2. Rauschenbakh comment to author at 41st International Astronautical Congress, Montreal, Oct. 11, 1991
3. Pravda, Oct. 5, 1957, p. 1
4. In Rockets and Cosmic Space, a monograph published by Tsiolkovsky in 1903.
5. Pravda, Oct. 6, 1957, pp. 1-2
6. Pravda, Oct. 8, 1957, p. 3
7. Haviland telephone interview with author, May 22, 1995
8. Brill, Yvonne, one of the participants in the Rand study, letter to the author, June 15, 1995
9.Project RAND Report SM-11827, May 2, 1946, from Rand 25th Anniversary Volume, Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA, 1973, p. 3
10. Golovanov, Yaroslav, The Beginning of the Space Era, Pravda, Oct. 4, 1987, p. 3, translated into English in JPRS-USP-88-001, Feb. 26, 1988, p. 48
11. Vetrov, Gyorgi, private communication, June 13, 1995
12. Keldysh and Vetrov, Creative Legacy..., p. 343, and Tarasenko, Maxim, Military Aspects of Soviet Cosmonautics, Nikol, Moscow, 1992, p. 16. Tarasenko reports that the recommendation called for "development of a 2-3 ton satellite, a recoverable satellite, a satellite for a long orbital stay of 1-2 people and an orbital station with regular Earth ferry communication."
13. Mishin interview with author, Sept. 2, 1992
14. Keldysh and Vetrov, Creative Legacy...
15. Sagdeev, Roald, The Making of a Soviet Scientist, John Wiley, New York, 1994, p. 155
16. For a detailed account of the genesis of Project Orbiter see Stuhlinger, Ernst, and Ordway, Frederick I. III, in Wernher von Braun Crusader for Space, Krieger Publishing, Malabar FL, 1994, pp. 123-131
17. The full name seems a satire on Soviet bureaucracy. It was the Interdepartmental Commission for the Coordination and Control of Scientific-Theoretical Work in the Field of Organization and Accomplishment of Interplanetary Communications of the Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences
18. Krieger, F. J., Behind the Sputniks, Public Affairs Press, Washington, 1958, p. 330
19. Feoktistov interview with author, Moscow, Dec. 12, 1991
20. Avduyevsky, V. S., M. V. Keldysh Selected Works Rocket Technology and Cosmonautics, (Russian), Nauka, Moscow, 1988, p. 235
21. Ibid., pp 235-240
23. Grechko interview with author, Moscow, May 16, 1993
24. K. Gerchik, "Proryv v Kosmos (Breakthrough into the Cosmos)," Central Council of Veterans of Baikonur Cosmodrome, Moscow, 1992, pp. 77-78. The State Commission was chaired by Vassily Ryabikov. It included, besides Korolev himself, Marshal Mitrofan Nedelin, Gyorgi Pashkov, Valentin Glushko, Nikolai Pilyugin, Viktor Kuznetsov, Mikhail Ryazanski, Vladimir Barmin, Alexander Mrykin, S. Shishkin, I. Bulychev, Alexei Nesterenko, and A. Maksimov.
25. Ivanovsky interview with author, Moscow, Jan. 26, 1993
26. Strekalov interview with author, Moscow, Jan. 28, 1993
27. The Mir-Shuttle rendezvous was Strekalov's fourth orbital flight, although his fifth space launch. He and Vladimir Titov were successfully ejected by the launch escape system when their Soyuz T-10 spacecraft was engulfed by flames in 1983.
28. Zheleznov, Nikolai, Hello---(Bip-Bip) Scientist, Designer and Cosmonaut Speaking, Soviet Life, October, 1982, p. 35
29. Floriansky, Mikhail, October 4--For the First Time in the World, Moscow News Supplement, No. 40 (3288), 1987
30. Ishlinsky, Academician S. P. Korolev...p. 62
31. Rebrov, Col. Mikhail, Sputnik No. 1, Moscow News Supplement, No. 40 (3288), 1987, p. 3
32. US IGY officials had known of the Soviet plans since 1955 when Pravda had alerted its readers, and the delegates to the 1955 International Astronautical Congress in Copenhagen were informed as well. In June, 1957, an article appeared in the Soviet journal Radio, by one V. Vakhnin, alerting radio specialists on how to tune in on an orbiting satellite's signal.
33. Major General John B. Medaris, Von Braun's boss at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.
34. Astronautics, Nov. 1957, p. 6
35. Ibid., p. 17
36. Summerfield, Martin, Problems of launching an earth satellite, Astronautics, Nov., 1957, pp. 18- 21, 86-88
37. Le Figaro, Paris, October 7, 1957, pp 4-5
38. Kennan, George F., George F. Kennan Memoirs 1950-1963, Pantheon Books, New York, 1972, p. 140
39. Grechko interview
40. Van Allen, James A., Origins of Magnetospheric Physics, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, 1983, p. 49. Stuhlinger and Van Allen had begun discussions on the use of a satellite to investigate cosmic rays above the atmosphere more than three years earlier, in 1954, when Van Allen was at Princeton University. Also, Pickering communication with author, Mar. 18, 1996
41. Ibid., p. 93
42. Wilson, Glen P., Prologue, Quarterly of the National Archives, Winter, 1993, pp 364-70
43. These objectives are virtually the same as those developed at a conference at the University of Michigan on January 27, 1956, the results of which were published in Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites, University of Michigan Press, 1956
44. Sagdeev, The Making...pp. 156-57
45. Van Allen, Origins...p. 82
46. Ibid., p. 66
48. Ibid., p. 72. Van Allen reports that it was physicist Robert Jastrow who first used the term at a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Europe
49. Pioneers 1,2,3 and 4 were attempted lunar probes launched in 1958 and early 1959.
50. Van Allen, Origins...pp. 129-130. Letter from Van Allen to Robert Toth, New York Herald Tribune, Mar. 13, 1959