| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
F. Readdy, Commander
NAME: William F. Readdy (Captain, U.S. Naval Reserve) NASA
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 24, 1952, in Quonset Point, Rhode
Island, but considers McLean, Virginia, to be his hometown. Married
to Colleen Nevius. They have two sons and one daughter. He enjoys sailing,
racquet sports, flying, reading. His father, Francis Readdy, resides
in McLean. Her parents, William and Barbara Nevius, reside in Virginia
EDUCATION: Graduated from McLean High School, McLean, Virginia,
in 1970; received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering
(with honors) from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1974. Distinguished graduate,
U.S. Naval Test Pilot School 1980.
ORGANIZATIONS: Associate Fellow, Society of Experimental Test
Pilots; Member, American Astronautical Society, Association of Space
Explorers, and Explorers Club.
SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross,
Space Flight Safety Award, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, two NASA
Exceptional Service Medals, three NASA Space Flight Medals, the Meritorious
Service Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal,
Navy Expeditionary medal, two National Defense Service Medals, Armed
Forces Expeditionary Medal, Armed Forces Reserve Medal, and various
unit and service awards. U.S. Naval Test Pilot School Instructor of
the Year (1984).
EXPERIENCE: Readdy graduated from Annapolis in 1974, and was
designated a naval aviator in September 1975 at Beeville, Texas. Following
training in the A-6 Intruder at VA-42 Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia,
he joined Attack Squadron 85 aboard the USS Forrestal deployed to the
North Atlantic and Mediterranean from 1976 until 1980.
Upon completion of the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River,
Maryland, he served as project pilot on a variety of test programs while
assigned to the Strike Aircraft Test Directorate. Following a short
tour as an instructor pilot at the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, he
reported in 1984 to the USS Coral Sea, on Caribbean and Mediterranean
In October 1986 Readdy accepted a Naval Reserve commission and joined
NASA as a research pilot. He is affiliated with the U.S. Naval Reserve,
and is assigned to the Naval Space Command.
He has logged over 7,000 flying hours in over 60 types of fixed wing
and helicopters and over 550 carrier landings.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Readdy joined NASA's Johnson Space Center in
October 1986 as an aerospace engineer and instructor pilot at Ellington
Field, Houston, Texas, where he served as program manager for the Shuttle
Carrier Aircraft. He was selected as an astronaut by NASA in the 1987
His technical assignments to date include: Orbiter Subsystems, Orbiter
Landing and Rollout; Orbiter Project Staff; SAIL; Training Officer;
Safety Officer; Operations Development Branch Chief; NASA Director of
Operations, Star City, Russia; and the first manager of Space Shuttle
Program Development charged with upgrading the Space Shuttle to support
human space flight into the next century.
A veteran pilot astronaut with three space flights, STS-42 (January
22-30, 1992), STS-51 (September 12-22, 1993) and STS-79 (September 16-26,
1996), he has logged over 672 hours in space. STS-79 rendezvoused and
docked with the Russian Space Station Mir, transferred over 3.5 tons
of supplies to and from the Mir and exchanged U.S. astronauts on Mir
for the first time - leaving John Blaha and bringing Shannon Lucid home
after her record six months stay aboard Mir. Readdy is currently assigned
to the Office of Space Flight at NASA Headquarters as Deputy Associate
Administrator. He remains on flight status and is eligible for future
Space Shuttle mission command.
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
W. Wilcutt, Pilot
NAME: Terrence W. Wilcutt (Colonel, USMC) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born October 31, 1949, in Russellville, Kentucky.
Enjoys flying, running, weight lifting, woodworking.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Southern High School, Louisville,
Kentucky in 1967; received a bachelor of arts degree in math from Western
Kentucky University in 1974.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of Society of Experimental Test Pilots
SPECIAL HONORS: Distinguished Flying Cross, Defense Superior
Service Medal,Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Pritchard Committee
for Academic Excellence, NASA Space Flight Medals (4), Navy Commendation
Medal, and Sea Service Deployment Ribbon. Distinguished Graduate of
the United States Naval Test Pilot School.
EXPERIENCE: After graduation from college in 1974, Wilcutt taught
high school math for two years prior to entering the Marine Corps. He
was commissioned in 1976 and earned his wings in 1978. Following initial
F-4 Phantom training in VMFAT-101, he reported to VMFA-235, Kaneohe,
Hawaii. While assigned to VMFA-235, Wilcutt attended the Naval Fighter
Weapons School (Topgun) and made two overseas deployments to Japan,
Korea, and the Philippines.
In 1983, he was selected for F/A-18 conversion training and served
as an F/A-18 Fighter Weapons and Air Combat Maneuvering Instructor in
VFA-125, Lemoore, California. In 1986, Wilcutt was selected to attend
the United States Naval Test Pilot School (USNTPS),where he earned the
title "Distinguished Graduate." Following graduation from USNTPS he
was assigned as a test pilot/project officer for Strike Aircraft Test
Directorate (SATD) at the Naval Aircraft Test Center, Patuxent River,
Maryland. While assigned to SATD, Wilcutt flew the F/A-18 Hornet, the
A-7 Corsair II, the F-4 Phantom, and various other aircraft to test
a wide variety of projects and classified programs.
He has over 4,400 flight hours in more than 30 different aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Wilcutt became
an astronaut in July 1991. Technical assignments to date include: work
on Space Shuttle Main Engine and External Tank issues; Astronaut Support
Personnel team at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, supporting Space
Shuttle launches and landings; technical issues for the Astronaut Office
Operations Development Branch; NASA Director of Operations at the Yuri
Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia; Chief of the Astronaut
Office Shuttle Operations Branch.
He was the pilot on STS-68 in 1994 and STS-79 in 1996, and was the
mission commander on STS-89 in 1998 and STS-106 in 2000. A veteran of
four space flights, Wilcutt has logged over 1,007 hours in space.
STS-68 Endeavour (September 30 to October 11, 1994) was part of NASAís
Mission to Planet Earth. STS-68, Space Radar Lab-2 (SRL-2), was the
second flight of three advanced radars called SIR-C/X-SAR (Spaceborne
Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar), and a carbon-monoxide
pollution sensor, MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites).
SIR-C/X-SAR and MAPS operated together in Endeavourís cargo bay to study
Earthís surface and atmosphere, creating radar images of Earthís surface
environment and mapping global production and transport of carbon monoxide
pollution. Real-time crew observations of environmental conditions,
along with over 14,000 photographs aided the science team in interpreting
the SRL data. The SRL-2 mission was a highly successful test of technology
intended for long-term environmental and geological monitoring of planet
Earth. STS-68 launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and landed
at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 11 days,
5 hours, 46 minutes, traveling 4.7 million miles in 183 orbits of the
STS-79 Atlantis (September 16-26, 1996), the fourth in the joint American-Russian
Shuttle-Mir series of missions, launched from and returned to land at
Kennedy Space Center, Florida. STS-79 rendezvoused with the Russian
MIR space station and ferried supplies, personnel, and scientific equipment
to this base 240 miles above the Earth. The crew transferred over 3.5
tons of supplies to and from the Mir and exchanged U.S. astronauts on
Mir for the first time - leaving John Blaha and bringing Shannon Lucid
home after her record six months stay aboard Mir. Mission duration was
10 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes, traveling 3.9 million miles in 159 orbits
of the Earth.
STS-89 (January 22-31, 1998), was the eighth Shuttle-Mir docking mission
during which the crew transferred more than 9,000 pounds of scientific
equipment, logistical hardware and water from Space Shuttle Endeavour
to Mir. In the fifth and last exchange of a U.S. astronaut, STS-89 delivered
Andy Thomas to Mir and returned with David Wolf. Mission duration was
8 days, 19 hours and 47 seconds, traveling 3.6 million miles in 138
orbits of the Earth.
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
D. Akers, Mission Specialist
NAME: Tom Akers (Colonel, USAF, Ret.) NASA Astronaut (former)
PERSONAL DATA: Born May 20, 1951, in St. Louis, Missouri, but
raised and educated in his hometown of Eminence, Missouri. Married to
the former Kaye Lynn Parker of Eminence, Missouri. They have two grown
children. Tom enjoys hunting, fishing, restoring automobiles, and spending
time with his family. His parents, Walter and Arlie Akers, are both
EDUCATION: Graduated from Eminence High School, Eminence, Missouri,
in 1969; received bachelor and master of science degrees in applied
mathematics from the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1973 and 1975,
SPECIAL HONORS: High School Valedictorian. Graduated Summa Cum
Laude with a class rank of #1 from University of Missouri-Rolla. Named
a Distinguished Graduate of USAF Officer Training School, Squadron Officers
School, and Test Pilot School. Recipient of the Department of Defense
Superior Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters; Legion of Merit Award;
Department of Defense Meritorious Service Medal; USAF Meritorious Service
Medal; USAF Commendation Medal; USAF Achievement Medal; NASA Distinguished
Service Medal; two NASA Exceptional Service Medals; four NASA Space
Flight Medals. Awarded an honorary Doctorate of Engineering from the
University of Missouri-Rolla in 1992.
EXPERIENCE: Akers was a National Park Ranger at Alley Springs,
Missouri, during the summer seasons from 1972 through 1976. After graduating
from the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1975, he spent four years as
the high school principal in his hometown of Eminence.
Joining the Air Force in 1979, his first assignment after Officer Training
School was to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, as an air-to-air missile
data analyst where he also taught night classes in Math and Physics
for Troy State University. In 1982 he was selected to attend the Air
Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. On completing
one year of training as a flight test engineer, in 1983 he was reassigned
to Eglin Air Force Base, where he worked on a variety of weapons development
programs, flying F-4, F-15, and T-38 aircraft until he was selected
for the astronaut program. He has logged over 2,500 hours flying time
in 25 different types of aircraft.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Akers was selected for the astronaut program
in 1987. Positions held since then include: Astronaut Office focal point
for Space Shuttle software development; astronaut representative during
Shuttle software testing in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory
(SAIL); supported launch activities at the Kennedy Space Center; astronaut
representative for EVA activities (space walks); Deputy Director of
Mission Operations; Acting Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations,
and Assistant Director (Technical) of Johnson Space Center.
Akers left the astronaut program and NASA in August of 1997 to return
to the USAF as the commander of the USAFROTC Detachment 442 at the University
of Missouri-Rolla. Akers retired from the Air Force in October of 1999
and accepted a position as an instructor in the Math Department at the
University of Missouri-Rolla.
A veteran of four space flights (STS-41 in 1990, STS-49 in 1992, STS-61
in 1993, STS-79 in 1996), Akers has accumulated over 800 hours of space
flight including over 29 hours of space walking experience.
On STS-41, October 6-10, 1990, he was responsible for the missionís
primary payload, the Ulysses spacecraft. The STS-41 crew successfully
deployed the interplanetary probe and started it on its four-year journey
via Jupiter to investigate the polar regions of the Sun.
STS-49, May 7-16, 1992, was the maiden flight of the new Space Shuttle
Endeavour. The STS-49 crew successfully completed four EVAís (space
walks), three rendezvous, and a variety of secondary objectives. Akers
was one of a three-member EVA team who successfully captured the stranded
INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite). This was the
first 3-person EVA and the longest EVA (8.5 hours) in history. Akers
also performed a second EVA on this flight to evaluate Space Station
Freedom construction techniques.
On STS-61, December 2-13, 1993, Akers again served as an EVA crew member.
During the 11-day mission, the crew captured the Hubble Space Telescope
and restored it to full capacity through a record five space walks by
four astronauts. Akers performed two of these bringing his total EVA
time to 29 hours and 40 minutes.
STS-79, September 16-26, 1996, was the fourth Shuttle mission to rendezvous
with the Russian Space Station Mir. Akers was the flight engineer and
responsible for the transfer of over 3.5 tons of supplies to and from
the Mir. This mission also marked the first exchange of U.S. astronauts
on Mir - leaving John Blaha and returning Shannon Lucid home after her
record six month stay in space.
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
Apt, Mission Specialist
NAME: Jay Apt (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born April 28, 1949, in Springfield, Massachusetts,
but considers Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to be his hometown. Married
to the former Eleanor B. Emmons. They have two daughters. He enjoys
flying, scuba diving, camping, photography, model rocketry, and amateur
EDUCATION: Received a bachelor of arts degree in physics (magna
cum laude) from Harvard College in 1971, and a doctorate in physics
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1976.
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American Astronomical Society (Division
of Planetary Science), the American Geophysical Union, the American
Physical Society, Sigma Xi, and the American Association for the Advancement
SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of NASA Distinguished Service Medal,
two NASA Exceptional Service Medals, four NASA Space Flight Medals,
the Sergei P. Korolev Diploma of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale,
two Komarov Diplomas of the FAI, and three NASA Group Achievement Awards.
Winner of First and Second Prizes in the 1996 Aviation Week & Space
Technology Magazine Space Photography Contest.
PUBLICATIONS: Dr. Apt shared his images and knowledge in the
publication Earth in Orbit: NASA Astronauts Photograph the Earth, written
in conjunction with NASA scientists Michael Helfert and Justin Wilkinson
and published by the National Geographic Society. Results of Dr. Apt;s
research in physics and planetary science have been published in over
20 papers in professional journals.
EXPERIENCE: In 1976, Dr. Apt was a post-doctoral fellow in laser
spectroscopy at MIT. From 1976 to 1980 he was a staff member of the
Center for Earth & Planetary Physics, Harvard University, supporting
NASA's Pioneer Venus Mission by making temperature maps of Venus from
Mt. Hopkins Observatory. Dr. Apt served as the Assistant Director of
Harvard's Division of Applied Sciences from 1978 to 1980.
NASA EXPERIENCE: In 1980 Dr. Apt joined the Earth and Space
Sciences Division of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), doing planetary
research, studying Venus, Mars, and the outer solar system. In 1981
he became Director of JPL's Table Mountain Observatory. From 1982 through
1985, he was a flight controller responsible for Shuttle payload operations
at NASA's Johnson Space Center.
Dr. Apt is an instrument-rated commercial pilot, and has logged over
4,000 hours flying time in approximately 25 different types of airplanes,
seaplanes, sailplanes, and human-powered aircraft.
He was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in June 1985, and
qualified as an astronaut in July 1986. His assignments to date have
included Shuttle Orbiter modification support at Kennedy Space Center,
developing techniques for servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and the
Gamma Ray Observatory, development of EVA (space walk) construction
and maintenance techniques for Space Station, as a spacecraft communicator
(CAPCOM) for Shuttle flights, the voice link between the flight crew
and the Mission Control Center (MCC), and the Astronaut Office EVA point
of contact. He has also been the supervisor of Astronaut Training in
the Astronaut Office, and has served as Chief of the Astronaut Office
Mission Support Branch.
Apt flew as a member of the crew of the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the
STS-37 mission, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on
April 5, 1991. During the mission, the crew deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory
to study the universe by observing the most energetic form of radiation.
Apt and crew mate Jerry Ross performed an unscheduled space walk during
which they manually deployed the observatory's large radio antenna when
remotely controlled motors failed to do so. On the next day, they conducted
the first scheduled space walk in 5-1/2 years. They tested concepts
for getting around on large space structures, and gathered basic engineering
data on the forces a crew member can exert on bolts and equipment. The
crew alsoconducted research on biologically important molecules, tested
concepts for radiating heat from Space Station, operated an amateur
radio station, and took over 4000 photographs of the Earth. After completing
93 orbits of the Earth, the crew landed Atlantis at Edwards Air Force
Base, California, on April 11, 1991.
Dr. Apt was Endeavour's flight engineer on the crew of STS-47, Spacelab-J.
This eight-day cooperative mission between the United States and Japan
was launched on September 12, 1992, to perform life science and materials
processing experiments in space. Dr. Apt was responsible for operating
the Orbiter during one of the two shifts on this dual shift mission.
After completing 126 orbits of the Earth, the crew landed Endeavour
at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on September 20, 1992.
He flew again aboard Endeavour on STS-59, the first flight of the Space
Radar Laboratory, from April 9-20, 1994. As the blue shift commander,
he was responsible for operating Endeavour during one of the two shifts
on an 11-day mission to observe the land surface and oceans of Earth
with three imaging radar systems, and to map air pollution in the lower
atmosphere. The crew flew Endeavour through the largest series of maneuvers
in Shuttle history to point the radar precisely at hundreds of ecology,
geology, and oceanography sites, providing research scientists the equivalent
of 26,000 encyclopedia volumes of data. After completing 183 orbits
of the Earth, the crew landed Endeavour at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
Most recently, he served aboard Atlantis during mission STS-79, September
16-26, 1996. The crew docked Atlantis with the Russian Mir Space Station,
having ferried supplies, personnel, and scientific equipment to this
base 240 miles above the Earth. The crew transferred over 4 tons of
scientific experiments and supplies to and from the Mir station and
exchanged U.S. astronauts on Mir for the first time - leaving John Blaha
and bringing Shannon Lucid home after her record six months stay aboard
Mir. This historic mission of international cooperation and scientific
research ended at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, after 160 orbits of
With the completion of his fourth flight, Dr. Apt has logged over 847
hours (35 days) in space, including 10 hours and 49 minutes on two space
walks. He has flown around the Earth 562 times. Dr. Apt left NASA to
become Director of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh,
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
E. Walz, Mission Specialist
NAME: Carl E. Walz (Colonel, USAF) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born September 6, 1955, in Cleveland, Ohio. Married
to the former Pamela J. Glady of Lyndhurst, Ohio. They have two children.
He enjoys piano and vocal music, sports, and is lead singer for MAX-Q,
a rock-n-roll band.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Charles F. Brush High School, Lyndhurst,
Ohio, in 1973; received a bachelor of science degree in physics from
Kent State University, Ohio, in 1977, and a master of science in solid
state physics from John Carroll University, Ohio, in 1979.
ORGANIZATIONS: American Legion, KSU Alumni Association.
SPECIAL HONORS: Graduated Summa Cum Laude from Kent State University.
Awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal, the USAF Meritorious Service
Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal
with one Oak Leaf, the USAF Commendation Medal, and the USAF Achievement
Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster. Distinguished Graduate from the USAF
Test Pilot School, Class 83A. Inducted into the Ohio Veterans Hall of
Fame. Awarded three NASA Space Flight Medals, NASA Exceptional Service
Medal. Distinguished Alumnus Award, Kent State University, 1997.
EXPERIENCE: From 1979 to 1982, Walz was responsible for analysis
of radioactive samples from the Atomic Energy Detection System at the
1155th Technical Operations Squadron, McClellan Air Force Base, California.
The subsequent year was spent in study as a Flight Test Engineer at
the USAF Test Pilot School, Edwards Air Force Base, California. From
January 1984 to June 1987, Walz served as a Flight Test Engineer to
the F-16 Combined Test Force at Edwards Air Force Base, where he worked
on a variety of F-16C airframe avionics and armament development programs.
From July 1987 to June 1990, he served as a Flight Test Manager at Detachment
3, Air Force Flight Test Center.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Walz is a
veteran of three space flights, and has logged over 833 hours (34.5
days) in space. He served as a mission specialist on STS-51 in 1993,
was the Orbiter flight engineer (MS-2) on STS-65 in 1994, and was a
mission specialist on STS-79 in 1996.
Walz is assigned to the fourth crew scheduled to live on the International
Space Station (ISS-4). He will launch aboard a Space Shuttle in late
2001 and return aboard a Space Shuttle 4-months later. The crew of three
(two American astronauts and one Russian cosmonaut) will perform flight
tests of the station hardware, conduct internal and external maintenance
tasks, and develop the capability of the station to support the addition
of science experiments.
STS-51 Discovery (September 12-22, 1993). During the mission, the
five member crew deployed the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology
Satellite (ACTS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) with NASA
and German scientific experiments aboard. Walz also participated in
a 7-hour space walk (EVA) to evaluate tools for the Hubble Space Telescope
servicing mission. The mission was accomplished in 9 days, 22 hours,
and 12 minutes.
STS-65 Columbia (July 8-23, 1994). STS-65 flew the second International
Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) spacelab module, and carried a crew
of seven. During the 15-day flight the crew conducted more than 80 experiments
focusing on materials and life sciences research in microgravity. The
mission completed 236 orbits of the Earth, traveling 6.1 million miles,
setting a new flight duration record for the Shuttle program.
STS-79 Atlantis (September 16-26, 1996). On STS-79 the six member crew
aboard the Shuttle Atlantis docked with the Russian MIR station, delivered
food, water, U.S. scientific experiments and Russian equipment, and
exchanged NASA long duration crewmembers. During the mission, the Atlantis/Mir
complex set a record for docked mass in space. STS-79 was the first
flight of the double Spacehab module, and landed at KSC after 10 days
3 hours and 13 minutes.
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
E. Blaha, NASA-3 Mir Resident
NAME: John E. Blaha (Colonel, USAF, Ret.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born August 26, 1942, in San Antonio, Texas.
Married to the former Brenda I. Walters of St. Louis, Missouri. They
have three grown children and two grandchildren.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Granby High School in Norfolk, Virginia,
in 1960; received a bachelor of science in engineering science from
the United States Air Force Academy in 1965 and a master of science
in astronautical engineering from Purdue University in 1966.
ORGANIZATIONS: Association of Space Explorers; Purdue Alumni
Association; Society of Experimental Test Pilots; Air Force Academy
Association of Graduates; Chairman, Board of Directors Brooks Aerospace
Foundation; Member, Committee on Engineering Challenges to the Long
Term Operation of the International Space Station, National Research
Council Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.
SPECIAL HONORS: Russian Order of Friendship Medal, 2 NASA Distinguished
Service Medals, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, NASA Exceptional
Service Medal, 5 NASA Space Flight Medals, Countdown Magazine Outstanding
Astronaut of 1991, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit,
2 Air Force Distinguished Flying Crosses, Defense Meritorious Service
Medal, 3 Meritorious Service Medals, 18 Air Medals, Air Force Commendation
Medal, the British Royal Air Force Cross, the Vietnam Cross of Gallantry,
Purdue Outstanding Aerospace Engineer Award, and the Purdue Engineering
Alumnus Award. Outstanding Pilot, F-4 Combat Crew Training. Outstanding
Junior Officer of the Year, 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing. Distinguished
Graduate Air Force Test Pilot School. Distinguished Graduate Air Command
and Staff College. University Roundtable Annual Best and Brightest Award.
Grand Marshall Fiesta Flambeau Parade. Grand Marshall Battle of Flowers
Parade. Granby High School Hall of Fame.
EXPERIENCE: Blaha received his pilot wings at Williams Air Force
Base, Arizona, in 1967. He was subsequently assigned as an operational
pilot flying F-4, F-102, F-106, and A-37 aircraft (completing 361 combat
missions in Vietnam). He attended the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot
School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1971, and piloted the
NF-104 research aircraft to 104,400 feet. Following graduation, he served
as an F-104 instructor pilot at the test pilot school, teaching low
lift-to-drag approach, zoom, performance, stability/control, and spin
flight test techniques.
In 1973, he was assigned as a test pilot working with the Royal Air
Force at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe
Down, United Kingdom. During a 3-year tour, he flew stability/control,
performance, spin, and weapons delivery flight tests in the Jaguar,
Buccaneer, Hawk, and Jet Provost aircraft. In 1976 he attended the USAF
Air Command and Staff College. After graduation, he was assigned to
work for the Assistant Chief of Staff, Studies and Analyses, at Headquarters
USAF in the Pentagon. During this tour, he presented F-15 and F-16 study
results to Department of Defense, State Department, and congressional
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected as an astronaut in May 1980, Blaha
has logged 161 days in space on 5 space missions. He served as pilot
on STS-33 and STS 29, was Spacecraft Commander on STS-58 and STS-43,
served on Mir-22 as Board Engineer 2, and was a Mission Specialist on
STS-79 and STS-81.
In addition to flying 5 space missions, Blaha has served as the Chairman,
NASA Space Flight Safety Panel; Weather Manager, Mission Management
Team; lead spacecraft communicator; member, NASA Space Shuttle Improvement
Panel. Blaha also led the design, development, and integration of the
Orbiter Head Up Display system. Additionally, he led the development
of contingency abort procedures which significantly improve crew survivability
in the event of multiple main engine failures during ascent.
He has logged more than 7,000 hours of flying time in 34 different
aircraft, and has written numerous technical articles on spacecraft
performance and control.
John Blaha retired from NASA in September 1997 to return to his hometown
of San Antonio, Texas, where he joined the Executive Management Group
of the United Services Automobile Organization.
STS-29 Discovery launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March
13, 1989, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on March 18, 1989. During
this very successful mission the five-man crew aboard Shuttle Discovery
deployed the East Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, and performed eight
STS-33 Discovery (November 22-27, 1989). Launched at night, this five-day
mission carried Department of Defense payloads and other secondary payloads.
After 79 orbits of the Earth, this highly successful mission concluded
with a hard surface landing on Runway 4 at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
STS-43 Atlantis (August 2-11, 1991) launched from the Kennedy Space
Center carrying a five person crew. During the nine-day mission the
crew deployed the West Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, and conducted
32 physical, material, and life science experiments that supported the
development of the Extended Duration Orbiter and Space Station. After
142 orbits of the Earth, this very significant mission concluded with
a landing on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
STS-58 Columbia (October 18 to November 1, 1993) launched from the
Kennedy Space Center carrying a seven-person crew. This record duration
fourteen-day life science research mission has been recognized by NASA
management as the most successful and efficient Spacelab flight that
NASA has flown. The crew performed neurovestibular, cardiovascular,
cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and musculoskeletal medical experiments
on themselves and 48 rats, expanding our knowledge of human and animal
physiology both on Earth and in space flight. In addition, the crew
performed 16 engineering tests aboard the Orbiter Columbia and 20 Extended
Duration Orbiter Medical Project experiments. Landing was at Edwards
Air Force Base on Runway 22.
Blaha began Russian language training in August 1994 at the Defense
Language Institute in Monterey, California, and commenced an intensive
training program at the Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia
in January 1995. He launched on STS-79 on September 16, 1996. After
docking he transferred to the Mir Space Station. Assigned as a Board
Engineer 2, he spent the following 4 months with the Mir-22 Cosmonaut
crew conducting material science, fluid science, and life science research.
Blaha returned to Earth aboard STS-81 on January 22, 1997.
| Readdy | Wilcutt
| Akers | Walz | Apt
| Blaha | Lucid |
W. Lucid, NASA-2 Mir Resident
NAME: Shannon W. Lucid (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 14, 1943, in Shanghai, China, but
considers Bethany, Oklahoma, to be her hometown. Married to Michael
F. Lucid of Indianapolis, Indiana. They have two daughters and one son.
She enjoys flying, camping, hiking, and reading. Her parents, Mr. and
Mrs. Joseph O. Wells, are deceased.
EDUCATION: Graduated from Bethany High School, Bethany, Oklahoma,
in 1960; received a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from the
University of Oklahoma in 1963, and master of science and doctor of
philosophy degrees in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma in
1970 and 1973, respectively.
SPECIAL HONORS: The recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Lucid
most recently was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor by
the President of the United States. She is the first and only woman
to have earned this prestigious award. Dr. Lucid was also awarded the
Order of Friendship Medal by Russian President Boris Yeltsin. This is
one of the highest Russian civilian awards and the highest award that
can be presented to a non-citizen.
EXPERIENCE: Dr. Lucidís experience includes a variety of academic
assignments, such as teaching assistant at the University of Oklahomaís
Department of Chemistry from 1963 to 1964; senior laboratory technician
at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation from 1964 to 1966; chemist
at Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1966 to 1968; graduate assistant
at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Centerís Department of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 1969 to 1973; and research associate
with the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,
from 1974 until her selection to the astronaut candidate training program.
Dr. Lucid is a commercial, instrument, and multi-engine rated pilot.
NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1978, Dr. Lucid
became an astronaut in August 1979. She is qualified for assignment
as a mission specialist on Space Shuttle flight crews. Some of her technical
assignments have included: the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory
(SAIL); the Flight Software Laboratory, in Downey, California, working
with the rendezvous and proximity operations group; Astronaut Office
interface at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, participating in payload
testing, Shuttle testing, and launch countdowns; spacecraft communicator
(CAPCOM) in the JSC Mission Control Center during numerous Space Shuttle
missions; Chief of Mission Support; Chief of Astronaut Appearances.
A veteran of five space flights, Dr. Lucid has logged 5,354 hours (223
days) in space. She served as a mission specialist on STS-51G (June
17-24, 1985), STS-34 (October 18-23, 1989), STS-43 (August 2-11, 1991),
STS-58 (October 18 to November 1, 1993), and most recently served as
a Board Engineer 2 on Russiaís Space Station Mir (launching March 22,
1996 aboard STS-76 and returning September 26, 1996 aboard STS-79).
Dr. Lucid holds an international record for the most flight hours in
orbit by any non-Russian, and holds the record for the most flight hours
in orbit by any woman in the world.
STS-51G Discovery (June 17-24, 1985) was a 7-day mission during which
crew deployed communications satellites for Mexico (Morelos), the Arab
League (Arabsat), and the United States (AT&T Telstar). They used the
Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to deploy and later retrieve the SPARTAN
satellite which performed 17 hours of x-ray astronomy experiments while
separated from the Space Shuttle. In addition, the crew activated the
Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), six Getaway Specials,
and participated in biomedical experiments. The mission was accomplished
in 112 orbits of the Earth, traveling 2.5 million miles in 169 hours
and 39 minutes. Landing was at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California.
STS-34 Atlantis (October 18-23, 1989) was a 5-day mission during which
the deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore Jupiter,
operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV)
to map atmospheric ozone, and performed numerous secondary experiments
involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research,
microgravity effects on plants, and a student experiment on ice crystal
growth in space. The mission was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth,
traveling 1.8 million miles in 119 hours and 41 minutes. Landing was
at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
STS-43 Atlantis (August 2-11, 1991) was a nine-day mission during which
the crew deployed the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-E).
The crew also conducted 32 physical, material, and life science experiments,
mostly relating to the Extended Duration Orbiter and Space Station Freedom.
The mission was accomplished in 142 orbits of the Earth, traveling 3.7
million miles in 213 hours, 21 minutes, 25 seconds. STS-43 Atlantis
was the eighth Space Shuttle to land at KSC).
STS-58 Columbia (October 18 to November 1, 1993). This record duration
fourteen-day mission was recognized by NASA management as the most successful
and efficient Spacelab flight flown by NASA. The STS-58 crew performed
neurovestibular, cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and musculoskeletal
medical experiments on themselves and 48 rats, expanding our knowledge
of human and animal physiology both on Earth and in space flight. In
addition, they performed 16 engineering tests aboard the Orbiter Columbia
and 20 Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project experiments. The mission
was accomplished in 225 orbits of the Earth, traveling 5.8 million miles
in 336 hours, 13 minutes, 01 seconds. Landing was at Edwards Air Force
In completing this flight Dr. Lucid logged 838 hours, 54 minutes in
space making her Americaís female space traveler with the most hours
in space. Dr. Lucid currently holds the United States single mission
space flight endurance record on the Russian Space Station Mir.
Following a year of training in Star City, Russia, her journey started
with liftoff at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 22, 1996 aboard
STS-76 Atlantis. Following docking, she transferred to the Mir Space
Station. Assigned as a Board Engineer 2, she performed numerous life
science and physical science experiments during the course of her stay
aboard Mir. Her return journey to KSC was made aboard STS-79 Atlantis
on September 26, 1996. In completing this mission Dr. Lucid traveled
75.2 million miles in 188 days, 04 hours, 00 minutes, 14 seconds.