| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
D. Wetherbee, Commander
NAME: James D. Wetherbee (Captain, USN) NASA Astronaut
BIRTHPLACE AND DATE: Born November 27, 1952, in Flushing, New
York. Considers his hometown to be Huntington Station, New York. Married
to the former Robin DeVore Platt of Jacksonville, Florida. They have
two children. He enjoys tennis, skiing, softball, running, and music.
His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Dana A. Wetherbee, reside in Huntington Station,
New York. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Harry T. Platt, Jr., reside in Jacksonville,
EDUCATION: Graduated from Holy Family Diocesan High School,
South Huntington, New York, in 1970; received a bachelor of science
degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Notre Dame in
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.
SPECIAL HONORS: Distinguished Flying Cross; Navy Achievement
Medal; two Meritorious Unit Commendations.
EXPERIENCE: Wetherbee received his commission in the United
States Navy in 1975 and was designated a naval aviator in December 1976.
After training in the A-7E, he was assigned to Attack Squadron 72 (VA-72)
from August 1977 to November 1980 aboard the USS John F. Kennedy and
logged 125 night carrier landings. After attending the U.S. Naval Test
Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, in 1981 he was assigned to the
Systems Engineering Test Directorate. He was a project officer and test
pilot for the weapons delivery system and avionics integration for the
F/A-18 aircraft. Subsequently assigned to Strike Fighter Squadron 132
(VFA-132), he flew operationally in the F/A-18 from January 1984 until
his selection for the astronaut candidate program. He has logged over
5,000 hours flying time and 345 carrier landings in 20 different types
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1984, Wetherbee became
an astronaut in June 1985. A veteran of four space flights, Wetherbee
has logged over 955 hours in space. He was the pilot on STS-32 in 1990,
and was the mission commander on STS-52 in 1992, STS-63 in 1995 and
STS-86 in 1997. Wetherbee is Director of the Flight Crew Operations
Directorate and is currently in training to command the STS-102 mission
scheduled for launch in 2001.
STS-32 Columbia (January 9-20, 1990) included the successful deployment
of the Syncom IV-F5 satellite, and retrieval of the 21,400-pound Long
Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using the remote manipulator system
(RMS). The crew also operated a variety of middeck experiments and conducted
numerous medical test objectives, including in-flight aerobic exercise
and muscle performance to evaluate human adaptation to extended duration
missions. Mission duration was 173 orbits in 261 hours and 01 minute.
STS-52 Columbia (October 22 to November 1, 1992) successfully deployed
the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS), a joint Italian-American project.
The crew also operated the first U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP) with
French and American experiments, and successfully completed the initial
flight tests of the Canadian-built Space Vision System (SVS). Mission
duration was 236 hours and 56 minutes.
STS-63 Discovery (February 2-11, 1995), was the first joint flight
of the new Russian-American Space Program. Mission highlights included
the rendezvous with the Russian Space Station, Mir, operation of Spacehab,
and the deployment and retrieval of Spartan 204. The mission was accomplished
in 129 orbits in 198 hours and 29 minutes.
STS-86 Atlantis (September 25 to October 6, 1997) was the seventh mission
to rendezvous and dock with the Russian Space Station Mir. Highlights
included the delivery of a Mir attitude control computer, the exchange
of U.S. crew members Mike Foale and David Wolf, a spacewalk by Scott
Parazynski and Vladimir Titov to retrieve four experiments first deployed
on Mir during the STS-76 docking mission, the transfer to Mir of 10,400
pounds of science and logistics, and the return of experiment hardware
and results to Earth. Mission duration was 169 orbits in 259 hours and
| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
M. Collins, Pilot
NAME: Eileen Marie Collins (Colonel, USAF) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born November 19, 1956, in Elmira, New York.
Married to Pat Youngs, originally from San Antonio, Texas. They have
one child. She enjoys running, golf, hiking, camping, reading, photography,
astronomy. Her parents are James and Rose Marie Collins, from Elmira,
New York. His parents are Pat and Jackie Youngs, from San Antonio, Texas.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Elmira Free Academy, Elmira, New York,
in 1974; received an associate in science degree in mathematics/science
from Corning Community College in 1976; a bachelor of arts degree in
mathematics and economics from Syracuse University in 1978; a master
of science degree in operations research from Stanford University in
1986; and a master of arts degree in space systems management from Webster
University in 1989.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Air Force Association, Order of
Daedalians, Women Military Aviators, U.S. Space Foundation, the American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Ninety-Nines.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal,
the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal with one oak leaf cluster, the
Air Force Commendation Medal with one oak leaf cluster, the Armed Forces
Expeditionary Medal for service in Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury, October
1983), and the NASA Space Flight Medal.
EXPERIENCE: Collins graduated in 1979 from Air Force Undergraduate
Pilot Training at Vance AFB, Oklahoma, where she was a T-38 instructor
pilot until 1982. From 1983 to 1985, she was a C-141 aircraft commander
and instructor pilot at Travis AFB, California. She spent the following
year as a student with the Air Force Institute of Technology. From 1986
to 1989, she was assigned to the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado,
where she was an assistant professor in mathematics and a T-41 instructor
pilot. She was selected for the astronaut program while attending the
Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California, from which she
graduated in 1990.
She has logged over 5,000 hours in 30 different types of aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Collins became
an astronaut in July 1991. Initially assigned to Orbiter engineering
support, she has also served on the astronaut support team responsible
for Orbiter prelaunch checkout, final launch configuration, crew ingress/egress,
landing/recovery, worked in Mission Control as a spacecraft communicator
(CAPCOM) for numerous Shuttle missions, and served as the Astronaut
Office Spacecraft Systems Branch Chief. A veteran of three space flights,
Collins has logged over 537 hours in space. She served as pilot on STS-63
(February 2-11, 1995) and STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997), and was the first
woman Shuttle commander on STS-93 (July 22-27, 1999).
STS-63 (February 2-11, 1995) was the first flight of the new joint
Russian-American Space Program. Mission highlights included the rendezvous
with the Russian Space Station Mir, operation of Spacehab, the deployment
and retrieval of an astronomy satellite, and a space walk. Collins'
first mission was accomplished in 129 orbits, traveling over 2.9 million
miles in 198 hours, 29 minutes. She was the first woman pilot of a Space
STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997) was NASA's sixth Shuttle mission to rendezvous
and dock with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the flight, the
crew conducted a number of secondary experiments and transferred nearly
4 tons of supplies and experiment equipment between Atlantis and the
Mir station. In completing this 9-day mission, she traveled 3.8 million
miles in 145 orbits of the Earth logging a total of 221 hours and 20
minutes in space.
STS-93 Columbia (July 22-27, 1999) was the first Shuttle mission to
be commanded by a woman. STS-93 highlighted the deployment of the Chandra
X-Ray Observatory. Designed to conduct comprehensive studies of the
universe, the telescope will enable scientists to study exotic phenomena
such as exploding stars, quasars, and black holes. Mission duration
was 118 hours and 50 minutes.
| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
Michael Foale, Mission Specialist
NAME: : C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 6, 1957, in Louth, England, but
considers Cambridge, England, to be his hometown. Married to the former
Rhonda R. Butler of Louisville, Kentucky. They have two children. He
enjoys many outdoor activities, particularly wind surfing. Private flying,
soaring, and project scuba diving have been his other major sporting
interests. He also enjoys exploring theoretical physics and writing
children's software on a personal computer. His parents, Colin and Mary
Foale, reside in Cambridge, England. Her parents, Reed & Dorothy Butler,
reside in Louisville, Kentucky.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Kings School, Canterbury, in 1975.
He attended the University of Cambridge, Queens’ College, receiving
a bachelor of arts degree in Physics, Natural Sciences Tripos, with
1st class honors, in 1978. While at Queens’ College, he completed his
doctorate in Laboratory Astrophysics at Cambridge University in 1982.
EXPERIENCE: While a postgraduate at Cambridge University, Foale
participated in the organization and execution of scientific scuba diving
projects. Pursuing a career in the U.S. Space Program, Foale moved to
Houston, Texas, to work on Space Shuttle navigation problems at McDonnell
Douglas Aircraft Corporation. In June 1983, Foale joined NASA Johnson
Space Center in the payload operations area of the Mission Operations
Directorate. In his capacity as payload officer in the Mission Control
Center, he was responsible for payload operations on Space Shuttle missions
STS-51G, 51-I, 61-B and 61-C.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA
in June 1987. Before his first flight he flew the Shuttle Avionics Integration
Laboratory (SAIL) simulator to provide verification and testing of the
Shuttle flight software, and later developed crew rescue and integrated
operations for International Space Station Alpha. Foale has served as
Deputy Chief of the Mission Development Branch in the Astronaut Office,
and Head of the Astronaut Office Science Support Group. In preparation
for a long-duration flight on the Russian Space Station Mir, Foale trained
at the Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia. A veteran of five
space flights, Foale has logged over 168 days in space including three
space walks totaling 18 hours and 49 minutes. He was a mission specialist
on STS-45, STS-56, STS-63 and STS-103, and served as Board Engineer
2 on Mir-24 (ascent on STS-84 and return on STS-86). He currently serves
as Chief of the Astronaut Office Expedition Corps, while continuing
his duties as Assistant Director (Technical), Johnson Space Center.
STS-45 (March 24 to April 2, 1992) was the first of the ATLAS series
of missions to address the atmosphere and its interaction with the Sun.
STS-56 (April 9-17, 1993) carried ATLAS-2 and the SPARTAN retrievable
satellite which made observations of the solar corona.
STS-63 (February 2-11, 1995) was the first rendezvous with the Russian
Space Station Mir. During the flight he made a space walk (extravehicular
activity) for 4 hours, 39 minutes, evaluating the effects of extremely
cold conditions on his spacesuit, as well as moving the 2800-pound Spartan
satellite as part of a mass handling experiment.
Foale next spent 4-˝ months aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. He
launched with the crew of STS-84 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on May
15, 1997. Following docking, he joined the crew aboard Mir on May 17,
1997. Foale spent the following 134 days conducting various science
experiments and helping the crew resolve and repair numerous malfunctioning
systems. On September 6, 1997 he and Commander Anatoly Solovyev conducted
a 6-hour EVA to inspect damage to the station's Spektr module caused
by the June 25 collision with a Progress resupply ship. Foale returned
on October 6, 1997 with the crew of STS-86 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis.
Most recently he served aboard STS-103 (December 19-27, 1999), an 8-day
mission during which the crew successfully installed new instruments
and upgraded systems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). During an
8 hours and 10 minute EVA, Foale and Nicollier replaced the telescope’s
main computer and Fine Guidance Sensor. The STS-103 mission was accomplished
in 120 Earth orbits, traveling 3.2 million miles in 191 hours and 11
| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
E. Voss, Mission Specialist
NAME: Janice Voss (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born October 8, 1956, in South Bend, Indiana,
but considers Rockford, Illinois, to be her hometown. She enjoys reading
science fiction, dancing, volleyball, flying. Her parents, Dr. & Mrs.
James R. Voss, reside in Dupont, Indiana.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Minnechaug Regional High School, Wilbraham,
Massachusetts, in 1972; received a bachelor of science degree in engineering
science from Purdue University in 1975, a master of science degree in
electrical engineering and a doctorate in aeronautics/astronautics from
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977 and 1987, respectively.
From 1973 to 1975 she took correspondence courses at the University
of Oklahoma. She also did some graduate work in space physics at Rice
University in 1977 and 1978.
ORGANIZATIONS: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Space Flight Medals (1993, 1995); Zonta
Amelia Earhart Fellowship (1982); Howard Hughes Fellowship (1981); National
Science Foundation Fellowship (1976).
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Voss was a co-op at the NASA Johnson Space Center
from 1973 to 1975. During that time she did computer simulations in
the Engineering and Development Directorate. In 1977 she returned to
the Johnson Space Center and, for a year, worked as a crew trainer,
teaching entry guidance and navigation. She completed her doctorate
in 1987 and accepted a job with Orbital Sciences Corporation. Her responsibilities
there included mission integration and flight operations support for
an upper stage called the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). TOS launched the
Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) from the Space Shuttle
in September 1993, and the Mars Observer from a Titan in the Fall of
Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Voss became an astronaut in July
1991. She is qualified for flight assignment as a mission specialist.
Her technical assignments have included working Spacelab/Spacehab issues
for the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch, and robotics issues
for the EVA/Robotics Branch. She served aboard STS-57 in 1993, STS-63
in 1995, STS-83 & STS-97 in 1997, and STS-99 in 2000. A veteran of five
space flights, Dr. Voss has logged over 49 days in space, traveling
18.8 million miles in 779 Earth orbits.
Dr. Voss first flew on STS-57 (June 21 to July 1, 1993). Mission highlights
included retrieval of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) with
the Shuttle's robotic arm, a spacewalk by two crew members, and an assortment
of experiments in the first flight of the Spacehab middeck augmentation
She next flew on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995). Mission highlights included
the rendezvous with the Russian Space Station, Mir, the deployment and
retrieval of Spartan 204, and the third flight of Spacehab.
She also flew as payload commander on STS-83 (Apr 4-8, 1997). The STS-83
Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) Spacelab mission was cut short
because of problems with one of the Shuttle's three fuel cell power
The entire crew and payload reflew on STS-94 (July 1-17, 1997). The
STS-94 MSL-1 Spacelab mission focused on materials and combustion science
research in microgravity.
Most recently she served on STS-99 (February 11-22, 2000). This was
an 11-day flight during which the international crew aboard Space Shuttle
Endeavour worked dual shifts to support payload operations. The Shuttle
Radar Topography Mission mapped more than 47 million miles of the Earth's
| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
A. Harris, Jr., Mission Specialist
NAME: Bernard A. Harris, Jr., (M.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 26, 1956, in Temple, Texas. Married
to the former Sandra Fay Lewis of Sunnyvale, California. They have one
child. He enjoys flying, sailing, skiing, running, scuba diving, art
and music. Bernard's mother, Mrs. Gussie H. Burgess, and his stepfather,
Mr. Joe Roye Burgess, reside in San Antonio, Texas. His father, Mr.
Bernard A. Harris, Sr., resides in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sandra's
parents, Mr. & Mrs. Joe Reed, reside in Sunnyvale.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Sam Houston High School, San Antonio,
Texas, in 1974; received a bachelor of science degree in biology from
University of Houston in 1978, a doctorate in medicine from Texas Tech
University School of Medicine in 1982. Dr. Harris completed a residency
in internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic in 1985. In addition, he completed
a National Research Council Fellowship at NASA Ames Research Center
in 1987, and trained as a flight surgeon at the Aerospace School of
Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, in 1988. Dr. Harris
also received a master's degree in biomedical science from the University
of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston in 1996.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American College of Physicians,
American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Aerospace Medical Association,
National Medical Association, American Medical Association, Minnesota
Medical Association, Texas Medical Association, Harris County Medical
Society, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Texas
Tech University Alumni Association, and Mayo Clinic Alumni Association.
Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association. Association of Space Explorers.
American Astronautical Society. Member, Board of Directors, Boys and
Girls Club of Houston. Committee Member, Greater Houston Area Council
on Physical Fitness and Sports. Member, Board of Directors, Manned Space
Flight Education Foundation Inc.
SPECIAL HONORS: 1996 Honorary Doctorate of Science, Morehouse
School of Medicine. Medal of Excellence, Golden State Minority Foundation
1996. NASA Award of Merit 1996. NASA Equal Opportunity Medal 1996. NASA
Outstanding Leadership Medal 1996. The Challenger Award, The Ronald
E. McNair Foundation 1996. Award of Achievement, The Association of
Black Cardiologists 1996. Space Act Tech Brief Award 1995. Alpha Omega
Alpha Medical Honor Society, Zeta of Texas Chapter 1995. Election of
Fellowship in the American College of Physicians 1994. Distinguished
Alumnus, The University of Houston Alumni Organization 1994. Distinguished
Scientist of the Year, ARCS Foundation, Inc., 1994. Life Membership,
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. NASA Space Flight Medals 1993, 1995. NASA
Outstanding Performance Rating 1993. JSC Group Achievement Award 1993.
Physician of the Year, National Technical Association, 1993. Achiever
of the Year, National Technical Association, 1993. American Astronautical
Society Melbourne W. Boynton Award for Outstanding Contribution to Space
Medicine 1993. Achievement Award, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity 1993. Who's
Who Among Rising Young Americans Citation 1992. Certificate of Merit,
Governor of Texas 1990. City of San Antonio Citation for Achievement
1990. NASA Sustained Superior Performance Award 1989. NASA Outstanding
Performance Rating 1988. NASA Sustained Superior Performance Award 1988,
1989. National Research Council Fellowship 1986, 1987. Phi Kappa Phi
Honor Society 1985. Outstanding Young Men of America 1984. University
of Houston Achievement Award 1978. Achievement Award 1978.
EXPERIENCE: After completing his residency training in 1985
at the Mayo Clinic, Dr. Harris then completed a National Research Council
Fellowship at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.
While at Ames he conducted research in the field of musculoskeletal
physiology, and disuse osteoporosis, completing his fellowship in 1987.
He then joined NASA Johnson Space Center as a clinical scientist and
flight surgeon. His duties included clinical investigations of space
adaptation and the development of countermeasures for extended duration
space flight. Assigned to the Medical Science Division, he held the
title of Project Manager, Exercise Countermeasure Project. Dr. Harris
holds several faculty appointments.
He is an associate professor in internal medicine at the University
of Texas Medical Branch; an assistant professor at the Baylor College
of Medicine; a clinical professor at the University of Texas School
of Medicine; and is an adjunct professor at the University of Texas
School of Public Health. He is a member, Board of Regents for the Texas
Tech University Health Science Center in Lubbock, Texas. Fellow, American
College of Physicians. He is the author and co-author of numerous scientific
publications. In addition, Dr. Harris has been in group medical practice
in internal medicine with both the South Texas Primary Care in San Antonio,
Texas, and with the San Jose Medical Group in San Jose, California.
Dr. Harris is also a licensed private pilot.
Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Harris became an astronaut in
July 1991. He is qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on
future Space Shuttle flight crews. He served as the crew representative
for Shuttle Software in the Astronaut Office Operations Development
Branch. A veteran of two space flights, Dr. Harris has logged more than
438 hours in space. He was a mission specialist on STS-55 (April 26
to May 6, 1993), and was the Payload Commander on STS-63 (February 2-11,
Dr. Harris was assigned as a mission specialist on STS-55, Spacelab
D-2, in August 1991, and later flew onboard Columbia for ten days,
(April 26 to May 6, 1993), marking the Shuttle's one year of total flight
time. Dr. Harris was part of the payload crew of Spacelab D-2, conducting
a variety of research in physical and life sciences. During this flight,
Dr. Harris logged over 239 hours and 4,164,183 miles in space.
Most recently, Dr. Harris was the Payload Commander on STS-63 (February
2-11, 1995), the first flight of the new joint Russian-American Space
Program. Mission highlights included the rendezvous with the Russian
Space Station, Mir, operation of a variety of investigations in the
Spacehab module, and the deployment and retrieval of Spartan 204. During
the flight, Dr. Harris became the first African-American to walk in
space. He logged 198 hours, 29 minutes in space, completed 129 orbits,
and traveled over 2.9 million miles.
Dr. Harris left NASA in April 1996. He is Chief Scientist and Vice-President
of Science and Health Services.
| Wetherbee |
Collins | Foale | Voss
| Harris | Titov |
G. Titov, RSA, Mission Specialist
NAME: Vladimir Georgievich Titov (Colonel, Russian Air Force)
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 1, 1947, in Sretensk, in the Chita
Region of Russia. Married to the former Alexandra Kozlova of Ivanovo
Region, Russia. They have two children. He enjoys tennis, hunting, and
spending time with his family. His mother, Vera Titova, resides in Star
City, Russia. His father, Georgie Titov, died in 1961. Her parents,
Ruric and Alevtina Kozlov, reside in Ivanovo Region.
EDUCATION: Graduated from secondary school in 1965, from the
Higher Air Force College in Chernigov in the Ukraine in 1970, and the
Yuri Gagarin Air Force Academy in 1987.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union,
and recipient of the Order of Lenin (1983, 1988). In 1988, the French
awarded him the title of Commandeur de la Legion d'Honneur, and in 1990
he and Manarov were awarded the U.S. Harmon Prize -- the first Soviet
citizens to win the award -- in recognition of their world endurance
EXPERIENCE: In 1966, Vladimir Titov enrolled at the Higher Air
Force College in Chernigov in the Ukraine, graduating in 1970. Until
1974, he served at the College as a pilot-instructor and was responsible
for the graduation of twelve student pilots. He later served as a flight
commander with the air regiment where the cosmonauts carry out flying
practice. He has flown 10 different types of aircraft, has logged more
than 1,400 hours flying time, and holds the qualifications of Military
Pilot, 1st Class, and Test Pilot, 3rd Class.
Vladimir Titov was selected to join the cosmonaut team in 1976, and
in September 1981 was paired with Gennady Strekalov. The two men served
as the back-up crew for Soyuz T-5 in 1982 and Soyuz T-9 in 1983. A veteran
of five space flights, Titov served as commander on Soyuz T-8 and Soyuz
T-10 in 1983 and Soyuz TM-4 in 1987, and flew on the crew of STS-63
in 1995 and STS-86 in 1997. He has logged a total of 18 hours, 48 minutes
of EVA, and has spent a total of 387 days, 52 minutes, 18 seconds in
space (including the Soyuz T-10 launch abort).
Titov made his first space flight on April 20, 1983, as commander of
Soyuz T-8. He and Strekalov had been specifically trained to repair
the faulty Salyut 7 solar array. He was supposed to dock with Salyut
7, but once in orbit the Soyuz rendezvous radar antenna failed to deploy
properly. Several attitude control maneuvers at high rates were made
but failed to swing the boom out. (The postflight inquiry later discovered
that the antenna had been torn off when the Soyuz payload shroud separated.)
With FCC permission, the crew attempted a rendezvous using only an optical
sight and ground radar inputs for guidance. During the final approach,
which was made in darkness, Titov believed that the closing speed was
too great. He therefore attempted a braking maneuver, but felt that
the two spacecrafts were still closing too fast. He aborted the rendezvous
to avoid a crash, and no further attempts were made before the three
men returned to Earth after a flight lasting just 2 days, 17 minutes,
Titov and Strekalov were then scheduled for launch onboard what should
have been Soyuz T-10 on September 27, 1983. However, a valve in the
propellant line failed to close at T-90 seconds, causing a large fire
to start at the base of the launch vehicle only one minute before launch.
The fire quickly engulfed the rocket, and the automatic abort sequence
failed as the wires involved burned through. Two launch controllers
manually aborted the mission by sending radio commands from the launch
blockhouse. This was accomplished 12 seconds after the fire began. The
Soyuz descent module was pulled clear by the launch escape system, and
after being subjected to 15-17 G's, the crew landed safely some 2.5
miles (4 km) from the launch vehicle, which apparently exploded seconds
after the Soyuz separated. The two men were given a medical check-up,
but had sustained no injuries during their brief flight which lasted
5 minutes, 30 seconds.
Titov was next assigned to command Soyuz TM-2. He and his flight engineer,
Alexander Serebrov, were scheduled for a long-duration flight onboard
Mir 1. Six-days prior to launch, due to doubts about Serebrov's health,
they were replaced by the back-up crew. Titov continued training for
a long-duration mission, and in April 1987 was paired with Musa Manarov.
Later that year, he graduated from the Yuri Gagarin Air Force Academy
while continuing his work at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center.
His next assignment came as the commander of Soyuz TM-4, which launched
on December 21, 1987. Together with Musa Manarov and Anatoli Levchenko,
he linked up with the orbiting Mir 1 space station and her crew. After
a short period of joint work, Romanenko, Alexandrov, and Levchenko returned
to Earth handing over the space station to Titov and Manarov. The two
men settled down to a long program of scientific experiments and observations,
and played host to the visiting Soyuz TM-5 and TM-6 missions. At the
end of the Soyuz TM-6 visit, one of its crew, Dr. Valeri Polyakov, remained
onboard with Titov and Manarov.
On February 26, 1988, the two cosmonauts carried out an EVA lasting
4 hours and 25 minutes, during which they removed one of the sections
of the solar panel and installed a new one. They also installed some
new scientific experiments and removed samples of material that had
been left exposed to open space, and inspected the Progress 34 spacecraft.
On June 30, 1988, they attempted a repair on the Roentgen X-ray telescope.
The telescope had not been designed for repair or replacement so the
EVA was a difficult one. As they sliced through the 20-layer thick thermal
blanket to expose the telescope's faulty X-ray detector unit, the two
men had to stop and rest several times, as they had nowhere to anchor
themselves, and had to take turns holding each other steady. Their bulky
gloves made removing the small bolts very difficult, and it took 90
minutes instead of the 20 allocated. When a special wrench they were
using suddenly snapped, the EVA had to be aborted, and the two men returned
inside the Mir, having spent 5 hours, 10 minutes in open space.
On October 20, 1988, repairs were successfully completed, and the X-ray
telescope recommenced operations. The cosmonauts also installed some
anchor points for the EVA scheduled for the joint Soviet-French mission,
installed a new shortwave aerial, and took samples of a film which had
formed over one of the portholes, before returning inside the Mir after
4 hours and 12 minutes. They then settled down to their program of experiments
and observations. In November 1988, they played host to the joint Soviet-French
mission. After three weeks of joint work, Titov and Manarov returned
to Earth together with the French cosmonaut Jean-Loup Chretien. Titov
and Manarov returned to Earth after a mission lasting 365 days, 22 hours,
39 minutes, setting a new record, and exceeding one year in space for
the first time.
On October 28, 1992, NASA announced that an experienced cosmonaut would
fly aboard the STS-60 Space Shuttle mission. Titov was one of two candidates
named by the Russian Space Agency for mission specialist training at
the Johnson Space Center. In April 1993, he was assigned as back-up
mission specialist for Sergei Krikalev, who flew on STS-60 the first
joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle Mission (February 3-11, 1994). In September
1993, Titov was selected to fly on STS-63 with Krikalev training as
From February 2-11, 1995, Titov was a mission specialist aboard the
Orbiter Discovery, on STS-63, the first flight of the new joint Russian-American
Space Program. Mission highlights included the rendezvous with the Russian
Space Station, Mir, operation of Spacehab, and the deployment and retrieval
of Spartan 204. In completing this mission, he logged an additional
8 days, 6 hours, 29 minutes in space.
Titov served on the crew of STS-86 Atlantis (September 25 to October
6, 1997) NASA's seventh mission to rendezvous and dock with the Russian
Space Station Mir. Highlights included the exchange of U.S. crew members
Mike Foale and David Wolf, the transfer to Mir of 10,400 pounds of science
and logistics, and the return of experiment hardware and results to
Earth. Vladimir Titov and Scott Parazynski performed a 5 hour, 1 minute
spacewalk during which they retrieved four experiments first deployed
on Mir during the STS-76 docking mission, tethered the Solar Array Cap
for use in a future Mir spacewalk to seal any hole found in the hull
of the damaged Spektr module, and evaluated common EVA tools which may
be used by astronauts wearing either Russian or American-made spacesuits.
Mission accomplished in 169 orbits in 10 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes.