, September 12: This was a really full day with a variety of visits from people in Republic Aviation, Bendix Aviation, the Westinghouse organization and two or three others. They were all attempting to convince me of the deep interest each maintains in winning the orbiting astronomical observatory project. I think practically all of the organizations that have made proposals have come in to see me personally.
At 11 o'clock, Bruce Lundin came in with Seamans, Abbott and Heaton to talk about the task of selecting a home base for the follow-on man-in-space projects.2 Abe Silverstein was not invited but he managed to barge in and had with him a paper that solved the entire problem. I must say that he is an aggressive and resourceful person. Actually, he will follow instructions but he would much rather follow his own lead - as who wouldn't? Lundin agreed to come back on Thursday with a proposal for carrying out the task we had asked him to do. He strikes me as a very good man.
Lunch at the Cosmos Club with Alan Waterman dealt with the preparation of speeches for the convocation to be held at Yale on 7 October. I am to be on a panel with Waterman, Bill Bundy [then working for the CIA], and [Pulitzer Prize-winning poet] Archibald MacLeish.3 The luncheon was not very productive of ideas. During the rest of the day, I had discussions on the communications satellite program, the Rover program and the briefing we are to give the Strategic Air Command people at Omaha later this month. I tried to get away early because Ruth and Polly are coming down from Cleveland today. I was only partially successful.
Tuesday, September 13: At 9:15, Bonney came in to talk about a job offer he had received from Aero-Space Corporation. Here I faced one of the tough ones. Bonney is not a particularly strong individual - in fact, he is much of a baby and certainly is not a good manager of men. He has made a great many very good friends in the aviation industry, largely through his willingness to serve them adequately. I encouraged him to look carefully at this job offer, stating to him that he would not be replaced at NASA, that I was not fully satisfied with his work, that he had done a good but not outstanding job. He was hurt, of course, but it seemed to me only proper that I should tell him frankly how I felt about his work.
We started out the United Giver's Fund program with a meeting of the chairman and vice chairman at which I attempted to instill a little fire. I must say  I had a rather cold audience. I do think, however, that they will catch fire as the program moves along. At 2 o'clock, Barton Kreuzer of RCA came in to tell me of the interest of his company in our projects. At 2:30, Hjornevik and Lacklen came in to talk about the necessity for getting a training program for project managers underway. I heartily agree with this; in fact I have been urging it.4 At 3 o`clock, Jim Gleason and I went up to talk with Senator Hickenlooper about our relationships with the Atomic Energy Commission and particularly with Senator Clinton Anderson. I am still burning about the statements made by Clint Anderson about Finger. Hickenlooper says that Jim Ramey, the Director of the JCAE staff, is the culprit in all of these matters. We discussed a letter I had drafted to be sent to Anderson. After some revision, I am going to send the letter. I doubt that it will do any good but at least there will be an answer in the record asking Anderson to "put up or shut up."5
At 4 o'clock, noting that John Finney of the New York Times was in the halls, I asked for some guesses as to his interests for the day. It appears that he may have news of the Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board activities. On the odd chance that he is going to break it in the New York Times tomorrow, I authorized the release of a statement we have had prepared for the last several days. I won't let them get ahead of us if I can prevent it.6 At 4:45, John Johnson came in and talked with me for several minutes about my problems with Bonney. He agreed that I had done the proper and probably the helpful thing in talking to Bonney as I had. John says that he is absolutely astounded at the poor quality of writing that comes out of our public information office. Ruth and I went to the Newton Steers for dinner.7 It was one of the oddest functions I have attended. We had thought that there might be one or two other couples present but it turned out that there were at least fifteen or twenty. The host wandered in about twenty minutes after we arrived. His wife is the stepsister of Jackie Kennedy. We got into a little argument after  dinner at our table relating to the amount of competition there presently seems to be in the oil industry. Bob Wilson, formerly of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, became quite irate at some of the accusations made by poorly informed persons. Quite an evening.
Wednesday, September 14: At 10 o'clock, Morris Tepper and Colonel Keaton came in to discuss setting up a meeting with the Department of Defense and the Weather Bureau on the on-going meteorological satellite program. I am determined that we make certain the users of the information we may acquire be prepared to make good use of that information.8 The rest of the day had its usual quota of discussions with members of the staff.
Thursday, September 15: The staff meeting was routine. The rest of the morning was given over to a session with Milton Ames and Kurtzweg, a new man who is to be in charge of our aerodynamics and flight mechanics work. Also, George Clement of the Rand Corporation came in to talk about contracting problems with NASA. At 2 o'clock, Bruce Lundin came back in with his thoughts about the way he would tackle the job we have given him. It looks to me as though he is quite well on the road to doing a good job, although it is clear that we should delay it for perhaps a week. Interestingly enough, Bruce used to work for Abe Silverstein and understands quite well the way Abe arrives at his decisions. He does not seem to stand in awe of his former boss.
At 3:30, George Best, a vice president of the AT&T, and Bill Baker, research vice president of the Bell Telephone Laboratory, came in to give me a letter indicating the interests of the telephone company in the communication satellite field. They stated they were prepared to spend as much as $30 million for three satellite flights. They will spend a great deal more than this if success attends their early efforts. This is the first real break in getting support from an industrial organization using its own funds. The Bell Laboratories have been doing this in a small way in connection with Project Echo, but this move brings new life into the communications picture.
At 5:30, I picked up George Kistiakowsky and took him to the apartment for drinks. After that, he took us to a little French restaurant for dinner where Ruth had snails for the first time. I think she rather liked them. It was a good evening.
 Friday, September 16: This was the start of a weekend. At 11 o'clock, I boarded the Wall Street Journal plane to fly to northern Minnesota for a two day conference - a "Seminar on Science and the News." This was sponsored by the University of Minnesota, the Mayo Clinic, the Minneapolis Star and Tribune, Carleton College and by the National Science Foundation. The purpose was to bring together leading editors and outstanding scientists in an effort to improve the understanding on the part of each of the other's interests and problems. I was very tired but it was good fun and I think a highly useful exercise. There were three nationally known science reporters in attendance - Alton Blakeslee, Earl Ubell and Victor Cohn. Among the managing editors were Turner Catledge of the New York Times, Wilbur Elston of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune, Bill Steven of the same paper, William Randolph Hearst, Jr. of the Hearst newspapers, Norman Isaacs of the Louisville Times, Barney Kilgore of the Wall Street Journal, Ben McKelway of the Washington Star, Walker Stone of the Scripps-Howard newspapers and Russ Wiggins of the Washington Post.
Among the scientists present were Athel Spilhaus of the University of Minnesota; Larry Gould, president of Carleton College; Warren Weaver, vice president of the Sloan Foundation; Roger Revelle of the University of California oceanographic outfit [the Scripps Institution of Oceanography]; Harold Urey, [professor of chemistry-at-large, University of California]; Edward Teller; Wendall M. Stanley, biochemist of the University of California; and Harlow Shapley, professor emeritus of astronomy at Harvard. Just how I was included in this group is not clear to me, but I was grateful for the chance of being present.
The papers given by most of the scientists were really quite exciting. It was clear that they would like to run the editor's business for him and tell him how to write headlines and how to report stories about science. The editors were a little bashful at first but on the second day managed to state their case rather forcibly. All-in-all, it was a good exchange of views. Edward Teller interrupted almost as much as Kilgore but did it with a smile. Of all the scientists present, I thought he did the most obvious political job. This is characteristic of Edward. I left late on Sunday for Minneapolis so that I might get the plane to Texas the following morning.
Monday, September 19: Up early and off to Texas via Chicago and Braniff Airlines. I was met at the airport and allowed to retire to my room for a bit of rest and work. My hosts, the Texas Oil and Gas Association, wanted me to have dinner with them. After attending several cocktail parties, we did just that, but I was able to beg off early in the evening - about 10:30 - and get to bed.
Thursday, September 20: After several telephone conversations with reporters, I managed to give my paper, which was reasonably well received. I think it was one of the strangest groups I have seen. All of them are oil men or gas men, and they are thinking more of self protection than they are of almost anything else. This is a very crude accusation; but certainly this was the impression that I gained from listening to a part of their meeting. Remembering that this speech was given at the request of Bob Anderson of the Treasury, I think I must be a little prejudiced  in these statements. Catching the plane at 2 o'clock, I reached home a little after 9 o'clock, where Ruth met me.
Wednesday, September 21: Bob King came in early to discuss several of the meetings he is setting up for me.9 The Williamsburg session looks to be an interesting one and will be held on 16 October. I hope Ruth will go down to the Inn with me. At 11 o'clock I had Johnson, Nunn and Dryden in to talk about the desirability of my going up to Holmdel, New Jersey, for a demonstration planned by the Bell Telephone Laboratories for the Federal Communication Commission. The advice I received was that this would seem to be an unwise trip since it would indicate, unnecessarily strongly, approval of AT&T as a competitor in the communication satellite business. I was not pleased with the discussion and I am afraid I made my displeasure rather obvious. AT&T is going to be in the business and if we are going to take leadership in getting this program off the ground, it seems to me that we have to take a positive rather than a negative viewpoint in matters of this kind.
I made a recording this morning for the Voice of America. These half-hour tapes are not too bad since you are allowed to talk quite naturally and editing is done by good people at the Voice of America. A report on the Saturn and Saturn application problems was delayed until next week. At 4 o'clock, I called in Bob Nunn to tell him that I was going to Holmdel and we got the program laid on for the next day.
Thursday, September 22: Up early and off to Holmdel in a special air missions plane - an Aero Commander. Jim Fisk met me at the Monmouth County Airport and I had a chance to talk to him frankly about some of the concerns expressed by our people over the development of policy in this communication satellite field. I secured from Jim an agreement that Bell Telephone Laboratories would participate in whatever satellite programs NASA might undertake. The FCC commissioners arrived about 9:30 and a picture was taken of the six of them along with me. This picture was developed, printed and then put on a facsimile transmitter for transmission by wire to Stumpneck, Maryland - the Naval Research Laboratory transmitter is located there - where it was radioed to the Echo satellite balloon and bounced back to the receiving dish at Holmdel. The resulting picture, I have a copy, is an excellent one. What a demonstration! Believe me, I was glad that I had made the trip.
Friday, September 23: The morning was given over to a meeting with the chairmen of our research advisory committees. This was simply an opportunity for an exchange of ideas and a chance for me to say how much we appreciated the work of these committees. After lunch with the chairmen and a fairly large group of our people, I met with John Corson to talk over the next meeting of the Kimpton committee and gave him a copy of Frank Borchert's experience record. Corson is going to have someone in the Chicago office interview Frank. Ruth and I attended a reception given by General Twining in honor of General and Mrs. Lemnitzer at  the Bolling Air Force Base officers' club. General Twining is retiring as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and is being replaced by Lem. Both are good men but I think that Lemnitzer is the stronger of the two. We left rather early; neither of us likes this kind of activity.
Saturday, September 24: I spent practically all of the day at the office in a review of the Thor-Delta program and of the scientific satellite program. These reviews are very worthwhile but they do take up another of the few Saturdays I have for myself.
Sunday, September 25: Working at home the entire day on the speech for the Yale convocation, I finally gave it up and went over to call on Herb York with Ruth about 4 o'clock. After that, we had dinner with [friends].
Monday, September 26: I finally decided to attend an early morning breakfast at the Statler as a guest of the Republican National Finance Committee. All they wanted was some money - $100 a ticket for a Party dinner on the 29th of September. Quite a pitch! At 10 o'clock, I had a session with Seamans, Hjornevik and Phillips on staffing for the headquarters. I agreed to add 120 persons even though Congress had expressed its displeasure at the size of our headquarters staff. We simply have to have the people to manage this program - it makes no sense to be spending $900 million without adequate management. As a matter of fact, I think I have been short-sighted in fighting to keep this staff as small as I have.10
At 11:30, I went over to the Pentagon to hear a briefing on a proposed aerospace plane. What a fantastic proposition!11 The purpose of the session was to give me this briefing before I heard about the project from General [Thomas S.] Power at Strategic Air Command headquarters in Omaha. I think it is clear that people should be thinking in expansive and expensive terms when concerned with the defense of the country; it is not clear that they have to be 20 or 30 years ahead in their efforts to keep the Air Force ahead of the other services. At 3 o'clock, Bob Bell came in to give me a briefing on some of our internal security problems. It was really quite amazing to see what has to be done to be as certain as possible that we are avoiding, as well as we can, the possibility of security and loyalty problems. I think our program is a rational one - one that could be supported by almost anyone.
 At 4:30, Bob Jastrow and one or two others came in to give us a briefing on the results of the Echo project to date. The effect of radiation from the sun - streams of protons - in moving the big balloon about is almost unbelievable. Much as I am thrilled by these things, I get an even greater thrill from watching people like Bob Jastrow in action. How I would like to have him on the Case campus along with several of his bright young men. Nunn, Johnson and Frutkin came in to talk with me about a speech I hope to give in Oregon on 12 October. I want to make it a policy statement on the communication satellite program. I am not sure how government policy is made in these areas; I'm going to try and find out. Ruth and I attended a reception at the Canadian Office Building - the vice chairman of the Canadian Defense Research Scientific Board was the guest of honor - and then had dinner with [advertising executive, automobile manufacturer, and financier] Ward Canaday at the 1925 F Street club. It is always fun to be with Ward and I think Ruth enjoyed the evening as well.
Tuesday, September 27: At 8 o'clock I repaired to the office of the dentist. Fortunately, I needed only to have my teeth cleaned. The rest of the morning was given over to a variety of tasks - I was to go out to Goddard but did not make it - and then Dryden and I had lunch with Kistiakowsky. I left at 3 o'clock for Omaha where we were to brief General Power [commander-in-chief, Strategic Air Command] and his staff on the morrow.12 Arriving at Omaha in time for dinner, we had a fine steak and I got to bed very early.
Wednesday, September 28: The briefing went well and Tommy Power seemed pleased. He took the stage after we had finished and made clear his conviction that the president is all wrong in talking about space for peaceful purposes. Tommy would go all-out for a strong military space program and everything else that would be necessary to make this country absolutely invincible from a military standpoint. He admits the problems of politics but would seemingly override them. I got on the plane and left at noon so that I could get back home with some prospect of getting a little rest. Actually, I worked the entire five hours on the flight home and think I was very much better off than if I had waited for the balance of the group who came home on an Air Force plane.
Thursday, September 29: This was a really rough day. We had a long staff meeting and later in the morning met with Dr. John Keyston, vice chairman, Canadian Defense Research Board, with whom we had cocktails on Monday night. He was just interested in paying a courtesy call and making certain that there were no communications difficulties between NASA and the Canadians. Another visit from the Chance-Vought Company representatives. Do they never get enough of this  kind of thing? Because of the bad weather, I took a train for New York at 12:45 and arrived just in time to get over to the cocktail hour before the dinner. This was a really wonderful aggregation of top industrial people brought together by the A & H Kroeger organization. Les Worthington, president of U. S. Steel Corporation, and I were the principal speakers. There were several good friends from Cleveland there and I think I did a reasonably good job. Ruth had gone up in the morning and had accomplished quite a bit of shopping as well as a visit to the Guggenheim Museum. She had dinner with Mrs. Kroeger and then attended the theater. We met together at the Barclay and prepared for bed when I happened to look out the window and noticed that it was really foggy. A call to the Weather Bureau indicated that there was little chance of a flight getting off in the early morning. Because I have a real tough schedule for Friday, I decided that we would go back by train. Accordingly, we dressed and repaired to the Pennsylvania Station where we were able to get a bedroom to Washington. What a life!
Friday, September 30: Our train came in on time and Ruth and I had breakfast at the Statler after which she went home. The entire morning was spent with the heads of all of our laboratories in a review of the Saturn program and the applications that will use the Saturn. This is a real problem program. The ten-year period looks as though it would cost at least $5 billion - probably closer to $10 billion.13 What are the criteria one would use in making a decision on a problem of this kind? I broke away from the morning's session to have lunch with the Kimpton committee at the Metropolitan Club. This was its last meeting and I had a chance to thank the members for their help. They asked a good many pointed questions of me. I think their report is going to be very helpful to us.
Back to the meeting at the office, for other and more mundane matters. At 4 o'clock, Nunn and Jaffe came in to talk about the communications satellite program. Nunn has prepared an excellent paper but Jaffe has not done what I had requested. I wanted an outline of a possible development program with some estimate of the cost. Instead, he wrote a paper that seemed to be aimed at convincing me - as if I needed to be convinced - that we should go ahead with a development program. Sometimes it would be a good thing if engineers just continued to be engineers!
1. As noted below, Lundin did serve as chair of the study group, which was organized on 17 September and submitted its report on 14 October 1960. It recommended that the "manned space flight activity" not be moved until at least the fall of 1961 to avoid delaying Project Mercury. It did not make a firm recommendation for a location of such an activity but generally favored Ames over Langley, while pointing out that such a move would have to be justified politically in terms of savings in time, cost, or efficiency. ("Report of Special Working Group on Location of Manned Space Flight Activity," 14 October 1960, filed with Lundin biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection.) As discussed elsewhere in the diary, the center eventually was located in Houston, Texas. (See Dethlof, "Suddenly Tommorrow Came".)
2. This was probably a reference to the various projects making up the Apollo program. It was named (at the suggestion of Abe Silverstein, who followed the precedent established by Mercury of naming spaceflight projects for mythological gods and heroes) on 25 July 1960. Gemini - the two-person earth-orbital rendezvous that came between Mercury and Apollo - was not approved until December 1961, although there were already plans for the rendezvous itself. Thus, this could also be a reference to the Gemini concept if not the project itself, or even to Gemini and Apollo together, both still in the process of formulation. (NASA Historical Data Book, Vol. II, pp. 155, 180; Rosholt, Administrative History of NASA, p. 238; Wells, Whiteley, and Karegeannes, Origins of NASA Names, p. 99.) As to the home for these projects, see note 1 above and the index under "Manned Spacecraft Center."
3. All of these men except Waterman were Yale graduates.
4. On this issue, see Rosholt, Administrative History of NASA, pp. 144-146.
5. The letter to Senator Anderson, dated 15 September 1960, read in part:
After the several satisfactory meetings and conversations you and I have had on the subject of the management of the Rover Project and Mr. Finger's selection to head that Project, and in the light of the favorable statements made to you by those having responsible concern for the AEC portion of the Project, your personal comments on the ability and character of Mr. Finger are hard for me to understand. . . . Predictions of failure of a project which has great national significance, at the very inception of a new management arrangement, can hardly be construed as encouraging in view of the difficult responsibilities that Mr. Finger and others directly involved will carry.
The full text of the letter is in the Glennan subseries, "Chronological - September 1960" file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.
6. On 13 September 1960, NASA and the DOD announced the creation of this board "to review planning, avoid duplication, coordinate activities of common interest, identify problems requiring solution either by NASA or the Department of Defense and insure a steady exchange of information." The co-chairmen of the board were Hugh Dryden for NASA and Herbert York for the DOD. (Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics . . . 1915-1960, p. 127.)
7. Newton Ivan Steers, Jr. was a Yale graduate and was president and general manager of Atomics, Physics, & Science Fund, Inc. of Washington. He was married to Nina G. Auchincloss.
8. An interagency meeting on the establishment of an operational meteorological satellite system took place on 10 October 1960. The departments of commerce and defense, the FAA, and NASA had representatives there, but Colonel Keaton was not among the DOD attendees. At the meeting, Glennan stated NASA's intention to cooperate with the other agencies involved in meteorological research and weather forecasting as it executed its meteorological satellite program. The representatives of other agencies expressed their interests and needs in the meteorological arena. The meeting concluded that all concerned agencies were very much interested in using the data acquired during the research and development of meteorological satellites, that not only R&D but operational programs needed to be pursued, and that "an accelerated research effort" should be begun to assure an ability to handle and distribute the data that would result from the program. (Minutes of the meeting, part of a package on meteorological satellites in "M - Official - Miscellaneous," Glennan subseries, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
9. On King, see also the diary entries for 2 August, 3 August, etc. (See index for specific pp.)
10. During the course of the entire year (1960), NASA Headquarters increased by 204 employees, a growth of 45 percent, while NASA as a whole grew from 9,567 to 16,042 people, a 68 percent growth rate - a large part of which resulted from the establishment of the Marshall Space Flight Center and the growth of Goddard. (Rosholt, Administrative History of NASA, p. 139.)
11. On 31 October 1960 the Air Force announced that it was considering proposals for an "aerospace plane" capable of gathering tons of oxygen from the upper atmosphere before entering space, and then reentering the earth's atmosphere for landing as an airplane. (Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics . . . 1915-1960, p. 129.) Apparently this was not a reference to Dyna-Soar because the DOD had endorsed it and the Air Force negotiated a letter contract for step I of the program already in April 1960. (Clarence J. Geiger, "History of the X-20A Dyna-Soar" [October 1963], p. xii, available in the "Dyna-Soar" files, aeronautical subseries of the NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
12. The briefing dealt with NASA's programs for the exploration and use of space. At its outset, Glennan stated: "While our program is centered around the conduct of research and development for peaceful purposes - as the Space Act puts it - we recognize that the results of our effort will be of interest and of use to the military departments. Indeed, the law requires that the results of our programs be made available fully to the military services." ("Remarks at SAC briefing, OMAHA, 9/28/60," Glennan subseries, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)
13. See note 9 of chapter Two, which shows that the $10 billion estimate was very close to the mark.