EP-107 Skylab: A Guidebook

 

CHAPTER III : Profile of the Skylab Mission

 

[11] Planning and early design work for Skylab started at a time when Project Mercury had ended and when the Gemini missions were beginning to accumulate experience in manned space flight. As plans for the project evolved during the 1960's, a number of other space projects of that period provided flight experience, technical data, and scientific results that proved most valuable for Skylab. In particular, the flights of the Apollo Program helped shape the profile of the Skylab mission. More than any other space flight project so far, Skylab encompasses a variety of mission elements of considerable complexity, among them the longest periods of weightlessness for the astronauts, the manned operation of a sophisticated solar observatory, a series of engineering tasks, scientific experiments inside Skylab, observations of the Earth, and biomedical studies by and of the astronauts. More than 270 different scientific and technical investigations will be supported by Skylab during its eight-month lifetime. In this chapter, the broad objectives of Skylab, the principal features of the huge spacecraft, and the basic plan for mission operations will be described.

 

1. MISSION OBJECTIVES

Skylab has the prime purpose of making spaceflight useful for man's endeavors on Earth. It will put knowledge, experience, and technical systems developed during the Apollo Program in service for a wide range of scientific and technological disciplines. Elements of spaceflight systems which have proven their capabilities on Apollo flights include propulsion systems, space power sources, guidance and control systems, communications and data systems, scientific sensors, life support system, Earth return capability, and ground support equipment. Skylab, representing the next big step in spaceflight development, has integrated these proven elements into a space System whose purpose is the practical utilization of space flight for earthly needs. These earthly needs cover a broad spectrum of human activities, including the expansion of our scientific knowledge in physics and astronomy, the study of our celestial environment, the production of new materials, the observation and monitoring of the Earth's surface, and research on living organisms, including man, under weightlessness.

[12] Design and operation of Skylab aims at the following objectives (Table 2):

 

TABLE 2. Major Objectives of Skylab.

Conduct Earth resources observations.

Advance scientific knowledge of the Sun and stars.

Study the processing of materials under weightlessness.

Better understand manned space flight capabilities and basic biomedical.

 

 

Growth of the population and improvement of its average living standard require a continuous increase of the efficiency and also the care with which the resources of the Earth are being utilized. Agrarian productivity, harvesting of timber, exploitation of new oil and mineral fields, urban and rural growth, control of water resources, and other large scale interactions of man with his environment will have to be observed, monitored, controlled, and even actively managed in the future if we hope to maintain a decent living standard for large portions of mankind. Comprehensive surveying on a global scale, with very quick access to results, will be possible from orbiting stations. Skylab will help us develop sensors for the observations and techniques for data evaluation and distribution which, as tools for worldwide management, will be indispensable for the orderly growth of mankind.

 

[13] The laboratory in orbit offers a unique opportunity to observe phenomena n the upper atmosphere, on the Sun, on other celestial bodies, and m the space between them, because Skylab will not be surrounded by the atmospheric filter that severely limits observational capabilities from the surface of the Earth.

 

Society's demands for more and greater technological capabilities frequently lead to the limits imposed by existing materials. Fabrication of some of these materials is impeded by the effects of Earth gravity. Examples include large single crystals as needed in semiconductor technology, alloys containing components of widely differing densities, and superconducting materials with three or four dissimilar components. Exploration of the possibilities for producing such substances in an orbiting laboratory could lead to future large-scale zero-gravity production facilities.

 

Certain trends and directions of future space flight activities have become evident. Man will use orbiting spacecraft because of their location above the atmosphere, because of their state of weightlessness, and because of their ability to see large portions of the Earth at one time. It is thinkable that future spacecraft could also be used for production plants whose output of heat and of polluting materials must be kept outside the Earth's atmosphere. It 15 also possible that future spacecraft will be needed to convert solar energy into useful electric energy for transmission to Earth. Undoubtedly, there will be other uses of orbiting satellites of which we have no clear idea yet, perhaps for therapeutical activities. For all these applications, there is a need to know the capabilities, limitations, and usefulness of man to live and work in space, and to act as a scientist, an engineer, a technician, an observer, a repairman, an evaluator, a medical doctor, a routine worker, a cook, a pilot and navigator, an explorer, a researcher, and simply as a crew member. Will the human body, which has been accommodated to the gravity field of the Earth ever since it has existed, readily adapt to life under weightlessness? Which instruments should be fully automated, and which should be man-operated? There is also a need to learn how the data systems can compress the enormous amount of data expected from Earth sensors so that only a selected portion need be transmitted to Earth stations. Man may have to play an important role in this selection and compression of observational data.

An orbiting laboratory offers a continuous state of weightlessness which cannot be obtained on Earth. It is believed that gravity may possibly be of influence in a number of biological and medical processes, such as the germination of seeds, the cleavage of cells, the growth of certain tissues, the regulation of metabolic processes, the adaptation of acceleration sensors, the control of cardiovascular functions, and perhaps the functioning of time rhythms Studying these processes under weightlessness will help us understand their basic mechanism and some of the fundamental laws which govern live organisms.

[14] In many respects, experience gained with Skylab will have a decisive influence on the further structure and conduct of space flight.

 

2. SKYLAB ELEMENTS

Fig. 7 shows Skylab in orbit. Its largest element is the Orbital Workshop (OWS), a cylindrical container of 15 meters (48 ft) length and 6.5 m (22 ft) diameter. The basic structure of this OWS is the third stage, or S-IVB stage, of the Saturn V which served as launch vehicle in the Apollo Program.

 


Figure 7. Skylab in orbit. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 7. Skylab in orbit.

 

This stage has been modified internally to work as a large orbiting space capsule rather than a propulsive stage. In designing the OWS as a place where a three-man crew can live and work for periods up to eight weeks, emphasis had to be shifted from the spartan austerity of earlier spacecraft to roomier, more comfortable accommodations.

Crew members will spend most of their time in the OWS, conducting experiments, making observations, eating, sleeping, and attending to their personal needs and wants.

Two further important elements are the Airlock Module (AM) (Fig. 8) and the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), (Fig. 9). The AM enables crew members to make brief excursions outside Skylab as required for experiment support. Separated from the Workshop and the MDA by doors, the AM can be evacuated for egress or ingress of a space-suited astronaut through a side hatch. Oxygen and nitrogen storage tanks needed for Skylab's life support system are mounted on the external trusswork of the AM. Major components in the AM include Skylab's electric power control and distribution station, environmental control system, communications system, and data handling and recording systems. The AM may be called the "nerve center" of Skylab.

 


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Figure 8. Airlock Module (AM). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 8. Airlock Module (AM).


Figure 9. Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 9. Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA).

 

[16] Forward of the AM is the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) which provides docking facilities for the Command and Service Module (CSM). Under normal operations, the CSM will dock at the forward end of the MDA (Fig. 10). in case of an emergency, a side docking port can be used. Two CSM's could even dock simultaneously, if the need should arise. Besides providing mechanical support for the Apollo Telescope Mount, the MDA also accommodates several experiment systems, among them the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP), the materials processing facility, and the control and display console needed for ATM solar astronomy studies.

The CSM that serves as Skylab's transportation system and communications center is an example of how Apollo-proven systems are used on Skylab. Each of the three CSM's to be used with Skylab has been modified to meet specific requirements. A rescue kit has been developed for use if needed which will enable a CSM to carry as many as five astronauts back to Earth.

The external experiment assembly known as the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM, Fig. 11), contains eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to X-rays. These instruments, together with auxiliary equipment, have been integrated into a common system as shown in Fig. 12. During launch, the ATM module will be in an axial position, as shown in Fig. 13. As soon as Skylab reaches orbit, the ATM and its windmill-like solar cell array that converts solar energy to electric power for Skylab will be deployed, and Skylab Will be oriented so that ATM instruments and solar cell panels face the Sun.

The ATM control moment gyro system provides the primary attitude control for Skylab. An independent pointing control system of limited angular freedom will allow precise pointing of the solar astronomy experiments.

 


Figure 10. The Command and Service Module (CSM) docked with Skylab An astronaut is performing Extravehicular Activity (EVA) at the front end of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 10. The Command and Service Module (CSM) docked with Skylab An astronaut is performing Extravehicular Activity (EVA) at the front end of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM).


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Figure 11. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 11. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM).


Figure 12. Cross sections through Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), showing individual telescopes. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 12. Cross sections through Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), showing individual telescopes.


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Figure 13. Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) and other Skylab components in launch configuration on top of Saturn V. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 13. Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) and other Skylab components in launch configuration on top of Saturn V.

 

3. MISSION PLAN

Skylab, consisting of Orbital Workshop, Airlock Module, Multiple Docking Adapter, and Apollo Telescope Mount, will be launched as one unit with a two-stage Saturn V launch vehicle (Fig. 14). After arrival in orbit, ....

 


Figure 14. Skylab, packaged for launch on top of Saturn V. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 14. Skylab, packaged for launch on top of Saturn V.

 

[19] ...and after the maneuver of rotation and deployment, all systems will be confirmed as operationally ready, by automated or by remotely controlled actions One day after Skylab launch, the first crew of three astronauts will be launched in the Command and Service Module by a Saturn 1B launch vehicle After docking with Skylab, the crew will check out and fully activate all systems, Skylab will then be ready for its first operational period of 28 days (Fig. 15) At the end of this period, the crew will return to Earth with the CSM, and Skylab will continue some of its activities over a two-month period of unmanned operation. Three months after the first crew launch, the second three-man crew will be launched with the second Saturn IB, this time for a 56-day period of manned operation. After return of the second crew to Earth, Skylab will operate in its unmanned mode for a month. The third three-man crew will then be launched with the third Saturn IB, again for a 56-day period in orbit. Although Skylab will remain in orbit for years after the third crew has returned, unmanned operation of Skylab will continue only for a short time because some of the Skylab systems will reach the end of their design lifetimes.

Total Skylab mission activities will cover a period of roughly eight months. The distribution of manned and unmanned phases is shown in Fig. 16. The initial step in the Skylab mission will be the launch of a two-stage Saturn V booster, consisting of the S-IC first stage and the S-II second stage, from Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida (Fig. 17). its payload will be the unmanned Skylab, which consists of the Orbital Workshop (OWS), the Airlock Module (AM), the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), and an instrument Unit (IU).

 


Figure 15. Launch sequence of Skylab and three manned Command and Service Modules (CSM). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 15. Launch sequence of Skylab and three manned Command and Service Modules (CSM).


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Figure 16. Manned and unmanned phases of the Skylab mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 16. Manned and unmanned phases of the Skylab mission.

 

Skylab will be inserted into a near-circular orbit at an altitude of 432 km (268 statute miles or 234 nautical miles) with an orbital inclination of 50 degrees to the Earth's equator (Fig. 18). Fig. 19 shows the Skylab. with shroud in launch configuration shortly after separation from the second stage of the Saturn V. After launch, the following events will occur (Fig. 20):

Jettison of the Payload Shroud,
Deployment of the Apollo Telescope Mount,
Extension of the ATM solar arrays,
Rotation of the vehicle until the ATM solar arrays point at the sun,
Extension of the Orbital Workshop solar arrays,

Pressurization of the habitable areas to 34,000 Nm-2 (one-third of an atmosphere, or 5 psi) 1. The breathing gas consists of 74 percent oxygen and 26 percent nitrogen (by volume).

About 24 hours after the Skylab launch, the manned CSM will be launched with the three astronauts who will occupy Skylab for 28 days. This launch, taking off from Launch Complex 39B, will use a Saturn IB to boost the Command and Service Module (Fig. 21) with three astronauts into an interim elliptical orbit with a perigee of 149 km (93 statute miles or 80 nautical miles), and an apogee of 223 km (138 statute miles or 120 nautical miles). From this interim orbit, the CSM will use the Service Module propulsion system to transfer to the Skylab orbit (432 km or 268 statute miles or 234 nautical miles) in order to rendezvous with the spacecraft and to dock at the end port of the Multiple Docking Adapter (Fig. 22). This docking will complete the Skylab cluster.

 


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Figure 17. Saturn V with Skylab on the launch tower. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 17. Saturn V with Skylab on the launch tower.


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Figure 18. Coverage of a broad region on the earth's surface by Skylab. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 18. Coverage of a broad region on the earth's surface by Skylab.


Figure 19. Separation of the Skylab (with shroud) from the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 19. Separation of the Skylab (with shroud) from the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle.

 

The astronaut crew will enter and activate Skylab for its manned missions. Only the essential elements of communications, instrumentation, and thermal control systems of the CSM will remain in operation.

During the 28 days of the first manned mission, the astronaut crew on Skylab will conduct experiment programs and evaluate the habitability of Skylab (Fig. 23). it is planned to obtain data from all but a few experiments during, this mission. At the end of the 28-day period, the astronaut crew will prepare the cluster for unmanned operation, transfer to the CSM, and separate from Skylab. A deceleration maneuver,.....

 


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Figure 20. Launch and deployment phases of Skylab during the first mission day. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 20. Launch and deployment phases of Skylab during the first mission day.

 

...executed by firing the Service Module engine, will cause the CSM to lose velocity and reenter the atmosphere. Shortly before reentry, the Command Module will separate from the Service Module and a little later will descend by parachute to the Pacific recovery area (Fig. 24).

The second manned mission will start with another Saturn IB launch from Complex 39B approximately 60 days after return of the first crew. Orbit insertion, rendezvous, and docking procedures will follow the pattern of the previous flight. Activities performed by the crew after transfer to Skylab will be similar to those in the previous mission, however, mote emphasis will be placed on solar astronomy and Earth resources observations. The mission duration will be increased to 56 days, with recovery again in the Pacific.

The third manned mission again will be launched from Launch Complex 39B about 30 days after the second crew has returned. In this mission, also of 56 days, the Skylab experiment program will be continued, and additional statistical data will be obtained on the crew's adaptability and performance. Recovery of the Command Module with crew and data will occur in the mid-Pacific area.

Owing to its orbital inclination of 50 degrees, the trajectory of Skylab sweeps over a large portion of the Earth's surface. Crew and instruments on Skylab will be able to see about 75 percent of the Earth, including all of Africa, China, and Australia, almost all of South America, most of North America, and much of Europe and northern Asia. The pattern of ground tracks, illustrated in Figs. 25 and 26, will repeat itself every five days. At least one ground tracking station will be overflown during each orbit. However, there are periods up to about an hour's duration on each orbit during which Skylab will not be within radio or telemetry reach of any station. During....

 


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Figure 21. Saturn IB with the manned Command and Service Module (CSM) on the launch tower. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 21. Saturn IB with the manned Command and Service Module (CSM) on the launch tower.

 

....these periods, voice and data will be recorded on tape for quick replay and transmission while Skylab is in contact with one of the ground stations. A more detailed description of the data and communication system will be given in Chapter IV.2.c.

Unique in the Skylab Program is the ability to rescue astronauts in space, if the need should arise. This rescue capability exists because the Orbital Workshop offers long-duration life support in Earth orbit. The Skylab rescue capability is described in the next section.

 

4. RESCUE CAPABILITIES

The Skylab Program includes the capability to rescue astronauts under certain circumstances.

 


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Figure 22. Phases of launch rendezvous and desking of the Command and Service Module (CSM) with the orbiting Skylab during the second day of the Skylab mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 22. Phases of launch rendezvous and desking of the Command and Service Module (CSM) with the orbiting Skylab during the second day of the Skylab mission.


Figure. 23. Major program phases of Skylab during its entire mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure. 23. Major program phases of Skylab during its entire mission.


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Figure 24. Undocking, deorbiting, separation, reentry, and splashdown of the Command and Service Module (CSM) during the last day of the first manned mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 24. Undocking, deorbiting, separation, reentry, and splashdown of the Command and Service Module (CSM) during the last day of the first manned mission.

 

During each of the three Skylab visits, the astronauts will be transported to and from the orbiting cluster in a modified Apollo Command and Service Module. .After docking the Skylab activation, the CSM will be powered down, but it will remain available for life support and normal crew return. It always will be ready for quick occupation by the astronauts in the event of a serious failure in the cluster.

The Skylab cluster's ample supplies and long-duration life support capability make it possible to rescue the astronauts in the event that the CSM which brought them up to the cluster becomes unuseable for recovery. Therefore, the only failures to be considered for rescue requirements are loss of CSM return capability or loss of accessibility to the CSM. In either of these events, a second CSM would be launched with two men on board and with room for the three astronauts to be picked up in orbit. The rescue CSM would then return with five crew members.

How long the Skylab astronauts would have to wait for rescue would depend on the time during the mission schedule when the emergency develops. The waiting time could vary from 10 to 48 days.

The three manned launches in the Skylab Program will be about 90 days apart. After each of the first two manned launches, the next vehicle in normal preparation for launch would be used for rescue, if needed. After the third and final manned launch, the Skylab backup vehicle will be kept ready for possible use as a rescue spacecraft.

If the need for rescue arose on the first day of Skylab's occupancy or reoccupancy, present work schedules indicate that it would take 43 days for the launch crews to ready the rescue launch vehicle and spacecraft. This time includes 22 days which would be required to refurbish the launch tower at Pad B of Complex 39 following the previous launch. During this period, the specially-developed Command Module rescue kit would he installed a task which would take only about eight hours.

 


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Figures 25 & 26 - Ground tracks of Skylab during selected days of its mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figures 25 & 26 - Ground tracks of Skylab during selected days of its mission.

 

[28] The later during a mission the need for rescue arises, the sooner the rescue vehicle could be made ready for launch. Launch readiness time will be reduced to 28 days at the end of the first manned visit and to 10 days at the end of the third mission.

To convert the standard CSM to a rescue vehicle, the storage lockers would be removed and replaced with two crew couches to accommodate a total of five crewmen. (Fig. 27.)

Prior to rescue, the stranded Skylab crew members would don pressure suits and enter the Multiple Docking Adapter, seal it off from the remainder of the cluster, and depressurize it. Then they would install a special springloaded device to separate the disabled CSM from the axial port of the MDA at sufficient velocity to move it out of the way of the arriving rescue CSM. However, this is not absolutely necessary. The arriving CSM could also dock at the radial (side) docking port of the MDA. In this position, which is a contingency mode, limited but sufficient stay time would be available for full rescue operations.

Providing rescue modes for all conceivable emergency situations would require instantaneous rescue response, a capability not feasible with present space vehicles because of elaborate launch preparations. Faster response must await a new generation of space transportation systems such as the Space Shuttle. However, the planned rescue techniques for Skylab will cover the most likely emergency situations, adding a new dimension of flexibility and safety to manned space flight.

 

5. CREW ACTIVITIES

During each of the manned periods, a typical crew day consists of eight hours per crewman for experiment activities; eight hours for eating, personal.....

 


Figure 27. Command Module, modified for rescue operations by removal of storage lockers, occupied by five astronauts. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 27. Command Module, modified for rescue operations by removal of storage lockers, occupied by five astronauts.

 

[29] ....hygiene, systems housekeeping, mission planning, and off-duty functions; and eight hours for sleeping ( Fig. 28 and 29). As a rule, the three crewmen will sleep during the same period of eight hours when all the functions on board Skylab Will be automatic. During eating and off-duty periods, crewmen may slightly shift their activities in such a way that one member of the crew is always available for Sun viewing at the ATM console. Planned schedules for operation of the experiments during the first manned mission are illustrated in Fig. 30.

Some experiments will be operative continuously, others will operate on several or all days for limited periods, and still others will have only one short period of operation during a mission

Upon rendezvous and docking with Skylab, the astronaut crews will be primarily concerned with the following activities:

 


Figure 28. Astronaut activities during a typical 24-hour period. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 28. Astronaut activities during a typical 24-hour period.

 

These activities are discussed in detail in following paragraphs.

 

Activating, Operating, and Monitoring Skylab Systems

Individual actions of the astronauts during the activation period of Multiple Docking Adapter, Airlock Module, and Workshop after the CSM has docked at the axial port of the MDA are listed on the Manned Activation Schedule, Table 3. A similar schedule exists for deactivation of the cluster shortly before the end of the 28-day period of occupation. The activation and deactivation schedules for the other two manned periods resemble those for the first manned period.

An important function of the astronaut crew is to monitor the following subsystems and their functions on Skylab: attitude control, electric power, environment and thermal control, and instrumentation and communications.

These subsystems are discussed in detail in Chapter IV-2.

 

Operating the Experiments

The main floor of the Orbital Workshop includes an experimental work area immediately adjacent to the wardroom (Fig. 32). Primary medical experiments to assess the manner in which the astronauts are adjusting to spaceflight will be conducted in this area. To support these experiments,

 


Figure 29. Schedule of activities for the three astronauts during a typical day of the Skylab mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 29. Schedule of activities for the three astronauts during a typical day of the Skylab mission.

[31] TABLE 3. Manned Activation Schedule: First Manned Period

 

 

Time-day, hour, minute

Action

01:07:29

Dock CSM to axial port of MDA (reference).

Activate CM/MDA docking tunnel (30 min):

Turn on CM tunnel lights.

Verify integrity of CM/MDA docking tunnel pressure seal.

Open CM forward hatch pressure equalization valve.

Verify CM docking tunnel pressure.

Open & stow CM forward hatch.

Verify that docking latches are secure.

Change attitude & pointing control system control gains to docked configuration.

Remove & stow docking probe drogue.

01:07:59

Crew Functions (eating, sleeping, personal hygiene, etc- 11 hr 30 min).

01:19:29

Activate MDA/AM (2 hr):

Verify MDA/AM pressure/temperature.

Open & secure MDA hatch.

Close MDA hatch pressure equalization valve/pressure cap.

Turn on MDA interior lights.

Cap MDA vent line.

Turn on molecular sieve fans; A primary, B secondary.

Perform MDA initial entry inspection.

Activate MDA window frame heater & thermally condition film.

Turn on STS forward & aft floodlights.

Perform STS/forward AM initial entry inspection.

Turn on MDA/.AM and MDA area fans.

Activate STS controls and displays console.

Turn on AM duct fan.

Connect CM/MDA signal/electrical Power system umbilical in MDA tunnel.

Transfer single-point ground from AM to CSM.

Activate and check out caution and warning system.

Complete CM/SWS signal transfer circuits.

Activate and check out MDA/.AM speaker intercoms.

Switch AM coolant system from ground to manual control.

Install MDA environmental control system air interchange duct in CM.

Turn on CM duct fans.

Switch AM/MDA heater from ground to manual control.

Turn off OWS radiant heaters.

Activate MDA/AM environmental control system.

Activate .ATM controls and displays console/earth resources

experiment package cooling system.

Begin initial activation of ATM controls and displays console.

Verify matching of CM/SWS power systems.

Begin final activation of ATM controls and displays console

Verify that differential pressure across forward ATM hatch is 0.0 psid.

Open forward AM hatch.

Turn on AM lock compartment lights.

Engage EVA hatch handle retainer pin.

Verify that differential pressure across aft AM hatch is 0.0 psid.

Open Aft AM hatch.

Turn on Aft AM & OWS initial entry lights.

Position OWS heat exchanger fan switches to OWS position

 

[32] TABLE 3. Manned Activation Schedule: First Manned Period-Continued

 

Time-day, hour, minute

Action

01:21:29

Activate OWS (1 hr 30 min):

Verify OWS pressure.

Open OWS hatch pressure equalization valve.

Open OWS quick-opening hatch and lock in open position.

Cap OWS pneumatic and solenoid vent valve lines.

Perform OWS initial entry inspection.

Activate and check out speaker intercom station

Connect flexible duct from AM to OWS.

Install OWS fireman's pole.

Divert air flow from MDA to OWS.

Activate OWS duct fans.

Activate OWS controls and displays console.

Check out OWS caution and warning system.

Activate OWS thermal control system.

Release fire extinguisher from launch restraints.

Deactivate humidity control in OWS film vault.

Turn Off OWS initial entry lights.

Transfer equipment from CM to OWS.

01:22:59

Begin activation of OWS habitation support system. (30 min)

Inspect wardroom and steep/waste management compartments.

Activate OWS wardroom window heater .

Activate waste management system.

Activate food management system.

01:23:29

Crew functions (lunch, persona hygiene-I hr 30 min).

02:00:09

Complete activation of OWS habitation support system ( I hr s min).

Activate water system.

Check out trash disposal airlock.

Verify that contents are in stowage containers.

Activate and check out vacuum cleaner

Permanently stow docking probe and drogue in MDA.

02:02:04

Begin initial setup and checkout of experiments (2 hr 25 min).

02:04:29

Crew functions (eating, personal hygiene- 1 hr).

02:05:29

Complete experiment setup/checkout (3 hr).

02:08:29

Crew functions (personal hygiene thru 8 hr sleep -9 hr).

02:17:29

End manned activation (begin first on-orbit typical crew day).

 


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Figure 30. Schedule showing time allocations for Skylab experiments during first manned mission. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 30. Schedule showing time allocations for Skylab experiments during first manned mission.

 

....the astronauts will utilize such major equipment as the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device; Ergometer and Vectorcardiogram for cardiovascular experiments; Metabolic Analyzer for the pulmonary experiment, which also uses the Ergometer; the Rotating Chair for the vestibular (neurophysiology ) experiment; and the Experiment Support System which supports several medical experiments with displays, data handling, controls, and power supplies. These experiments are further described in Chapter V-3.

Scientific experiments will feature observations of the Sun with the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM). This solar observatory has several telescopes for studies of the Sun over a wide range of the spectrum. Astronauts will, through onboard displays, visually scan the Sun to locate targets of scientific interest (Fig. 33). They will assist in the alignment and calibration of the instruments, point them to the appropriate targets, make judgments of operating modes, and generally conduct a comprehensive program of solar investigation. The crew is to compensate as much as possible for any equipment failure to preserve the value of the ATM's scientific returns. Crew members will retrieve, through extravehicular activity, the photographic films on which solar data will be recorded.

Skylab's Earth Resources Observations will permit simultaneous remote sensing from orbital altitudes in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Data thus obtained will be correlated with information obtained simultaneously about some of the Same sites from aircraft and by ground...

 


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Figure 32. Work area for medical experiments within Orbiting Workshop (OWS). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 32. Work area for medical experiments within Orbiting Workshop (OWS).


Figure 33. Control and display console for astronaut operation of the Apollo Telescope Mount. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on separate page]

Figure 33. Control and display console for astronaut operation of the Apollo Telescope Mount.

 

[35] ...measurements The astronauts will acquire preselected primary or alternate targets' operate equipment associated with the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) such as sensors and cameras, and supply and retrieve film from the Earth Terrain Camera. Another major function of the crew will involve coordination with ground-based activities and Mission Control to update EREP operations.

The technological experiments will also be conducted in the MDA. In most instances, the involvement of man is a critical element in the successful accomplishment of these technological experiments. Data from these studies are extremely important in the development of future space projects for the conduct of scientific experimentation.

 

Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

The Extravehicular Activity performed by the astronauts is concerned primarily with changing cameras and film magazines on the solar telescopes, but samples also will be retrieved from the D024 experiment (Thermal Control Coatings, Chapter V-4-d and VIII). Each EVA excursion will last up to three hours from start of egress (leaving Skylab) to completion of ingress (entering Skylab). One EVA of three hours duration is planned during the first mission on Day 26 for the Thermal Control Coatings Experiment D024 and for ATM film change. Three EVA's for ATM film change will be achieved during the second mission and two EVA's for ATM film removal during the third mission (Fig. 34) .

Two crewmen will don their space suits for each EVA. One of them will execute the outside activities, while the other one will stand ready to help,...

 


Figure 34. Astronaut retrieving film during Extravehicular Activity (EVA). [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 34. Astronaut retrieving film during Extravehicular Activity (EVA).

 

[36] ....if needed. The third astronaut will stay in the Airlock Module during EVA where he will perform monitoring and housekeeping activities.

 

Personal Activities

To provide entertainment and recreation for the astronaut crew members during their off-duty hours, the following items are furnished: audio equipment, playing cards, library, dart game, exercise equipment, binoculars, and balls. This equipment is described in the following paragraphs.

Audio Entertainment Equipment. - A permanently located tape player provides monaural or stereophonic playback of prerecorded tape cassettes through speakers or headsets. For individual use, headsets with head-phone plugs are available along with headset earpieces for connection to the tape player. Forty-eight cassettes of either stereophonic or monaural prerecorded material selected by the crews are provided.

Playing Cards Equipment. - Four decks of standard playing cards are provided along with five card deck retainers and five card retainers to permit card playing under zero gravity. The retainers hold the cards in place as a deck (card deck retainer), or individually for player use (card retainers). Cards are played normally at the food table with the table top in place. The retainers are held to the table top by magnets.

Library. - Approximately 36 crew-selected paperback books compose the library.

Dart Throwing Equipment. - Twelve darts and a dart board are stowed on Skylab. The board has Velcro hooks on the back for placement at any convenient Velcro location in the OWS. The target side of the dart board has Velcro pile superimposed on a standard target face. Each dart is a standard dart with Velcro hooks substituted for the pointed shaft.

Exercise Equipment. - A stationary bicycle exercise machine will be on board (Fig. 35). in addition, each crew member will be provided with an isometric exerciser for in-flight exercising. Six hand exercisers, shaped to fit the hand, are also used to maintain grip strength.

Binoculars. - A pair of center-focus binoculars is also available.

Game Balls. - Three plastic-covered foam balls are furnished for recreation.

In addition to recreational activities, personal activities include sleeping, eating, and personal hygiene. These topics are discussed in detail in Chapter IV-2-d on Crew Accommodations.

 

6. CREW TRAINING PROGRAM

Success of a manned mission largely depends upon the astronauts' ability to perform their assigned functions properly and effectively. In a mission as complex as Skylab, thorough crew training is essential so that the astronauts can perform their many experiments and their housekeeping duties within the limited time of their missions, and even can respond to emergencies if and when these should arise.

 


[
37]

Figure 35. Astronaut training on the wheelless bicycle (Ergometer) within Workshop. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 35. Astronaut training on the wheelless bicycle (Ergometer) within Workshop.

 

Primary and backup crews for all Skylab missions have received identical training if a need should arise for crew replacement, substitutions can be made for a total crew or on an individual basis with minimum delay. Obviously, crew training is an indispensable factor in assuring the success of a mission.

Over 2,000 hours of formally scheduled training are required to develop the crews' operational and scientific abilities. This is equivalent to the classroom hours needed for a four-year college degree. These hours do not include the time of training-related activities for which a record cannot be readily established, such as study, physical exercise, informal briefings, and aircraft proficiency flying.

[38] Many areas must be covered in training: the Saturn IB launch vehicle system and its functions; operation of the spacecraft, including the Orbital Workshop and all the experiments, medical training for those possible complications that can be diagnosed and treated in orbit; photography; moving outside the Skylab (EVA, Extravehicular Activity) arid inside the Skylab (IVA, Intravehicular Activity) under the weightlessness of space; spacecraft fire training; inflight maintenance of Skylab systems; planetarium training for star fields, constellations, and specific celestial objects needed for navigation and for certain experiments; Skylab rescue operations; and modes of leaving the spacecraft under all preflight, inflight, and postflight ordinary and emergency situations on the launch complex, in flight, and in the water.

The astronauts received their training in four ways. First, they participated in numerous spacecraft and experiment tests conducted to insure faultless performance of all systems. This participation gave the crews valuable operating experience. Second, briefings on all Skylab systems were given to the astronauts in the form of lectures and demonstrations. Third, crew members participated in many of the reviews held during the development, manufacturing, and testing of Skylab components. On numerous occasions, astronauts suggested modifications of equipment and instruments which led to changes in the design of these components. The astronauts also took part in activities to develop operating procedures for instruments and systems. Fourth, the crews underwent systematic operational training, using training models and facilities, to learn how to perform all operational tasks, routine and emergency (Fig. 36).

Specially built simulators or trainers were used in many of these activities; by simulating major systems or components of Skylab, these training facilities enabled the crew members to practice operating procedures on earth (Fig. 37). A significant part of all crew training was done in these trainers.

The simulations included:

the Command Module Simulator which can simulate all the maneuvers of the actual Command Module;

the Skylab Simulator which was designed to provide systems and procedures training for Workshop functions;

the Command Module Procedures Simulator which was used primarily to develop skill in rendezvous and entry procedures;

the Dynamic Crew Procedures Simulator which supplemented the use of the Command Module Procedures Simulator and enabled the crews to practice launches and launch aborts.

 

Mock-ups, representing full-scale models of flight components, were constructed to establish or show dimensions and space requirements. These mock-ups, or trainers, were built from inexpensive materials; they usually did not contain operating subsystems. Among other purposes, mock-ups served the general familiarization of astronauts with Skylab components before the crews began simulator training Skylab mock-ups included the Command Module Trainer, Multiple Docking Adapter Trainer, Airlock Module Trainer, and Orbital Workshop Trainer. (Fig. 38, 39, 40).

 


[
39]

Figure 36. Astronauts training in Skylab mockup. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 36. Astronauts training in Skylab mockup.

 

Training for extravehicular activities and some intravehicular activities was performed to prepare the crew members for such tasks as leaving Skylab in the weightlessness of space in order to exchange film magazines in the cameras associated with ATM solar studies. Part of this training was carried out in airplanes of the KC-135 type which can generate a state of true weightlessness for periods up to about 30 seconds by flying through parabolic trajectories Zero-gravity flights of this kind enabled crew members to practice such activities as eating and drinking, maneuvering, and tumble and spin recovery under weightless conditions.

Skylab crew members also trained in a simulated zero-gravity environment offered by the Neutral Buoyancy Space Simulator at the Marshall Space Flight Center (Fig. 41). This simulator is a water tank, 12 meters (40 ft) deep and 22.5 meters (75 ft) in diameter, containing wire mesh mock-ups of Skylab modules (Fig. 42). Full-size replicas of all four major elements of the Skylab cluster-the Workshop, the ATM, the MDA, and the Airlock-were submerged in the tank. inside the tank, the astronauts wore pressurized space suits so weighted that they remained suspended in a relatively stable position, neither rising to the surface nor sinking to the bottom (Fig. 43, 44, and 45). Suspended in this "neutral buoyancy" condition,...

 


[
40]

Figure 37. Main floor Skylab Workshop mockup for training purposes. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 37. Main floor Skylab Workshop mockup for training purposes.


Figure 38. Astronauts having meal at the food table in the wardroom trainer. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 38. Astronauts having meal at the food table in the wardroom trainer.


[
41]

Figure 39. Workshop Trainer with biomedical equipment. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 39. Workshop Trainer with biomedical equipment.

 

...the astronauts experienced some of the characteristic features of weightlessness, although neutral buoyancy provides, of course, only a limited simulation of true weightlessness in space. In this watery environment, the astronauts rehearsed many routine and some special tasks of the mission, particularly activities outside the Workshop.

The Skylab training program began with background training around November 1970. It provided general information and orientation on spacecraft systems and experiments, participation in spacecraft testing, reviews of flight plans and procedures, and training in solar physics.

Special training began in January 1972, for individual activities such as experiment operation, simulation of certain specific elements of the flight mission, and extravehicular and intravehicular activity training. Integrated crew training began with simulators and trainers around February, 1972, giving the astronauts and the flight controllers experience in flight and orbital Operations. Finally, integrated mission team training began in November, 1972, to train each astronaut-controller team, and to give each astronaut experience in working together with the rest of the team. In this phase of training, the mission simulators were linked with the Mission Control Center, thus simulating the conditions of an actual mission.

 

7. SKYLAB CREW MEMBERS

Crews for Skylab were selected from the astronaut team, a group of men who are highly trained in many areas related to space flight (Fig. 46). Additionally, Skylab crew members have received special training in all Skylab operations.

 


[
42]

Figure 40. Astronaut training on the body mass weighing device in the Workshop trainer. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 40. Astronaut training on the body mass weighing device in the Workshop trainer.


[
43]

Figure 41. View of the large water tank at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center with a submerged Skylab mockup, used as a neutral buoyancy simulator. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 41. View of the large water tank at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center with a submerged Skylab mockup, used as a neutral buoyancy simulator.


[
44]

Figure 42. Full-size wire mesh mockup of Multiple Docking Adapter, used inside the water tank for neutral buoyancy training exercises. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 42. Full-size wire mesh mockup of Multiple Docking Adapter, used inside the water tank for neutral buoyancy training exercises.


[
45]

Figure 43. Two astronauts in space suits and a supporting diver during neutral buoyancy training exercises in water tank. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 43. Two astronauts in space suits and a supporting diver during neutral buoyancy training exercises in water tank.


[
46]

Figure 44. Astronaut within Multiple Docking Adapter mockup during neutral buoyancy training exercises in water tank. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 44. Astronaut within Multiple Docking Adapter mockup during neutral buoyancy training exercises in water tank.


[
47]

Figure 45. Astronaut exchanging film camera during simulated Extravehicular Activity (EVA) under neutral buoyancy in water tank. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 45. Astronaut exchanging film camera during simulated Extravehicular Activity (EVA) under neutral buoyancy in water tank.


Figure 46. Prime crewmen for the three manned Skylab missions. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 46. Prime crewmen for the three manned Skylab missions.

 

[48] There are three manned missions in the Skylab program The first, beginning in May 1973, is a 28-day mission. Crew members for this mission are:

Charles Conrad, Jr., Commander (Fig. 47) Dr. Joseph P. Kerwin, Science Pilot ( Fig. 48) Paul J. Weitz, Pilot (Fig 49)

Backup crew:

Russell L. Schweickart, Commander (Fig. 50) Dr. Story Musgrave, Science Pilot (Fig. 51) Bruce McCandless II, Pilot (Fig. 52)

 

The second manned mission will begin in August 1973. This Will be a 56-day mission. Crew members are:

Alan L. Bean, Commander (Fig. 53) Dr. Owen K. Garriott, Science Pilot (Fig. 54) Jack R. Lousma, Pilot (Fig. 55)

The backup crew, which also serves as backup crew for the third manned mission, consists of:

Vance D. Brand, Commander (Fig. 56) Dr. William E. Lenoir, Science Pilot (Fig.57) Dr. Don L. Lind, Pilot (Fig. 58)

 

Crew members for the third manned mission, also a 56-day mission, are:

Gerald P. Carr, Commander (Fig. 59) Dr. Edward G. Gibson, Science Pilot (Fig. 60) William R. Pogue, Pilot (Fig. 61)

 


[
49]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 47. Charles Conrad, Jr. Figure 48. Joseph P. Kerwin Figure 49. Paul J. Weitz, Figure 50. Russell L. Schweickart. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 47. Charles Conrad, Jr. Figure 48. Joseph P. Kerwin Figure 49. Paul J. Weitz, Figure 50. Russell L. Schweickart.


[
50]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 51. Story Musgrave. Figure 52. Bruce McCandless. Figure 53. Alan L. Bean. Figure 54. Owen K. Garriott. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 51. Story Musgrave. Figure 52. Bruce McCandless. Figure 53. Alan L. Bean. Figure 54. Owen K. Garriott.


[
51]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 55. Jack R. Lousma. Figure 56. Vance D. Brand. Figure 57. William E. Lenoir. Figure 58. Don L. Lind. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

[Left to Right, Top to Bottom] Figure 55. Jack R. Lousma. Figure 56. Vance D. Brand. Figure 57. William E. Lenoir. Figure 58. Don L. Lind.


[
52]

[Clockwise] Figure 59. Gerald P. Carr. Figure 60. Edward G. Gibson. Figure 61. William R. Pogue. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

[Clockwise] Figure 59. Gerald P. Carr. Figure 60. Edward G. Gibson. Figure 61. William R. Pogue.

 

[53] First Skylab Mission

Charles ( Pete ) Conrad (Fig. 47) flew on Gemini 5 and 11 and on Apollo 12 the second manned lunar landing mission, for a total of 506 hours of space flight. He holds the rank of Captain in the U.S. Navy. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Princeton University in 1953; a Master of Arts degree from Princeton in 1966; an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Lincoln-Wesleyan in 1970; and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Kings College, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1971. He was born on June 2, 1930, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

This first Skylab mission will be the first flight in space for Dr. Joseph P Kerwin (Fig 48), a Commander in the Navy Medical Corps. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from the College of the Holy Cross. Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1953, and a Doctor of Medicine degree from Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, ire 1957. He served also as a naval aviator, earning his pilot's wings at Beeville, Texas, in 1962. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, February 19, 1932.

The third crew member of Skylab's first manned mission, Paul J. Weitz (Fig. 49), is also a Commander in the U.S. Navy. As a naval aviator, he received five awards of the Air Medal and the Navy Commendation Medal for combat flights in the Vietnam area. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1954 and a Master's degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, in 1964. He was born in Erie, Pennsylvania, on July 25, 1932. He has not flown in space before

 

Backup Crew, First Manned Mission

Russell I. (Rusty) Schweickart (Fig. 50) served as the lunar module pilot on Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969. This was the third manned flight in the Apollo series, the second to be launched by a Saturn V, and the first manned flight of the lunar module. Although he served as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force from 1956 to 1960 and was recalled to active duty for a year in 1961, he is not now a member of the military forces. Before joining NASA in 1963, he was a research scientist at the Experimental Astronomy Laboratory at the Massachusetts institute of Technology (MIT). He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1956 and a Master of Science degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1965 from MIT. He was born October 25, 1935, in Neptune, New Jersey.

Dr. Story Musgrave (Fig. 51) has earned five college degrees; a Bachelor of Science degree in Statistics from Syracuse University in 1958; a Master's degree in Business Administration in Operations Analysis from the University of California, Los Angles, in 1959 a Bachelor of Arts degree in Chemistry from Marietta College in 1960; an M.D. from Columbia University in 1964; and a Master of Science Degree in Biophysics from the University of Kentucky in 1966. He has flown over 30 types of aircraft and holds instructor, instrument instructor, and airline transport ratings. He, like Russell Schweickart, is a "civilian" astronaut, not a member of the military forces He has not yet flown in space. He was born August 19, 1935, in Boston Massachusetts.

[54] Bruce McCandless II (Fig. 52) is a Lieutenant Commander in the U.S Navy. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Naval Sciences from the U.S Navy Academy, received in 1958: a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford university, received in 1965. He was designated a Naval Aviator in March of 1960. He was born June 8, 1937 in Boston Massachusetts. He has not flown in space as yet.

 

Second Skylab Mission

Alan L. Bean (Fig. 53) is a Captain and a pilot in the Navy. He was the lunar module pilot of Apollo 12, November 14-24, 1969, a mission that lasted 244 hours and 36 minutes. During this mission, Captain Bean spent 7 hours and 45 minutes EVA on the lunar surface. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Texas, received in 1955. He was born in Wheeler, Texas, on March 15, 1932

Dr. Owen K. Garriott (Fig. 54), Science Pilot on the second manned mission, holds a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, received in 1960. He also has a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Oklahoma, received in 1953, and a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford, received in 1957. He has not yet flown in space. Dr. Garriott was born November 22, 1930, in Enid, Oklahoma.

Jack Robert Lousma (Fig. 55) is a pilot holding the rank of Major in the Marine Corps. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Michigan in 1959 and the degree of Aeronautical Engineer from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1965. He was born February 29, 1936, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He has not flown in space before.

 

Backup Crew, Second and Third Manned Missions

Vance D. Brand (Fig. 56), Commander for the backup crew for these missions, was a commissioned officer and naval aviator with the Marine Corps from 1953 to 1957. When he joined NASA, he was an experimental test pilot and leader of a Lockheed Aircraft Corporation flight test advisory ,group. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business from the University of Colorado, received in 1953, a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Colorado in 1960; and a Master's degree in Business Administration from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1964. Mr. Brand was born in Longmont, Colorado, on May 9, 1931. Should he be called upon to fly on Skylab, he will have his first mission in space.

Dr. William E. Lenoir (Fig. 57), Science Pilot, is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1961, a Master of Science degree in 1962, and a Doctorate in 1965. He has served as instructor at MIT and in 1965 was named Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering. He is acting as an investigator in several satellite experiments and has continued his research in the areas of space engineering and physics while serving as an astronaut. He has not yet flown in space. Dr. Lenoir was born on March 14, 1939, in Miami, Florida.

[55] Dr. Don L. Lind (Fig. 58), Pilot, before his selection as an astronaut in 1966, worked as a space physicist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. He is a former naval aviator, earning his wings in 1955. Dr. Lind received a bachelor of Science degree with high honors in Physics from the University of Utah in 1953 and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in High Energy Nuclear Physics in 1964 from the University of California at Berkeley. He was born May 18, 1930, in Midvale, Utah. He has not yet flown in space.

 

Third Manned Mission

Gerald P. Carr (Fig. 59) is a Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel and a Marine pilot. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Southern California in 1954, a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1961 from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, and a Master of Science degree from Princeton in 1962. He was born in Denver, Colorado, on August 22, 1932. This will be his first flight in space.

The Science Pilot for the third manned mission is Dr. Edward G. Gibson (Fig. 60), who received his Doctorate in Engineering degree with a minor in Physics from the California institute of Technology in June 1964. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering from the University of Rochester, New York, in June 1959, and a Master of Science degree in Engineering (jet propulsion option) from the California institute of Technology in June 1960. After his selection as an astronaut in 1965, he completed his Air Force flight training in 1966. Dr. Gibson was born November 8, 1936, in Buffalo, New York. He has not flown in space before.

William R. Pogue (Fig. 61) is a Lieutenant Colonel and pilot in the U.S. Air Force. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Education from Oklahoma Baptist University in 1951 and a Master of Science degree in Mathematics from Oklahoma State University in 1960. He flew 43 combat missions with the Fifth Air Force in 1953 and 1954 during the Korean conflict. From 1955 to 1957, he was a member of the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds precision flying team. Colonel Pogue was born January 23, 1930, in Okemah, Oklahoma This mission will be his first space flight.

 

8. LAUNCH PREPARATIONS

Final assembly of the complete Skylab cluster took place in the Kennedy Space Center early in 1973. .Airlock Module and Multiple Docking Adapter, after being joined together at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation in St. Louis, were flown to KSC in the new Commercial Guppy airplane designed specifically to fly large cargoes. The plane, under contract to NASA, is operated by Aero Spacelines, Inc., Santa Barbara, California. The Super Guppy (Fig. 62), somewhat smaller than the new Guppy, transported the Command and Service Module from Downey, California, to KSC on July 18, 1972, and the Apollo Telescope Mount from JSC, where thermo-vacuum testing was performed, to KSC on September 22, 1972. The Instrument Unit was shipped by Super Guppy from the George C. Marshall Center to KSC.

 


[
56]

Figure 62. Air transport plane Super Guppy, transporting large Skylab component from manufacturing and test sites to Kennedy Space Center, Florida. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 62. Air transport plane Super Guppy, transporting large Skylab component from manufacturing and test sites to Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

 

On October 26, 1972. The four solar arrays for the ATM arrived at KSC in two separate trips in mid-December, 1972.

The Orbital Workshop with its solar power arrays, too big for air transport, v as loaded on a specially-equipped ocean-going vessel provided by the U.S. Navy's Military Sealift Command, the USNS Point Barrow (Fig. 63) and shipped from Seal Beach, California, to Port Canaveral, Florida, through....

 


Figure 63. USNS Point Barrow transporting large Skylab components from manufacturing and test sites to the launch site at Cape Kennedy, Florida. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 63. USNS Point Barrow transporting large Skylab components from manufacturing and test sites to the launch site at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

 

[57] ....the Panama Canal. The Payload Shroud was part of the same shipment. The voyage took approximately 14 days.

Assembly and successive testing procedures of the Skylab cluster are described in Chapter IV-B. The Skylab spacecraft was "stacked" on the Saturn V launch vehicle in the Vertical Assembly Building at KSC (Fig. 64) late in January; meanwhile, the CSM was mounted on the Saturn IB launch vehicle. The components of the Saturn V and Saturn IB launch vehicles had arrived at KSC by covered barge from the Michoud Plant in New Orleans on July 26, 1972, and on August 22, 1972. Integrated space vehicle testing of Skylab, including simulated flight tests of all systems, was performed during the month of February (Fig. 65). Early in April, the huge Saturn V launch vehicle with its payload was transported by crawler from the Vertical Assembly Building to the launch pad (Fig. 66). The Saturn IB arrived on its launch pad in March. The crawler transporter is a very large tracked vehicle (Fig. 67). it has a flat top surface 40 meters (131 ft) long and 34.8 meters (114 ft) wide on which it carries Saturn launch vehicles to the pads. Final tests of all components, and of the complete systems, extended over a period of two-and-one-half months in the Vertical Assembly Building. Particular care had to be taken during the last phase on the pad that the various instruments, particularly the solar telescopes in the ATM canister, did not suffer from environmental contamination.

Countdown for launch will begin about one week before lift-off time. The major steps of the countdown, such as fueling, battery charging, pressurization of the Workshop, and final checks, are listed in Table 4. The complete countdown list as used for the actual launching is a book with about 200 pages and 1500 individual line items (sequential operations).

 


Figure 64. Vertical Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 64. Vertical Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.


[
58]

Figure 65. Inside Vertical Assembly Building with the Orbital Workshop being put atop the Saturn V vehicle. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 65. Inside Vertical Assembly Building with the Orbital Workshop being put atop the Saturn V vehicle.


[
59]

Figure 66. Launch Pad 39A used for the launching of Saturn V vehicles. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 66. Launch Pad 39A used for the launching of Saturn V vehicles.


Figure 67. Crawler vehicle used for transportation of Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles from the Vertical Assembly Building to the launch pads. [small picture- it's a link to a greater picture on a separate page]

Figure 67. Crawler vehicle used for transportation of Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles from the Vertical Assembly Building to the launch pads.

[60] TABLE 4. Major Steps of Countdown for Launch (Times before Liftoff).

Action

Days

Hrs.

Min.

Sec.

Arrival on pad-

Saturn IB on pad 39B

71

0

0

0

Saturn V on pad 39A

30

0

0

0

Storage bottIes for gaseous oxygen and nitrogen filled

18

0

0

0

Countdown demonstration test completed

12

0

0

0

Move mobile service structure from pad 39A to pad 39B for first manned launch

6

0

0

0

Installation of ordnance (explosive charges) completed

3

2

30

0

Installation and activation of stage batteries

2

10

0

0

Validation of communication link for launch support completed

20

0

0

Clearing of launch pad

6

30

0

Launch vehicle propellant loading start

5

30

0

Range safety checks

4

0

0

Thruster attitude control system (TACS) cover jettison

2

30

0

Built-in hold

2

0

0

Launch vehicle power transfer test

39

0

Spacecraft (Skylab) switched to internal power

8

0

Spacecraft (Skylab) final status checks.

3

7

Automatic therminal sequence start (firing command).

3

7

Launch vehicle transfer to internal power

50

Verify launch sequence

30

Retraction of Saturn first stage (SIC) forward swing arm

16.2

Final checkout of systems (verify Saturn first stage [SIC] engine thrust)

1.9

Launch commit

T-0

Liftoff (first motion)

T+0.3


1 1 Newton per square meter= 1 Nm-2; 100,000 Nm-2 = .987 atmosphere = 14.5 pounds per square inch.