| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
F. Bolden, Commander
NAME: Charles F. Bolden, Jr. (Colonel, USMC) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born August 19, 1946, in Columbia, South Carolina.
His mother, Ethel M. Bolden, resides in Columbia.
EDUCATION: Graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia,
South Carolina, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in electrical
science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, and a master of
science in systems management from the University of Southern California
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Marine Corps Association, the Montford
Point Marine Association, the U.S. Naval Institute, and Omega Psi Phi
Fraternity. Lifetime member of the Naval Academy Alumni Association,
the University of Southern California General Alumni Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the Defense Superior Service Medal,
the Air Medal, the Strike/Flight Medal (8th award), the University of
Southern California (Ebonics Support Group) Outstanding Alumni Award
(1982), National Technical Association Honorary Fellow (1983), Honorary
Doctor of Science Degree from the University of South Carolina (1984),
Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Winthrop College (1986), the
NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988), and the University of Southern
California Alumni Award of Merit (1989), and an Honorary Doctor of Humane
Letters from Johnson C. Smith University (1990).
EXPERIENCE: Bolden accepted a commission as a second lieutenant
in the U.S. Marine Corps following graduation from Annapolis in 1968.
He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi,
and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a naval aviator in May
1970. He flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos,
and Cambodia, in the A-6A Intruder, while assigned to VMA(AW)-533 at
Nam Phong, Thailand, June 1972 - June 1973.
Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as
a Marine Corps officer selection officer and recruiting officer in Los
Angeles, California, followed by three years at the Marine Corps Air
Station, El Toro, California. In June 1979, he graduated from the U.S.
Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland, and was assigned
to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft
Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot
and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, and A-7C/E airplanes.
He has logged more than 5,000 hours flying time.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became
an astronaut in August 1981, qualified for assignment as a pilot on
future Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical assignments to date
include: Astronaut Office Safety Officer, Technical Assistant to the
Director of Flight Crew Operations, Special Assistant to the Director
of the Johnson Space Center, Astronaut Office Liaison to the Safety,
Reliability and Quality Assurance Directorates of the Marshall Space
Flight Center and the Kennedy Space Center, Chief of the Safety Division
at JSC, and Lead Astronaut for Vehicle Test and Checkout at the Kennedy
Space Center. A veteran of three space flights, Bolden served as pilot
on STS 61-C (January 12-18, 1986) and STS-31 (April 24-29, 1990), and
was the mission commander on STS-45 (March 24 - April 2, 1992).
On his first mission Bolden was pilot on the crew of STS-61C, aboard
the Space Shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight crew members deployed
the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and
materials processing. STS 61-C launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida,
on January 12. The mission was accomplished in 96 orbits of Earth, ending
with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California,
on January 18, 1986.
He next served as pilot on the crew of STS-31, aboard Space Shuttle
Discovery, which launched on April 24, 1990, from the Kennedy Space
Center in Florida. During the five-day mission, crew members deployed
the Hubble Space Telescope, and conducted a variety of middeck experiments.
They also used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin
and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting
altitude over 400 miles. Following 75 orbits of the Earth in 121 hours,
STS-31 Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April
More recently, Bolden commanded a crew of seven on STS-45 aboard the
Space Shuttle Atlantis. Launched on March 24 from the Kennedy Space
Center in Florida, STS-45 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated to
NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. During the nine-day mission, the crew
operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric
Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained a vast
array of detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical
properties, which will contribute significantly to improving our understanding
of our climate and atmosphere. In addition, this was the first time
an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate a man-made auroral
discharge. Following 143 orbits of Earth, STS-45 Atlantis landed at
the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on April 2, 1992.
With the completion of his third mission, Bolden has logged over 481
hours in space.
On April 28, 1992, Colonel Bolden was appointed Assistant Deputy Administrator,
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
S. Reightler, Jr., Pilot
NAME: Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. (Captain, USN) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born March 24, 1951, in Patuxent River, Maryland,
but considers Virginia Beach, Virginia, to be his hometown. Married
to the former Maureen Ellen McHenry of Virginia Beach, Virginia. They
have two daughters. He enjoys sailing, wind surfing, camping. His parents,
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth S. Reightler, Sr., reside in Virginia Beach. Her
mother, Mrs. Jean W. McHenry, resides in Virginia Beach. Her father,
Cdr. William H. McHenry, USN, is deceased.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Bayside High School, Virginia Beach,
Virginia, in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace
engineering from United States Naval Academy in 1973, and master of
science degrees, in 1984, in aeronautical engineering from the United
States Naval Postgraduate School and in systems management from University
of Southern California.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP);
U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association; Association of Space Explorers;
National Aeronautic Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: Defense Superior Service Medal; Defense Meritorious
Service Medal; Navy Commendation Medal; Navy Unit Commendation; Meritorious
Unit Commendation; Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal; National Defense
Service Medal; NASA Exceptional Service Medal; two NASA Space Flight
Medals; Johnson Space Center Certificate of Commendation; NASA Group
Achievement Award; INTELSAT EVA Recovery Team Award. Distinguished graduate,
U.S. Naval Academy and U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. Absolute world
altitude record for Class P aero-spacecraft. Mac Short Award in Aviation
from U.S. Naval Academy (1973).
EXPERIENCE: Reightler graduated from the United States Naval
Academy in 1973, and was designated a naval aviator in August 1974 at
Corpus Christi, Texas. After replacement pilot training in the P-3C
airplane, he reported to Patrol Squadron Sixteen in Jacksonville, Florida,
serving as both a mission commander and patrol plane commander. He made
deployments to Keflavik, Iceland, and to Sigonella, Sicily.
Following jet transition training, Reightler attended the United States
Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland. Upon graduation
in 1978, he remained at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) where he served
as test pilot and project officer for a variety of flight test programs
involving the P-3, S-3, and T-39 airplanes. He later returned to the
Test Pilot School, serving as a flight test instructor and safety officer
flying the P-3, T-2, OV-1, T-39, and TA-7 airplanes.
In June 1981 Reightler was assigned to the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower
(CVN-69) as communications officer and carrier on-board delivery pilot,
making two deployments to the Mediterranean Sea. Selected for postgraduate
education, he attended the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.
Redesignated an aerospace engineering duty officer (AEDO) he was sent
to transition training for the F/A-18 airplane with Strike Fighter Squadron
125 (VFA-125) at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. He then reported
for duty at the United States Naval Test Pilot School in March 1985,
serving as the chief flight instructor until his selection for the astronaut
He has logged over 4,700 hours flying time in over 60 different types
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in June 1987, Reightler became
an astronaut in August 1988.
From September 12-18, 1991, he was the pilot on the crew of STS-48.
This was the first Space Shuttle flight in support of "Mission to Planet
Earth." During the five-day mission, the crew aboard the Space Shuttle
Discovery successfully deployed the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
(UARS), designed to provide scientists with their first complete data
set on the upper atmosphere's chemistry, winds and energy inputs. The
crew also conducted numerous secondary experiments ranging from growing
protein crystals, to studying how fluids and structures react in weightlessness.
After 81 orbits of the Earth, STS-48/Discovery landed at Edwards Air
Force Base, California.
More recently, Reightler served as pilot on STS-60, the first joint
U.S./Russian Space Shuttle Mission. Launching from the Kennedy Space
Center on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the first flight of the Wake
Shield Facility (WSF-1) and the second flight of the Space Habitation
Module (Spacehab-2). During the eight-day flight, the crew of Discovery,
including Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, conducted a wide variety
of biological, materials science, Earth observation, and life science
experiments. Following 130 orbits of the Earth, STS-60 landed at Kennedy
Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994.
With the completion of his second mission, Reightler has logged over
327 hours in space.
His technical assignments to date have included: Chief of the Astronaut
Office Space Station Branch; Chief of the Astronaut Office Mission Support
Branch; Lead Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM); Lead Astronaut for flight
software development and computer systems; Flight Crew Operations Directorate
representative to the Program Requirements Control Board; weather coordinator
for Space Shuttle launches and landings; Astronaut Office representative
in the areas of ascent, entry, and aborts.
| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
Jan Davis, Mission Specialist
NAME: N. Jan Davis (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born November 1, 1953, at Cocoa Beach, Florida,
but considers Huntsville Alabama, to be her hometown. She enjoys flying,
ice skating, snow skiing, water sports, and needlepoint.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Huntsville High School in 1971; received
bachelor of science degrees in applied biology from Georgia Institute
of Technology and in mechanical engineering from Auburn University in
1975 and 1977, respectively; received a master of science degree and
a doctorate in mechanical engineering from University of Alabama in
Huntsville, in 1983 and 1985, respectively.
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Member, Tau Beta Pi, Omicron Delta Kappa, Pi Tau Sigma, and Sigma Gamma
Tau honoraries, and Alpha Xi Delta social sorority.
SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1998), NASA
Exceptional Service Medal (1995), NASA Space Flight Medal (1992, 1994,
1997), Marshall Space Flight Center Director's Commendation (1987),
NASA Fellowship for Full-Time Study (1983), ASME National Old Guard
Prize (1978), and Alpha Xi Delta Woman of Distinction (1993).
EXPERIENCE: After graduating from Auburn University in 1977,
Dr. Davis joined Texaco in Bellaire, Texas, working as a petroleum engineer
in tertiary oil recovery. She left there in 1979 to work for NASA's
Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer. In 1986, she
was named as team leader in the Structural Analysis Division, and her
team was responsible for the structural analysis and verification of
the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the HST maintenance mission, and the
Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.
In 1987, she was also assigned to be the lead engineer for the redesign
of the solid rocket booster external tank attach ring. Dr. Davis did
her graduate research at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, studying
the long-term strength of pressure vessels due to the viscoelastic characteristics
of filament-wound composites. She holds one patent, has authored several
technical papers, and is a Registered Professional Engineer.
Dr. Davis became an astronaut in June 1987. Her initial technical assignment
was in the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch, where she provided
technical support for Shuttle payloads. She then served as a CAPCOM
in Mission Control communicating with Shuttle crews for seven missions.
After her first space flight, Dr. Davis served as the Astronaut Office
representative for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), with responsibility
for RMS operations, training, and payloads. After her second space flight,
she served as the Chairperson of the NASA Education Working Group and
as Chief for the Payloads Branch, which provided Astronaut Office support
for all Shuttle and Space Station payloads. A veteran of three space
flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 673 hours in space. She flew as a
mission specialist on STS-47 in 1992 and STS-60 in 1994, and was the
payload commander on STS-85 in 1997.
After her flight on STS-85, Dr. Davis was assigned to NASA Headquarters
as the Director of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS),
Independent Assurance Office for the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance.
In that position, Dr. Davis managed and directed independent assessments
for the programs and projects assigned to the HEDS enterprise. In July
1999, she was named the Deputy Director of the Flight Projects Directorate
at the Marshall Space Flight Center.
NASA EXPERIENCE: STS-47, Spacelab-J, was the 50th Space Shuttle
mission. Launched on September 12, 1992, this cooperative venture between
the United States and Japan, conducted 43 experiments in life sciences
and materials processing. During the eight-day mission, she was responsible
for operating Spacelab and its subsystems and performing a variety of
experiments. After completing 126 orbits of the Earth, STS-47 Endeavour
landed at Kennedy Space Center on September 20, 1992.
STS-60 was the second flight of Spacehab (Space Habitation Module)
and the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF). Launched on
February 3, 1994, this flight was the first Space Shuttle flight on
which a Russian Cosmonaut was a crew member. During the eight-day mission,
her prime responsibility was to maneuver the WSF on the RMS, to conduct
thin film crystal growth and she was also responsible for performing
scientific experiments in the Spacehab. The STS-60 Discovery landed
at Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1994, after completing 130 orbits
of the Earth.
Dr. Davis was the payload commander for STS-85, which was launched
on Discovery on August 7, 1997. During this 12-day mission, Dr. Davis
deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS payload, and operated the Japanese
Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD) robotic arm. The mission also
included several other scientific payloads for the conduct of research
on astronomy, Earth sciences, life sciences, and materials science.
The mission was accomplished in 189 Earth orbits, traveling 4.7 million
miles. The STS-85 Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center on August
| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
M. Sega, Mission Specialist
NAME: Ronald M. Sega (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born December 4, 1952, in Cleveland, Ohio.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Nordonia High School, Macedonia, Ohio,
in 1970; received a bachelor of science degree in Mathematics and Physics
from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1974, a master of science degree
in Physics from Ohio State in 1975, and a doctorate in Electrical Engineering
from University of Colorado in 1982.
ORGANIZATIONS: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
(AIAA) - Associate Fellow (1992), Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE), American Physical Society (APS), Institute for the
Advancement of Engineering - Fellow (1992), Society for Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), Air Force Reserve Officer Association,
Association of Space Explorers, and Eta Kappa Nu.
SPECIAL HONORS: Distinguished Graduate of the U.S. Air Force
Academy, 1974. Top Graduate of the Pilot Instructor Training Course,
1976. Officer of the Year in the Department of Physics, U.S. Air Force
Academy, 1980. Recipient of Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, Commendation
Medal, and Reserve Achievement Medal. Air Force Research Fellow - Air
Force Office of Scientific Research, 1985. Received the Outstanding
Faculty Award - Department of Electrical Engineering at the University
of Colorado, 1985. Selected to the Academic Hall of Fame of his high
school in Macedonia, Ohio, 1988. Reserve Officer of the Year (IMA),
Air Force Space Command, 1988; Reserve Officer of the Year (IMA), U.S.
Air Force, 1988. Received an honorary doctorate from Clarkson University,
1993. Recipient of the NASA Space Flight Medal, 1994 and 1996. Superior
Achievement Award (NASA Director of Operations, Russia), 1995.
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Sega graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy
in 1974, and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force.
He earned a masters degree in Physics at Ohio State University in 1975.
Completing pilot training in 1976 he served as an Instructor Pilot at
Williams AFB, Arizona, until 1979.
From 1979 to 1982 he was on the faculty of the U.S. Air Force Academy
in the Department of Physics where he designed and constructed a laboratory
facility to investigate microwave fields using infrared techniques while
pursuing a doctorate in Electrical Engineering.
In 1982 he joined the faculty of the University of Colorado at Colorado
Springs as Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1985, granted
tenure in 1988, promoted to Professor in 1990, and is currently on an
extended leave of absence.
From 1987 to 1988 he served as Technical Director, Lasers and Aerospace
Mechanics Directorate, of the Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory at
the U.S. Air Force Academy. From 1989 to 1990, while on leave from the
University of Colorado, he served as Research Associate Professor of
Physics at the University of Houston, affiliated with the Space Vacuum
Epitaxy Center, and currently is Adjunct Professor of Physics. Dr. Sega
is a Co-Principal Investigator of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF)which
has flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-60 in February 1994 and STS-69
in 1995, also serving as mission director for WSF. He has authored or
co-authored over 100 technical publications.
An Air Force Reserve Officer, he holds an aeronautical rating of Command
Pilot and the rank of Colonel. He serves as a reserve augmentee to the
Director, Plans, Air Force Space Command.
As a pilot, Dr. Sega has logged over 4,000 hours in the Air Force,
Air Force Reserves, and NASA.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Sega
became an astronaut in July 1991, qualified for assignment as a mission
specialist on Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical assignments
have included: working Remote Manipulator System (RMS) issues for the
Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch; supporting Orbiter software
verification in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL);
Chief of Astronaut Appearances; Science Support Group Lead; Space Station
integration team; Astronaut Representative to the Space Station Science
and Utilization Advisory Board (primarily an external board for NASA).
Dr. Sega was a mission specialist on STS-60, the first joint U.S./Russian
Space Shuttle Mission. Launched on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the
second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2), and the
first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1). During the 8-day flight,
the crew of Discovery conducted a wide variety of biological materials
science, Earth observation, and life science experiments. He was the
"flight engineer" for ascent and entry on this mission, performed several
experiments on orbit, and operated the robotic arm, berthing the Wake
Shield onto its payload bay carrier on four separate occasions. Following
130 orbits of the Earth in 3,439,705 miles, STS-60 landed at Kennedy
Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994. With the completion of
his first space flight, Dr. Sega has logged 199 hours in space.
From November 1994 to March 1995, Dr. Sega was the NASA Director of
Operations, Star City, Russia (The Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center)
responsible for managing NASA activities at Star City. These activities
involved building an organization and infrastructure to support Astronaut
and Cosmonaut mission and science training for flight on the Russian
Space Station Mir. He also participated in training on Russian Space
Systems and was the first American to train in the Russian EVA suit
(Orlan) in their underwater facility (Hydrolaboratory).
Dr. Sega was a mission specialist on STS-76, the third docking mission
to the Russian space station Mir, launched on March 22, 1996 with a
crew of six aboard Atlantis. Following rendezvous and docking with Mir,
a NASA Astronaut transferred to Mir for a five month stay to begin a
continuous presence of U.S. astronauts aboard Mir for the next two year
period. Dr. Sega was the Payload Commander for this mission and lead
on Biorack, a small multipurpose laboratory located in the Spacehab
module carried in the Shuttle payload bay. Biorack was used to technology
development, fundamental biology (research into plant and animal cellular
function), and environment characterization. He was responsible for
planning and on-orbit operations, including extensive transfer of logistics
and science, including 4800 pounds of science and mission hardware,
food, water and air to Mir, and returning over 1100 pounds of U.S. and
ESA science and Russian hardware. Following 144 orbits of the Earth,
Atlantis landed with a crew of five at Edwards Air Force Base in California
on March 31, 1996.
Dr. Sega left NASA on July 1, 1996 to become Dean of the College of
Engineering and Applied Science, University of Colorado at Colorado
| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
R. Chang-Diaz, Mission Specialist
NAME: Franklin R. Chang-Džaz (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born April 5, 1950, in San JosŤ, Costa Rica,
to the late Mr. RamÚn A. Chang-Morales and Mrs. Marža Eugenia Džaz De
Chang. Married to the former Peggy Marguerite Doncaster of Alexandria,
Louisiana. Four children. He enjoys music, glider planes, soccer, scuba-diving,
and hiking. His mother, brothers and sisters still reside in Costa Rica.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Colegio De La Salle in San JosŤ, Costa
Rica, in November 1967, and from Hartford High School in Hartford, Connecticut,
in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering
from the University of Connecticut in 1973 and a doctorate in applied
plasma physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the University of Connecticut's
Outstanding Alumni Award (1980); 6 NASA Space Flight Medals (1986, 1989,
1992, 1994, 1996, 1998); 2 NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1995,
1997), and 3 NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1988, 1990, 1993). In
1986, he received the Liberty Medal from President Ronald Reagan at
the Statue of Liberty Centennial Celebration in New York City, and in
1987 the Medal of Excellence from the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
He received the Cross of the Venezuelan Air Force from President Jaime
Lusinchi during the 68th Anniversary of the Venezuelan Air Force in
Caracas, Venezuela (1988), and the Flight Achievement Award from the
American Astronautical Society (1989). Recipient of four Doctorates
"Honoris Causa" (Doctor of Science from the Universidad Nacional de
Costa Rica; Doctor of Science from the University of Connecticut, Doctor
of Law from Babson College, and Doctor of Science from the Universidade
de Santiago de Chile. He is Honorary faculty at the College of Engineering,
University of Costa Rica. In April 1995, the government of Costa Rica
confered on him the title of "Honorary Citizen." This is the highest
honor Costa Rica confers to a foreign citizen, making him the first
such honoree who was actually born there.
EXPERIENCE: While attending the University of Connecticut, he
also worked as a research assistant in the Physics Department and participated
in the design and construction of high energy atomic collision experiments.
Following graduation in 1973, he entered graduate school at MIT, becoming
heavily involved in the United States' controlled fusion program and
doing intensive research in the design and operation of fusion reactors.
He obtained his doctorate in the field of applied plasma physics and
fusion technology and, in that same year, joined the technical staff
of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. His work at Draper was geared
strongly toward the design and integration of control systems for fusion
reactor concepts and experimental devices, in both inertial and magnetic
confinement fusion. In 1979, he developed a novel concept to guide and
target fuel pellets in an inertial fusion reactor chamber. More recently
he has been engaged in the design of a new concept in rocket propulsion
based on magnetically confined high temperature plasmas.
As a visiting scientist with the M.I.T. Plasma Fusion Center from October
1983 to December 1993, he led the plasma propulsion program there to
develop this technology for future human missions to Mars. In December
1993, Dr. Chang-Džaz was appointed Director of the Advanced Space Propulsion
Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center where he continues his research
on plasma rockets. He is an Adjunct Professor of Physics at Rice University
and the University of Houston and has presented numerous papers at technical
conferences and in scientific journals.
In addition to his main fields of science and engineering, he worked
for 2-1/2 years as a house manager in an experimental community residence
for de-institutionalizing chronic mental patients, and was heavily involved
as an instructor/advisor with a rehabilitation program for hispanic
drug abusers in Massachusetts.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Dr. Chang-Džaz
became an astronaut in August 1981. While undergoing astronaut training
he was also involved in flight software checkout at the Shuttle Avionics
Integration Laboratory (SAIL), and participated in the early Space Station
design studies. In late 1982 he was designated as support crew for the
first Spacelab mission and, in November 1983, served as on orbit capsule
communicator (CAPCOM) during that flight.
From October 1984 to August 1985 he was leader of the astronaut support
team at the Kennedy Space Center. His duties included astronaut support
during the processing of the various vehicles and payloads, as well
as flight crew support during the final phases of the launch countdown.
He has logged over 1,800 hours of flight time, including 1,500 hours
in jet aircraft.
Dr. Chang-Džaz was instrumental in implementing closer ties between
the astronaut corps and the scientific community. In January 1987, he
started the Astronaut Science Colloquium Program and later helped form
the Astronaut Science Support Group, which he directed until January
A veteran of six space flights (STS 61-C in 1986, STS-34 in 1989, STS-46
in 1992, STS-60 in 1994, STS-75 in 1996, and STS-91 in 1998), he has
logged over 1,269 hours in space.
STS 61-C (January 12-18, 1986), was launched from the Kennedy Space
Center, Florida, on the Space Shuttle Columbia. STS 61-C was a 6-day
flight during which Dr. Chang-DŪaz participated in the deployment of
the SATCOM KU satellite, conducted experiments in astrophysics, and
operated the materials processing laboratory MSL-2. Following 96 orbits
of the Earth, Columbia and her crew made a successful night landing
at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 146 hours,
3 minutes, 51 seconds.
On STS-34 (October 18-23, 1989), the crew aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis
successfully deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore
Jupiter, operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument
(SSBUV) to map atmospheric ozone, and performed numerous secondary experiments
involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research,
microgravity effects on plants, and a student experiment on ice crystal
growth in space. STS-34 launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida,
and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was
119 hours and 41 minutes and was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth.
STS-46 (July 31-August 8, 1992), was an 8-day mission during which
crew members deployed the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite,
and conducted the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS) test flight.
Mission duration was 191 hours, 16 minutes, 7 seconds. Space Shuttle
Atlantis and her crew launched and landed at the Kennedy Space Center,
Florida, after completing 126 orbits of the Earth in 3.35 million miles.
STS-60 (February 3-11, 1994), was the first flight of the Wake Shield
Facility (WSF-1), the second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2
(Spacehab-2), and the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle mission
on which a Russian Cosmonaut was a crew member. During the 8-day flight,
the crew aboard Space Shuttle Discovery conducted a wide variety of
biological materials science, Earth observation, and life science experiments.
STS-60 launched and landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mission
achieved 130 orbits of Earth in 3,439,705 miles.
STS-75 (February 22 to March 9, 1996), was a 15-day mission with principal
payloads being the reflight of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and
the third flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3).
The TSS successfully demonstrated the ability of tethers to produce
electricity. The TSS experiment produced a wealth of new information
on the electrodynamics of tethers and plasma physics before the tether
broke at 19.7 km, just shy of the 20.7 km goal. The crew also worked
around the clock performing combustion experiments and research related
to USMP-3 microgravity investigations used to improve production of
medicines, metal alloys, and semiconductors. The mission was completed
in 252 orbits covering 6.5 million miles in 377 hours and 40 minutes.
STS-91 Discovery (June 2-12, 1998) was the 9th and final Shuttle-Mir
docking mission and marked the conclusion of the highly successful joint
U.S./Russian Phase I Program. The crew, including a Russian cosmonaut,
performed logistics and hardware resupply of the Mir during four docked
days. They also conducted the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment,
which involved the first of its kind research of antimatter in space.
Mission duration was 235 hours, 54 minutes.
| Bolden | Reightler
| Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz
| Krikalev |
Konstantinovich Krikalev, Mission Specialist
NAME: Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Russian Cosmonaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born August 27, 1958, in Leningrad, Russia, which
has been renamed St. Petersburg. Married to Elena Terekhina of Samara,
Russia. They have one daughter. He enjoys swimming, skiing, bicycle
riding, aerobatic flying, and amateur radio operations, particularly
from space. His parents, Konstantin and Nadia, reside in Leningrad,
Russia. Her parents, Faina and Yuri, reside in Samara, Russia.
EDUCATION: Graduated from high school in 1975; in 1981, received
mechanical engineering degree from the Leningrad Mechanical Institute,
now called St. Petersburg Technical University.
SPECIAL HONORS: He was a member of the Russian and Soviet national
aerobatic flying teams, and was Champion of Moscow in 1983, and Champion
of the Soviet Union in 1986. For his space flight experience, he was
awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, the
French title of L'Officier de la L'egion d'Honneur, and the new title
of Hero of Russia. He also has been awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal
EXPERIENCE: After graduation in 1981, he joined NPO Energia,
the Russian industrial organization responsible for manned space flight
activities. He tested space flight equipment, developed space operations
methods, and participated in ground control operations. When the Salyut
7 space station failed in 1985, he worked on the rescue mission team,
developing procedures for docking with the uncontrolled station and
repairing the station's on-board system.
Krikalev was selected as a cosmonaut in 1985, completed his basic training
in 1986, and, for a time, was assigned to the Buran Shuttle program.
In early 1988, he began training for his first long-duration flight
aboard the MIR space station. This training included preparations for
at least six EVA's (space walks), installation of a new module, the
first test of the new Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), and the second
joint Soviet-French science mission.
Soyuz TM-7 was launched on November 26, 1988, with Krikalev as flight
engineer, Commander Alexander Volkov, and French Astronaut Jean-Loup
Chretien. The previous crew (Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov, and Valeri
Polyakov) remained on MIR for another twenty-five days, marking the
longest period a six-person crew had been in orbit. After the previous
crew returned to Earth, Krikalev, Polyakov, and Volkov continued to
conduct experiments aboard the MIR station. Because arrival of the next
crew had been delayed, they prepared the MIR for a period of unmanned
operations before returning to Earth on April 27, 1989.
In April 1990, Krikalev began preparing for his second flight as a
member of the backup crew for the eighth long-duration MIR mission,
which also included 5 EVA's and a week of Soviet-Japanese operations.
In December 1990, Krikalev began training for the ninth MIR mission
which included training for 10 EVA's. Soyuz TM-12 launched on May 19,
1991, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky,
and British astronaut Helen Sharman. Sharman returned to Earth with
the previous crew after one week, while Krikalev and Artsebarsky remained
on MIR. During the summer, they conducted six EVA's to perform a variety
of experiments and some station maintenance tasks.
In July 1991, Krikalev agreed to stay on MIR as flight engineer for
the next crew, scheduled to arrive in October because the next two planned
flights had been reduced to one. The engineer slot on the Soyuz-13 flight
on October 2, 1991, was filled by Toctar Aubakirov, an astronaut from
the Soviet republic of Kazakhstan, who had not been trained for a long-duration
mission. Both he and Franz Viehbok, the first Austrian astronaut, returned
with Artsebarsky on October 10, 1991. Commander Alexander Volkov remained
onboard with Krikalev. After the crew replacement in October, Volkov
and Krikalev continued MIR experiment operations and conducted another
EVA before returning to Earth on March 25, 1992.
In October 1992, NASA announced that an experienced cosmonaut would
fly aboard a future Space Shuttle mission. Krikalev was one of two candidates
named by the Russian Space Agency for mission specialist training with
the crew of STS-60. In April 1993, he was assigned as prime mission
specialist. In September 1993, Vladimir Titov was selected to fly on
STS-63 with Krikalev training as his back-up.
Krikalev flew on STS-60, the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle
Mission. Launched on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the second flight
of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2), and the first flight
of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1). During the 8-day flight, the crew
of Discovery conducted a wide variety of materials science experiments,
both on the Wake Shield Facility and in the Spacehab, Earth observation,
and life science experiments. Krikalev conducted significant portions
of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) operations during the flight.
Following 130 orbits of the Earth in 3,439,705 miles, STS-60 landed
at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994. With the completion
of this flight, Krikalev logged an additional 8 days, 7 hours, 9 minutes
Krikalev returned to duty in Russia following his American experience
on STS-60. Periodically he returned to the Johnson Space Center in Houston
to work with CAPCOM in Mission Control and ground controllers in Russia
supporting joint U.S./Russian Missions. To date he has supported STS-63,
STS-71, STS-74 and STS-76.
Krikalev flew on STS-88 Endeavour (December 4-15, 1998), the first
International Space Station assembly mission. During the 12-day mission
the Unity module was mated with Zarya module. Two crew members performed
three space walks to connect umbilicals and attach tools/hardware for
use in future EVA's. The crew also performed IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC)
operations, and deployed two satellites, Mighty Sat 1 and SAC-A. The
mission was accomplished in 185 orbits of the Earth in 283 hours and
In completing his fourth space flight, Krikalev logged more than 1
year, 3 months and 19 days in space, including seven EVA's.
Krikalev is currently living and working aboard the International Space
Station. The Expedition-1 crew launched October 31, 2000 on a Soyuz
rocket from the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan, and successfully
docked with the station on November 2, 2000. The crew is scheduled to
spend approximately 4 months aboard the station, and to return to Earth
on the Shuttle Flight delivering the second Expedition crew.