This bibliography has six sections: general historical studies, archival sources, congressional reports, technical reports, original books and articles, and interviews. The first four sections and part of the fifth are in essay form. The fifth section concludes with a list of selected books and articles on the technical and operational aspects of aerospace biomedicine. Persons whose interviews formed part of the research base for this study are listed in section six.
1. GENERAL HISTORICAL STUDIES
Books and monographs on the historical aspects of aviation and space biomedicine are few in number, generally authored by nonhistorians, and commonly narrative in form. The history of aviation medicine has received more extended attention than has the history of space medicine. The best histories of aviation medicine are R. J. Benford, Doctors in the Sky (Springfield, III.: Charles C. Thomas, 1955); Jeremiah Milbank, Jr., The First Century of Flight in America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943); and Douglas H. Robinson, The Dangerous Sky (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973). Though short on interpretation and analysis, each of these is a useful reference source for names, dates, and significant events and each is entertaining reading.
The history of space medicine is recorded in only two books. Eloise Engel and Arnold Lott, Man in Flight: Biomedical Achievements in Aerospace (Annapolis: Leeward, 1979) is a comprehensive book that examines the history of space medicine and traces its many roots in aviation medicine. Written for a general audience by authors who are neither historians nor specialists in aerospace medicine, Man in Flight is an entertaining narrative history in which highly technical information is presented in a clear, concise, and accurate manner. This book's strength rests with its detailed examination of the history of research and development  specific areas, for example, weightlessness, acceleration forces, high-altitude physiology Its weaknesses include an overemphasis on anecdotes, infrequent source citations, and a pedestrian bibliography.
Mae Mills Link, a historian, is the author of the only previous study of biomedicine within NASA's space program. Her Space Medicine in Project Mercury, NASA SP-4003 (Washington, 1965) is a useful reference source for names, dates, and events and for its summaries of technical information. However, the book is too brief and tends to treat technical matters superficially. The source citations are extensive, but they are marred by the fact that the author does not inform the reader of their location. Link also prepared a lengthy manuscript on NASA's overall life science programs which reflects a sincere effort to analyze this important, and often quixotic, subject. However, this manuscript has not been published, possibly because it lacks thematic coherence and is rife with personal judgments that are not supported by documentation.
The majority of studies of the historical aspects of aviation and space biomedicine are narrative histories in textbooks and journals, technical histories, and sections within broader aviation and space histories. The narrative histories emphasize names, dates, and events and have little interpretation and analysis. A typical narrative is Col. George Zinneman, "Aerospace Medicine-Present, Past, and Future," the introductory essay in Hugh W. Randel, ed., Aerospace Medicine, 2d ed. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1971), pp. 1-21. Zinneman chronicles the "milestones" in aerospace medical research and traces the evolution of professional organizations and professional training. Similar narratives appear in the first edition of this text (1961) and in other texts on aviation and aerospace medicine. Comparable narrative histories have appeared at various times in such journals as the Armed Forces Journal of Medicine and the Journal of Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine (originally, Journal of Aviation Medicine; later, Journal of Aerospace Medicine).
Technical histories focus on the history of research and development. The best technical history of aviation and space biomedicine is David Bushnell, History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics, 1946-1958 (Holloman AFB, N.M.: Air Force Missile Development Center, 1958), which is a comprehensive and detailed examination of research and development activities conducted under the auspices of the Air Force Aeromedical Field Laboratory. The history of research and development activities in each of the human factors areas is examined in David Bushnell and James S. Hanrahan, Space Biology: The Human Factors of Space Flight (New York: Basic Books, 1960). Though published by a commercial publisher, this book builds on Bushnell's 1958 work, emphasizes technical history, and relies on information derived from technical reports.
 The history of aviation and space biomedicine also receives attention from authors of space histories. Loyd S. Swenson, James V. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966) includes detailed examination of such biomedical matters as the astronaut selection program, the development, testing, and evaluation of Mercury life support systems and pressure suits, the Mercury medical monitoring program, and the medical results of each of the Mercury flights. The authors also give some attention to NASA's relations with the military services and the scientific community, though without discussing the life sciences in particular. Follow-on histories of Gemini and Apollo, unfortunately, do not give comparable consideration to biomedicine. Barton Hacker and James Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1 977) barely mentions biomedicine, even though the evaluation of human physiological and performance capabilities in longer duration flights and during extravehicular activities was a primary objective of Gemini. Similarly, Courtney Brooks, James Grimwood, and Loyd Swenson, Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979) contains very little information on biomedicine. A forthcoming book on Skylab, authored by David Compton, may rectify this situation. Preliminary drafts of the manuscript indicate that the author will devote several chapters to medicine and biology.
Aspects of medicine and biology not directly related to manned spaceflight receive some attention from the authors of two other NASA histories. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211 (Washington, 1980) includes a chapter on NASA's Life Sciences Program. Newell discusses the bioscience program of the Office of Space Sciences, the problems of administering a life science program, and the involvement of external scientists in the formulation of policy relative to the life sciences. Edwin P. Hartman, Adventures in Research: A History of Ames Research Center, 1940-1965, NASA SP-4302 (Washington, 1970) describes briefly the organization of the life science program at Ames, research activities in the biosciences and exobiology, and Project Biosatellite. However, the treatment is superficial and does not include any reference to the biopolitical problems that retarded the growth of the Ames life science program. A NASA contract historian, Elizabeth Muenger, is preparing a new history of Ames and plans to devote several chapters to its life science activities. In spite of its central role in space medicine, the history of the Manned Spacecraft Center (Johnson Space Center) remains unpublished. A history exists in manuscript form, but its publication is in doubt.
The context of NASA's interactions with the military services and the scientific community is established in several general histories, none of  which specifically addresses the life science issue. John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge: MIT Press, -1970) includes a detailed analysis of the competition between NASA and the Air Force for control of the manned space program and of the sources of scientific criticism of NASA's role and activities in manned spaceflight. The politics of space policy making especially in relation to scientific activities, are analyzed in R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1970). Two monographs, Charles M. Atkins, "NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences," NASA Historical Note HHN-62, Sept. 1966, and Pamela Mack, "NASA and the Scientific Community: NASA-PSAC Interactions in the Early 1960's," unpublished paper prepared under auspices of the NASA History Office, May 4, 1978, examine NASA's relations with the respective scientific organizations.
2. ARCHIVAL SOURCES
Archival collections of documents in aviation and space biomedicine are widely scattered and occasionally difficult to locate. Documents related to the history of aviation medicine and space-related medicine before 1958 are in both military and civilian archives. Most of the important records related to military aerospace medicine are in Air Force custody. The majority of these records related to NASA and the civilian space program are declassified and are in one of three depositories. The Office of the Historian, Air Force Systems Command, Andrews AFB, Md., has records management responsibility for documents concerning Air Force experimental aircraft, missile, and space programs. Through this office, researchers can gain access to documents related to Air Force aerospace medical and bioastronautics programs through 1960 and can locate relevant documents generated by the Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks AFB, Texas, and the Wright Aerospace Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, since 1960. The Division Historian's Office, Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks AFB, is the point of access for documents related to Air Force aerospace medicine since 1960, and this division also maintains important documents predating 1960. With the assistance of the historical staffs, Air Force documents can be located with relative ease. NASA-Department of Defense documents concerning life sciences and bioastronautics can be located through the Office of the Historian, Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Pentagon, Washington, D.C. Copies of many of the documents contained in these several depositories are in the files of the NASA Historical Archives, NASA History Office, Washington, D.C.
The Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C., has records  related to civil aeronautics dating from the 1920s; however, these are often difficult to locate as they have been retired to Federal Records Centers and are not necessarily inventoried as medical documents. The Medical Department, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is creating an archive of aerospace medicine. The centerpiece is a collection of the papers of Dr. Ross McFarland, a pioneer researcher in aviation physiology. With the official backing of the Aerospace Medical Association, this archive promises to become a central depository for the history of aerospace medicine. The Aerospace Medical Association, headquartered at Washington National Airport, Washington, D.C., has a small collection of documents on both aviation and space medicine. It includes many books on aviation and space medicine, copies of relevant journals since the 1920s, and records of the Aerospace Medical Association since its founding in 1928.
The role of scientists in the formulation of space policy and the definition of research and development objectives in space is documented ~n records of the Armed Forces-National Research Council (AF-NRC) Bioastronautics Committee, the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and the President's Science Advisory Committee. Minutes of committee meetings, copies of correspondence, and reports of formal study groups of the Bioastronautics Committee and of the Life Sciences and Man-in-Space committees of the Space Science Board are in the archives of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Washington, D.C. The academy does not encourage use of its archives by nonmembers, though it will open its records to accredited researchers who submit a letter of application accompanied by a letter of sponsorship and who are willing to pay a $15 per hour user's fee. Fortunately, the NASA Historical Archives, NASA History Office, contains copies of most of the pertinent records in the academy archives, including extensive records of the AFNRC Bioastronautics Committee and unpublished records of deliberations of the Space Science Board groups that periodically reviewed NASA's life science program. The records of the President's Science Advisory Committee are scattered among presidential libraries; however, the NASA Historical Archives has copies of all relevant published and unpublished reports of this committee and an extensive collection of relevant correspondence.
The major studies of NASA's biomedical and life science programs undertaken by the Science Board and the Advisory Committee were either published or widely disseminated in manuscript form. The published versions are useful though sanitized. The draft versions, which are available in the NASA Historical Archives, provide insights into the inner workings of these committees, attitudes and opinions that do not appear in published versions, and the biopolitics of the space program. Pertinent studies  undertaken by the Space Science Board include A Review of Space Research, report of a summer study at the State University of lowa under the auspices of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences, NAS-NRC Publication 1079 (Washington, 1962), which contains sections on biology, space probe sterilization, and the scientific role of man in space (draft versions in three bound volumes shelved in NASA Historical Archives); Space Research-Directions for the Future, report of a study by the Space Science Board, 3 vols. (Washington: NAS-NRC, 1965) with volume 3 devoted to biology, medicine and physiology, and physiology of man in flight (draft versions in author's files); H. Bentley Glass, ea., Life Sciences in Space (Washington: NAS-NRC, 1970), a study sponsored at NASA's request (draft versions in author's files), and Human Factors of Long-Duration Spaceflight (Washington: NAS, 1972).
The President's Science Advisory Committee issued two unpublished reports on NASA's biomedical programs: Donald Hornig, Chairman, "Report of the Ad-Hoc Mercury Panel," April 1961, and Donald Beeson, "Report of the Bioastronautics Committee," July 1962. Both reports received wide dissemination; copies are in the author's files and in the President's Science Advisory Committee files, NASA Historical Archives. Published Advisory Committee reports bearing on biomedicine and the life sciences include The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period (Washington: White House, 1967) and The Biomedical Foundations of Manned Space Flight (Washington: Office of Science and Technology, 1969). Draft versions of the latter prepared on several different dates are in the author's files and in the President's Science Advisory Committee files, NASA Historical Archives.
NASA, of course, has the major archival collection of documents related to the biomedical aspects of manned spaceflight and to life science programs. These documents are dispersed among separate depositories, however, and only those maintained by the NASA Historical Archives are easy to locate and readily accessible. These archives contain approximately six cubic feet of primary and secondary documents filed under "Life Sciences" and "Life Science Programs." These include assorted correspondence, minutes of committees, technical reports, and official records of the Office of Life Science Programs. An additional nine cubic feet are maintained in assorted files: documents related to biomedical operations are in files of the separate manned spaceflight projects; those related to external scientific relations are in President's Science Advisory Committee and National Academy of Sciences files; those related to NASA-Air Force and NASA-DoD bioastronautics and life science coordination are in the Air Force, Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board, and DoD files. Other pertinent documents are in the files of the Manned Spacecraft Center, the Office of Manned Space Flight, the  Office of Advanced Research and Technology, and the Office of Space science and Applications. Some useful documents are in the files of key administrators, particularly T. Keith Glennan, James Fletcher, and Homer Newell. The Biography files contain biographical information on key life scientists and copies of their published articles. Also useful are the Budget files, which document the history of appropriations for the life sciences.
Many documents related to biomedicine and the life sciences have been retired to the Federal Records Center, Suitland, Md. These are all inventoried in record group 75, NASA records, and inventories of these records are available through the NASA History Office. It is a tedious and time-consuming process to identify and locate specific documents through these inventories, however, because life science documents have not been retired as a group but rather as portions of batches of documents retired by accountable program offices. These offices prepare inventories for each batch of retired records, but the records management specialists do not always specify in detail the nature of the records contained in each batch. Consequently, to locate life science documents, one must go through the inventories sheet by sheet and often must retrieve an entire file box to determine whether it contains any important life science records. Generally, documents related to specific life science programs-biosciences, biotechnology and human research, and space medicine-can be located by reviewing the inventories of records retired by the respective program offices-Space Science and Applications, Advanced Research and Technology, Manned Space Flight. Documents related to life sciences program management, interagency life sciences coordination, congressional relations, and NASA interactions with scientific organizations are in document collections retired under the designation Central Administrative Files. The complete list of all record subgroups that contain life science materials encompasses approximately 100 separate accession numbers. To facilitate future research in this area, the author has made copies of all useful documents contained in these retired files and is organizing them into a new file, which will have a distinct accession number.
The Headquarters History Office has some records related to life sciences activities at the NASA centers; however, the majority of relevant documents are in the National Archives or regional Federal Records Centers. Johnson Space Center in Houston is the only NASA center that has an active history office and history archives. Records related to biomedicine and the life sciences are not easy to locate in the Johnson files, however, which are organized into daily chronologies, center histories and interviews, and project histories and interviews. To use the Johnson materials, researchers in the life sciences must be familiar with  names and dates, and be prepared to invest considerable time in drawer by-drawer, folder-by-folder searches.
Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., which had primary responsibility for research in biotechnology, medical science, and bioscience, and Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, which played a minor role in life science research and technology, do not have formal history offices or active history archives, though both have historical monitors" who will assist researchers in using the center archives. A NASA contract historian, Dr. Elizabeth Muenger, is writing a history of Ames and, in the process, identifying and establishing the location of life science materials in the Ames archives. NASA recently hired Dr. James R. Hansen to write a history of the Langley Research Center, and in the course of his work he undoubtedly will locate relevant life science records in those archives.
Many documents related to space biomedicine and the space life sciences are in the private collections of former life scientists and life science administrators. Unfortunately, it is not known how many of these private collections exist. Army Gen. William S Augerson has approximately nine cubic feet of documents related to the medical aspects of Project Mercury, 1958-1961, most of which concern medical monitoring. Dr. Robert Voas, currently with the Department of Transportation, has a collection of comparable size, primarily on the Mercury astronaut selection and training programs, 1958-1963. Dr. Sherman P. Vinograd, chief of medical research in the Directorate of Space Medicine from 1961 to 1975, has approximately 20 cubic feet of documents related to NASA Headquarters space medicine and life science programs, 1961-1978. Vinograd may donate this collection to the aerospace medicine archives at Wright State University. Although it is useful to know of the existence of these private collections, researchers should be aware that 90 percent of the documents in them are copies of records that are accessible through the NASA Historical Archives.
3. CONGRESSIONAL RECORDS
Congress periodically reviewed NASA's life sciences programs and the agency's relationships with the military services and the scientific community. Each year both the House and Senate held hearings on NASA's authorization requests for the ensuing fiscal year. The published reports of these annual hearings appeared in two forms: transcriptions of the separate hearings, and follow-up reports summarizing the findings and actions taken by each body. The information in these reports includes details of life science research, development, and operations, requested and approved budgets, congressional justifications for budget decisions, and  questions and testimony concerning relations between NASA and, respectively, the military services and the scientific community. Outside the authorization hearings, congressional interest in the space life sciences was sporadic.
Congressional interest in NASA's life sciences before 1960 was limited to the biomedical aspects of Project Mercury. This interest is recorded in a House Report, Jupiter Missile Shot-Biomedical Experiments, report of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 86/1, June 3,1959; and a Senate report, Project Mercury: Man-in-Space Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, report of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 86/1, Dec.1,1959. House members also expressed interest in possible conflicts between the Air Force program in bioastronautics and NASA's requirements in space medicine in the initial NASA authorization hearings, which were published as Astronautics and Space Exploration, Hearings of a Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, 85/2, April 15-30 and May 1-12, 1958
In 1960 both sides of Congress investigated the biomedical capabilities and requirements of NASA and the military services in response to open conflict in this area between NASA and the Air Force and to publicized scientific doubts about the adequacy of NASA's biomedical capabilities in support of Mercury. The most extensive and detailed study ever made of the nation's overall capabilities in space biology and medicine is reflected in U.S. Senate, Space Research in the Life Sciences: An Inventory of Related Programs, Resources, and Facilities, report of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 86th Cong.,2d sess. (hereafter 86/2), July 15, 1960. House interest in medicine and the life sciences is reflected in three reports of hearings held by the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 86/2: Life Sciences in Space, Oct. 4, 1960; Medical Research for Space Travel, June 15-16, 1960; and Space Medicine Research, June 15-16,1960. The House also examined life sciences in the context of the total space program in Review of the National Space Program, Hearings of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 86/2, Jan.20-Feb.18 and Feb. 23-Mar. 7, 1960.
Apart from the annual authorization hearings, Congress did not give special attention to NASA's life science programs from 1961 to 1968. However, both the House and the Senate conducted hearings on matters that bore on the life sciences. The House investigated NASA's relations with the military and military interests in space and reported its findings in Defense Space Interests, Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 87/1, March 17-21, 1961, and The NASA-DoD Relationship, report of the Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Committee on Science and Astronautics, 88/2, 1964. The Senate investigated NASA's overall  research and development programs, its overall manned spaceflight objectives, and scientists' views on the space program and published its findings in three reports: NASA Scientific and Technical Programs, Hearings of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences (hereafter CASS) 87/1, Feb. 28 and Mar. 1, 1961; Manned Space Flight Programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, staff report of the CASS, 87/2, Sept. 4, 1962; and Scientists' Testimony on Space Goals, hearings of the CA SS, 88/1, June 10-11, 1963.
Congressional interest in NASA's life science programs flared briefly in 1969, largely in response to scientific criticisms of NASA's management of Biosatellite and biomedical research in support of long-duration manned spaceflight. NASA management's decision in early 1969 to terminate Project Biosatellite generated widespread criticisms from academic and research-oriented bioscientists. This combined with adverse publicity following the aborted mission of Biosatellite III (June 1969) and the subsequent death of its monkey-passenger led to two House investigations. The testimony and findings of these investigations are recorded in Biosatellite Program, Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 91/1, Nov. 12-18, 1969, and Future of the Bioscience Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hearings of the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Committee on Science and Astronautics, 91/1, Dec. 24, 1969. Although the agency's life sciences activities were criticized by scientists during the 1970s, Congress has not found a need to investigate the life sciences program (apart from authorization hearings) since 1969.
4. TECHNICAL REPORTS
Since 1968, American biomedical and behavioral scientists, clinicians, and human factors engineers working in government, industry, university and private research settings have produced more than 10,000 technical reports on research, development, and operations in aerospace medicine and biology. All the published reports and most of the unclassified and unpublished reports since 1953 have been catalogued in Aerospace Medicine and Biology, An Annotated Bibliography (vole. 1-6, 1952-1958, by the Department of Commerce; vols. 7-9, 1958-1963, by the Library of Congress) and Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography (nos. 01-214 by NASA as NASA SP-7011). All the entries in this continuing publication and all classified and unclassified reports on aerospace medicine and biology sponsored by NASA and the military services are computer-catalogued through the RECON program, which is open to use (with minimal restrictions) to all researchers. Both of these sources contain, in addition, citations of all unclassified reports on aerospace  medicine and biology prepared by researchers in the Soviet Union since 1964- Most of these reports have been translated by the staff of the Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress.
Articles and monographs on technical aspects of aerospace medicine and biology have appeared with regularity in a number of continuing publications The Journal of Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine (Journal of Aviation Medicine, 1927-1958; Journal of Aerospace Medicine,1958-1972) is the official journal of the Aerospace Medical Association and has been a forum for research communications in the field since 1927. The Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Texas, has held annual symposia in aerospace medicine since 1951, and the papers presented at these conferences have been published annually as Lectures in Aerospace Medicine. Reports on aerospace medicine have also appeared at various times in other journals, most notably the Proceedings of the American Astronautical Society (each annual volume bears a different title), Human Factors, and the Armed Forces Journal of Medicine. Reports on space biology have appeared on various occasions in the AIBS Bulletin, a publication of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
NASA has published technical reports on the biomedical aspects of the major spaceflight programs through its scientific and technological information program. The biomedical preparations for and biomedical results of the Mercury and Gemini flights are recorded in publications that encompass the overall aspects of the two projects. The biomedical aspects of Mercury are covered in articles contained in Conference on the Medical Results of the First Manned Sub-Orbital Space Flight (Washington, June 6, 1961); NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Results of the First Manned Orbital Flight (Washington, 1962); Results of the Second Manned Orbital Flight, NASA SP-6 (Washington, 1962); Results of the Third Manned Orbital Flight, NASA SP-12 (Washington, 1962); and Mercury Project Summary, Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight, NASA SP-45 (Washington, 1963). The medical aspects of Project Gemini are in Gemini Mid-Program Conference, NASA SP-121 (Washington, 1966); Gemini Summary Conference, NASA SP-138 (Washington, 1967); and Summary of Gemini Extra-Vehicular Activity, NASA SP-149 (Washington, 1967).
The medical aspects of Apollo and Skylab were published separately from the other program summaries. The biomedical aspects of Apollo are in Richard S. Johnston, Lawrence S. Dietlein, and Charles A. Berry, eds., Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP-368 (Washington, 1975), while those of Skylab are in Richard S. Johnston and Lawrence Dietlein, eds. Biomedical Results from Skylab, NASA SP-377 (Washington, 1977). Both are extremely detailed studies that cover experiments, preparations, and findings and include extensive citations of relevant technical literature.
Several related technical reports also deserve notice. The history of  Project Biosatellite and the technical aspects of the three Biosatellite flights (many of the experiments of which had direct relevance to manned flight) are examined in detail in J. W. Dyer, Project Manager, Biosatellite Project: Historical Summary Report (Moffett Field, Calif.: NASA Ames Research Center, 1969). Research and planning for biomedical Support of advanced manned programs are examined in Sherman P. Vinograd, ed., Medical Aspects of an Orbiting Research Laboratory, NASA SP-86 (Washington, 1966); Langley Research Center, Preliminary Results from an Operational 90-Day Test of a Regenerative Life Support System, NASA SP-261 (Washington, 1971); and an unpublished report prepared by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, "A Biomedical Program for Extended Space Missions" (Houston, 1969). A program of biological research in support of advanced manned programs is described in American Institute of Biological Sciences, "Bioscience Research during Earth-Orbiting Missions Manned Orbital Research Lab/Manned Orbital Space Station," NASA Contractor's Report NASA-132, 1966.
5. ORIGINAL BOOKS AND ARTICLES
Textbooks on aviation and space medicine, while not numerous, have appeared with regularity since World War I. Possibly the first text on the subject was Air Service Medical (Washington: War Department, 1919), which covered all the fundamental issues that would concern aviation and space physicians during the ensuing 50 years: selection and training of flight crews, physical and mental examinations of flight crews, operational role of flight physicians, man-rating of machines and machine-rating of men, and medical research problems of manned flight. At least two texts appeared during the 1920s: Philippe Maublanc and V. Ratie, Medical Examination of Airmen (New York: William Wood and Co., 1921) and C. H. Bauer, Aviation Medicine (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1926). The classic text, Harry O. Armstrong, ed., Principles and Practices of Aviation Medicine (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins), appeared in 1939, with subsequent editions in 1943 and 1952. A later version also edited by Armstrong appeared in 1961 under the title Aerospace Medicine, and a second edition with this title, edited by Hugh Randel, was published in 1971 (both editions, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins). All these editions encompass the same general subjects: history of aerospace medicine; examination, selection, and training of flight crews; physiological and psychological problems of flight; and human factors problems of machine design. Each edition also includes extensive citations of relevant literature.
Books, monographs, and articles on specific aspects of aviation and space medicine are too numerous to receive comprehensive examination in this context. The titles listed here, samples of the literature, cover most  issues of concern to specialists in aerospace medicine from 1958 to 1980 and are themselves sources for significant contributions to the literature of aerospace medicine.
- Bedwell, Theodore C., and Strughold, Hubertus. "Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space." Papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks AFB, Texas, Nov. 16-18, 1964. San Antonio, 1966.
- Benedikt, E. T., ed. Weightlessness-Physical Phenomena and Biological Effects. New York: Plenum Press, 1961.
- Benson, O. O., and Strughold, Hubertus, eds. Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960.
- Berry, Charles A. "Lunar Medicine." Science Journal 5 (1969): 103-107.
-. "Space Medicine." Journal of the American Medical Association 201 (1967): 232-41.
-. "Status Report on Space Medicine in the U.S." Aerospace Medicine 40 (1969): 762-69.
- Bourne, Geoffrey, "Medical and Biological Problems of Space Flight." In proceedings of a conference held at Nassau, the Bahamas, Nov. 1961. New York: Academic Press, 1963.
- Brown, J. H. U., ed. Physiology of Man in Space. New York: Academic Press, 1963.
- Burns, Neal M., Chambers, Randall M.; and Handler, Edwin. Unusual Environments and Human Behavior: Physiological and Psychological Problems of Man in Space. New York: Free Press, 1963.
- Busby, Douglas E. Space Clinical Medicine: A Prospective Look at Medical Problems from Hazards of Space Operations. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1968.
- Clamann, H. G. "Space Medicine." In Medical Physics, edited by G. Glasser, vol. 3. Chicago: Year Book Publishers, 1959.
- Flaherty, Bernard E., ed. Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
- Fogel, Ralph. Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961.
- Gantz, Kenneth F., ed. Man in Space: The United States Air Force Program for Developing the Spacecraft Crew. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce,
- Gerathewohl, Siegfried. Principles of Bioastronautics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
- Goshen, C. E. "Bioastronautics: The State of the Art, 1963." Industrial Medicine and Surgery 32 (1963): 500-507.
- Henry, James P. Biomedical Aspects of Space Flight. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966.
 - Humphreys, J W., Jr. "Biomedical Support Requirements in the Space Era." Archives of Environmental Health 3 (1961): 684-88
- Lansberg, M. P. A Primer of Space Medicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1960.
- Malina, F. J., ed. "Life Science Research and Lunar Medicine." In Proceedings of the Second Lunar International Laboratory Symposium. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.
- Marberger, John P. Space Medicine: The Human Factor in Flights Beyond the Earth. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1951.
- Marett, W. C. "Bioastronautics Research in the Air Force." Archives of Environmental Health 7 (1963): 448-52.
- National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council "Radiobiological Factors in Manned Space Flight." Report of the Space Radiation Study Panel. Washington, D.C., 1967.
- . "Infectious Disease in Manned Spaceflight: Probabilities and Countermeasures." Report of the Space Science Board. Washington, D.C., 1967
- Nicogaussian, Arnauld E., ed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Medical Report. Washington, D C.: NASA, 1977.
- Perry, Carlos J. G., ed. Psychiatry in Aerospace Medicine. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1967.
- Price, J. F. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Space Flight: A Bibliography, 2 vols. Redondo Beach, Calif: Space Technology Laboratories, 1962 and 1963.
- Purser, Paul E.; Faget, Maxime A.; and Smith, Norman F., eds. Manned Spacecraft: Engineering Design and Operations. New York: Fairchild Publications, 1964.
- Reynolds, Orr. "Space Biosciences." American Institute of Biological Sciences Bulletin 12 (Oct. 1962): 49-53.
- Roadman, Charles; Strughold, Hubertus; and Mitchell, Roland B., eds. "Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space." Papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks AFB, Texas, June 24-27, 1968. San Antonio, 1968.
- Ruff, George E., and Levy, Edwin Z. "Psychiatric Research in Space Medicine." American Journal of Psychiatry 115 (1959): 793-97.
- Schaefer, K. E., ed. Bioastronautics. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1 964.
- Sells, S. B., and Berry, Charles A., eds. Human Factors in Jet and Space Travel: A Medical-Psychological Analysis. New York: Ronald Press, 1961.
- Slager, Ursula, Space Medicine. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall' 1962.
- Strughold, Hubertus. "Space Equivalent Conditions within the Earth's Atmosphere: Physiological Aspects." Astronautics Acta 1 (1955): 32-40.
 -; Haber, H.; Buettner, H.; and Haber, F. "Where Does Space Begin?" Journal of Aviation Medicine 22 (1951): 342-49.
- Voris, Frank B. "Medical Aspects of Space Flight." Pamphlet prepared and distributed by NASA. Washington, D.C, 1964.
- Walsh, John. "Space Program: More Time for Biomedical Research?" Science 167 (1970): 1469-71.
- White, Stanley C. "Biomedical Support of Present Man-in-Space Program " Archives of Environmental Health 3 (1961): 689-94.
- Zinneman, George. "Aerospace Medicine and Bioastronautics." Air University Quarterly Review 14 (1962-1963).
A. By the author:
- Gen. William Augerson, May 8, 1979
- Dr. Lawrence F. Dietlein, Aug. 19, 1980
- Gen. Donald K. Flickinger, Oct. 18, 1979
- Dr. T. Keith Glennan, Feb. 19, 1980
- Dr. Siegfried Gerathewohl, July 3, 1979
- Col. Rufus Hessberg
- Gen. J. W. Humphreys, May 2, 1979
- Richard S. Johnston, Aug. 18, 1980*
- Dr. Walton Jones,* May 22, 1979
- Bernard Maggin, Oct. 17, 1979
- Dr. John Naugle, Feb. 21, 1980
- Dr. Homer Newell, Feb. 22, 1980
- Dr. Clark Randt, Aug. 14, 1979, Sept. 24, 1979
- Dr. Orr Reynolds, Nov. 14, 1979
- Dr. Gerald Soffen, Feb. 28, 1980
- Dr Sherman P. Vinograd, June 2, 1979
- Dr. Robert Voas, Oct 19, 1979
- Dr. James V. Warren, June 19, 1979
- Dr. David Winter, May 8, 1981
B. By NASA Headquarters History Office staff:
- Dr George Knauf, 1963
- Dr. Eugene Konecci, 1963
- Dr. Randolph Lovelace, 1964
- Dr. Clark Randt, 1961
- Gen. Bernard Schriever, 1961
C. By Johnson Space Center History Office staff:
- Dr. Charles A. Berry, Mar. 18, 1968
- Dr. Lawrence F. Dietlein, Mar. 22, 1968
- Richard S. Johnston, Mar. 21, 1968