SP-168 EXPLORING SPACE WITH A CAMERA

 

SECTION THREE (2/2)

[174] MAN'S VENTURES INTO SPACE

 

"Here we are checking the various systems on our Gemini X Agena target vehicle prior to lighting its large engine for the first time," Astronaut JOHN W. YOUNG reports regarding this picture. "The Agena is also controlling our attitude, a convenient way of keeping us level, but one which doesn't allow a very good look at the world below. That little piece of blue and white in the lower corner of the window was all the scenery we saw for a day and a half."

Here we are checking the various systems on our Gemini X Agena target vehicle prior to lighting its large engine for the first time

GEMINI X

 

Above and Beyond

 

In the summer of 1966, Gemini IX and X left Cape Kennedy to continue rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and other experiments. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan completed 44 revolutions aboard Gemini IX, and John W. Young and Michael Collins completed 43 on Gemini X. The latter docked their spacecraft with an Agena target vehicle and then used its propulsion system to shift them into an orbit that reached an altitude of 475 miles.

Their cameras included not only the NASA-modified Hasselblad Model 500-C used successfully on previous flights, but also super-wide-angle Hasselblads with Zeiss Biogon 38-mm lenses and 70-mm space cameras with Xenotar 80-mm lenses.

The next five pictures are a sampling from the scores of photographs they obtained. The first one shows the western portals of the Mediterranean, and its eastern end can be glimpsed in the second picture. The latter shows the Gattara Basin in the United Arab Republic which has been considered as a possible electric power site since 1927. Here some 5130 square miles are about 164 feet below sea level. Replacement of water lost by evaporation from a lake formed in this depression could be used to generate power. The proximity of the Mediterranean offers an unlimited water supply. Photographs such as this from space can be extremely helpful in planning and developing hydroelectric power systems.

Views of thinly populated parts of Africa and North America follow, and the final photo in this group was taken on what Astronaut Cernan insists was "the most fascinating and beautiful trip a man ever made across South America." His course was one that would be arduous to follow on wheels. "Without blinking an eye," he says, "I could see the high Andes, Pacific Ocean, the great Altiplano with a jewel-like Titicaca, the rain forests of the Amazon basin, and the Chaco plains on down our orbital path."

 


[175]

GEMINI X

"Europe and Africa enjoying good weather-but not for long if that storm off Gibraltar is any indicator, MICHAEL COLLINS thought when he took this picture. "This is about as far north as we went on Gemini X," he noted later, "since we launched nearly due east from Cape Kennedy." Portugal and Spain are in the upper left, and Morocco is at the right. Although the range keeps one from seeing many details, the essential geologic unity of southern Spain and Africa is suggested in this photo by the obvious continuity of the Sierra Nevada and related mountains in Spain with the Riff Atlas in Morocco.

 


[176]

Over north-central Africa, looking northeast, Libya, the United Arab Republic, and the Sudan could be seen

GEMINI XI

Over north-central Africa, looking northeast, Libya, the United Arab Republic, and the Sudan could be seen. On the horizon are the Arabian Peninsula, the Red Sea, Nile Delta, and Gulf of Suez. "The prominent dark circular objects toward the center," says JACOB I. TROMBKA of the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, "are hills believed to be granitic extrusions. Beyond and above them is the Gilf Kebir Plateau. Just above this plateau is the Great Sand Sea. its dunes rise 150 to 300 feet. The change in colors can be attributed to the change from sand to rock and rock debris."

 


[177]

This photograph covers portions of Mauritania, Algeria, and Spanish Sahara to the extent of about 50 000 square miles, or about the size of Illinois

GEMINI IX

 

"This photograph", says WESLEY L. HJORNEVIK, Director of Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, "covers portions of Mauritania, Algeria, and Spanish Sahara to the extent of about 50 000 square miles, or about the size of Illinois. At the left in the Yetti, or 'White Plains,' numerous intrusive volcanic dikes can be seen. In the foreground are the long folded ridges of the Mechems, and the close relationship of the wadi (dry stream bed) system to the geologic rock structure is evident. This photograph provides a great deal of information about a remote and relatively unexplored region."

 


[178]

Gene Cernan recorded this clear view of Baja California and western Mexico

GEMINI IX

 

"Gene Cernan recorded this clear view of Baja California and western Mexico," says Astronaut ALAN B. SHEPARD, JR. "The view along the spacecraft nose is generally toward the southeast. The local time is midmorning with the Sun shining from the left. Because the spacecraft hatch was open, just visible at the right, unusual clarity exists in this photo. Although the offshore wind pattern is not noticeable without clouds, there is a fine example of vortex flow off Cabo de San Lucas, the southern tip of Baja California. Excellent study of drainage patterns is apparent in the foreground on the peninsula."

 


[179]

This sweeping view southwestward shows the Andes Mountains and Altiplano Plateau of Bolivia, the coasts of Peru and Chile, and the Pacific Ocean. Lake Titicaca in the foreground is the highest lake in the world navigated by steamships; 300 miles south, salt flats cover more than 5000 square miles. Bordering the Altiplano on the east (lower foreground) are 21 000-foot, snow-capped peaks

GEMINI IX

 

"This sweeping view southwestward," says JAMES F. SEITZ of the U.S. Geological Survey, "shows the Andes Mountains and Altiplano Plateau of Bolivia, the coasts of Peru and Chile, and the Pacific Ocean. Lake Titicaca in the foreground is the highest lake in the world navigated by steamships; 300 miles south, salt flats cover more than 5000 square miles. Bordering the Altiplano on the east (lower foreground) are 21 000-foot, snow-capped peaks. The great canyons cut into the Altiplano show where gaps between granitic bodies have permitted erosion. Thus the distribution of granite is revealed."

 


[180] Zodiacal Light

The glow we see briefly in the east before dawn, and in the west after twilight, is the zodiacal light. Scientists have long sought information about our solar system in this light. The picture here was taken for them above the atmosphere. The bright spot at the top is Venus. The zodiacal light is shown between Venus and the thin airglow band above the moonlit Earth.

 

The glow we see briefly in the east before dawn, and in the west after twilight, is the zodiacal light. Scientists have long sought information about our solar system in this light. The picture here was taken for them above the atmosphere. The bright spot at the top is Venus. The zodiacal light is shown between Venus and the thin airglow band above the moonlit Earth.

EDWARD P. NEY of the University of Minnesota points in this picture's uniqueness: "This photo was taken by Astronauts Stafford and Cernan on June 4, 1966, 4 minutes before satellite sunrise with a field of view of 130° by 50°. At the bottom of the picture is the Earth, illuminated by a nearly full Moon. The thin horizontal line 2° above the Earth's limb is due to the airglow layer. This is a self-luminous region of the Earth's atmosphere extending from 80 to 100 kilometers' altitude. The cone of illumination above the airglow layer which seems to point at the bright planet Venus is the phenomenon of zodiacal light. It is symmetrical about the ecliptic, which is inclined to about 45° with respect to the horizon in this picture.

"The zodiacal light is produced by sunlight scattered from dust grains in orbit about the Sun. The unique aspects of the space photograph are that the airglow layer is seen as a line because the spacecraft is above the airglow layer, and the zodiacal light is not distorted by the Earth's atmosphere as it is when viewed from the ground."

 


[181] And a Star's Spectrum

During two hours of extravehicular activity on Gemini Xl, Astronauts Conrad and Gordon photographed ultraviolet stellar spectra in six regions of the sky; here is a photograph of Canopus.

 

During two hours of extravehicular activity on Gemini Xl, Astronauts Conrad and Gordon photographed ultraviolet stellar spectra in six regions of the sky. The camera was attached to the spacecraft frame; Gordon stood up in the open hatch to operate it while Conrad remained in his seat to control attitude and time the exposures.

Of the photograph of Canopus above, astronomer KARL G. HENIZE of Northwestern University, who is now himself an astronaut, writes:

"The numerous short horizontal lines are zero-order images of background stars which are elongated due to a slight yaw motion of the spacecraft. The vertical streak directly below this bright zero-order image of Canopus is its spectrum. The lower portion of the spectrum shows lines due mainly to the familiar Balmer series of hydrogen. At the upper end appear several newly observed ultraviolet absorption lines, the strongest of which is the ionized magnesium doublet at 2800 Å. Other features are clue to silicon and to neutral and ionized iron.

"This photo was obtained with the 73-mm focal length, f/3.3 lens of the Maurer camera, to which a 600 line/mm diffraction grating was attached. The exposure time was 20 seconds.

"This spectrum is the first to show absorption lines in the 2200- to 3000-Å wavelength region of a star other than the Sun."

 


[182] Tethered Targets

From both Gemini Xl and Gemini Xll, an Agena target vehicle was photographed while tethered to the spacecraft. Astronaut RICHARD F. GORDON, JR., says of the picture of himself at work at the right: "This photograph shows me astride the nose of the Gemini spacecraft during the 'umbilical EVA' of Gemini Xl. This pose stimulated Pete Conrad to respond with the words, 'Ride 'em, cowboy!' The task involved was to attach a 100-foot Dacron tether to the docking bar on the Gemini spacecraft. This was the first time that two objects had been tethered together in space."

 

From both Gemini Xl and Gemini Xll, an Agena target vehicle was photographed while tethered to the spacecraft. Astronaut RICHARD F. GORDON, JR., says of the picture of himself at work at the right: <<This photograph shows me astride the nose of the Gemini spacecraft during the 'umbilical EVA' of Gemini Xl>>

In the lower picture on this page, says JOHN A. EDWARDS, Operations Director, Apollo Applications Program, NASA: "The Agena target vehicle is shown tethered to Gemini Xl. The 100-foot Dacron tether, with one end attached to the spacecraft docking bar and the other to the target docking adapter, was still in the process of extension at the time this photograph was taken, and the two vehicles are positioned such that the astronauts are looking directly into the clocking cone. Below the vehicles is the Gulf of California and Baja California at La Paz.

The objective of this operation was to evaluate the feasibility of station keeping two vehicles in space by gravity-gradient stabilization or by slow rotation of the tethered vehicles, thereby setting up an artificial gravity field. Because of initial difficulties in establishing a gravity-gradient-stabilized system, the two vehicles were 'spun up' by Command Pilot Pete Conrad shortly after this picture was taken, and 2 hours and 46 minutes of station keeping was maintained at angular rates of 38 to 55 degrees per minute."

The Agena target vehicle is shown tethered to Gemini Xl


[183]

"Working hard at the Agena work station, 'Buzz' Aldrin did not know when I took this picture of him through the left-hand window of Gemini Xll," reports Astronaut JAMES A. LOVELL. It occurred during his second trip outside and 'Buzz' was already establishing new milestones in man's ability to complete useful tasks in the void of space. The successful completion of the 5 1/2 hours of extravehicular activity during the Gemini XII mission helped to pave the way for future space missions."

Working hard at the Agena work station, 'Buzz' Aldrin did not know when I took this picture of him through the left-hand window of Gemini Xll.

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Astronaut EDWIN E. ALDRIN, JR., writes: This photograph was taken during Gemini Xll on November 12, 1966, during the first standup EVA. The camera used was a 16-mm Maurer movie camera which I had installed just after sunrise on the retroadapter aft of the open right hatch. The camera was actuated by the command pilot, Capt. James Lovell, using a remote cable assembly. The experiment package shown is an SO-12 micrometeorite collector, which also was mounted aft of the right hatch and had been opened and closed remotely from the ground for exposure during the first sleep period. Prior to removal, the blue tether with a brass hook was attached to the experiment handle. The photograph shows me in the process of temporarily stowing the experiment in the empty food pouch shown on the open hatch under my left elbow."

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This photograph was taken during Gemini Xll on November 12, 1966, during the first standup EVA. The camera used was a 16-mm Maurer movie camera which I had installed just after sunrise on the retroadapter aft of the open right hatch


[184]

CHARLES MATHEWS, then Gemini Program Manager at Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, points out: "This photograph of Gemini Xll pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., was taken on November 12, 1966, with a 70-mm Hasselblad mounted on the spacecraft while Pilot Aldrin was standing in the open hatch. In the lower left is a rear view of the 70-mm general-purpose camera used for Experiment S-13 as an ultraviolet astronomical camera. The objective of S-13 was to record the ultraviolet radiation of stars, using an objective prism and an objective grating. An analysis of the surface temperatures of the stars, of the absorption effects taking place in their atmospheres, and of the absorption effects of the interstellar dust will be made from the photographic data obtained. In addition to the acquisition of basic astronomical data, techniques by which objective prism spectra may be best obtained were determined. The practical experience gained will be useful in planning similar astronomical observations with large telescopes on future missions."

This photograph of Gemini Xll pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., was taken on November 12, 1966, with a 70-mm Hasselblad mounted on the spacecraft while Pilot Aldrin was standing in the open hatch

GEMINI XII

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FRANK A. BOGART, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight (Management), NASA, notes that: "This photograph was taken from Gemini Xll above the Pacific. It shows the spacecraft tethered to the Agena target vehicle, with both maintaining a preferred orientation. This exercise demonstrated the feasibility of achieving stabilized orientation between two maneuverable spacecraft at slightly different altitudes, connected by a flexible tether. At the beginning of the exercise the two spacecraft were docked-the tether having been connected during Astronaut Buzz Aldrin's 'umbilical EVA.' The vehicles were pitched to a vertical stable attitude, undocked, and separated, extending the tether. The second attempt to 'capture' or establish the gravity-gradient-stabilization mode was judged successful in that the orientation was held for approximately 90 minutes with all control systems turned off. This successful demonstration promises a most useful technique for station-keeping spacecraft with minimum fuel expenditure."

This photograph was taken from Gemini Xll above the Pacific. It shows the spacecraft tethered to the Agena target vehicle, with both maintaining a preferred orientation

GEMINI XII


[185] The Astronaut's Record Climb

 

The Gemini flights were intended in part to determine the feasibility of sending men to the Moon, to perfect equipment and techniques to get them there and back to Earth safely. Photography of the Earth was but one of many experiments undertaken on those flights, yet the astronauts brought back more than 2400 photographs of the type reproduced here. Many of their pictures were both strikingly beautiful and enlightening to scientists, and many suggested further uses for manmade satellites of the Earth.

The equipment was improved as the program progressed and various films were used, most of which had emulsion coatings and bases especially formulated to meet NASA specifications. Flight films were sent through a processing machine singly, under close surveillance, and none was lost because of a laboratory malfunction.

In September 1966, Astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., and Richard F. Gordon, Jr., photographed the Earth from an altitude of 853 miles, the farthest distance that men ever had gone from its surface. To attain this altitude, they docked Gemini XI with an Agena target vehicle and used its propulsion system to increase the apogee of their 27th orbit.

In December 1966, Astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., concluded this historic series of flights by undertaking more extravehicular activity and successfully performing 14 scientific experiments-which included taking more pictures indicative of the value of regular surveys of our planet's resources from orbiting observatories.

Experience was gained on all of the Gemini flights with the variation of spacecraft orientation during reentry into the atmosphere. On Gemini VIII, unexpected roll-and-yaw motion after the spacecraft was docked to an Agena target caused the astronauts to undock and stop the motion with a special control system normally used only during reentry. Analysis revealed that a short circuit in the wiring of a control thruster caused the trouble. On the last two flights, a spacecraft computer controlled reentry after initiation by the astronauts.

"The Gemini XI mission was our 'moment of truth' concerning extravehicular activity," Dr. CHARLES A. BERRY, Director of Medical Research and Operations, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, recalls, "for Dick Gordon experienced severe fatigue while he was connecting a tether from the spacecraft to the Agena. This resulted in our careful planning to test man's capability in extravehicular activity on Gemini XII."

There were no manned space flights by Americans in 1967. The next 10 pictures were taken on the Gemini XI and XII flights. The launching pad fire, in which three astronauts perished, resulted in major changes in plans and equipment, and NASA's 10th anniversary was marked by further tests preparatory to a manned flight to the Moon.

 


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186]

Across the center of this study in blue, a 600-mile stretch of the gulf coast of Iran is visible

GEMINI XI

 

"Across the center of this study in blue, a 600-mile stretch of the gulf coast of Iran is visible," says DAVID M. JONES, former Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA. "The picture is typical of the high quality of the Gemini photographs and includes usable geodetic and climatological information." The southern tip of the Zagros Mountain range is in the left center. The pinnacle of land in the lower center is part of the Arabian landmass. The Straits of Hormuz provide passage between the Gulf of Oman on the right and the Persian Gulf.

 


[187]

The city of Houston appears in the left center of this photo of about 280 miles of the Texas-Louisiana gulf coast taken at an altitude of about 150 miles

GEMINI XI

 

GEORGE E. MUELLER, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, notes: "The city of Houston appears in the left center of this photo of about 280 miles of the Texas-Louisiana gulf coast taken at an altitude of about 150 miles. Careful examination reveals Ellington Air Force Base and buildings of the Manned Spacecraft Center. The picture's significance lies in its depth of detail. The clarity of terrain features and of the flow patterns of each body of water emptying into the Gulf is outstanding. Pictures like this will in the future make possible a survey of Earth's resources from space."

 


[188]

A band of cirrus clouds crosses this picture of the Nile Valley and the Red Sea

GEMINI XII

 

A band of cirrus clouds crosses this picture of the Nile Valley and the Red Sea. "Such cloud bands," says KENNETH M. NAGLER, Chief, Space Operations Support Division, Environmental Science Services Administration, "normally occur on the equatorward side of the core of a strong westerly windflow known as the jetstream, in which winds of 100 knots to occasionally more than 200 knots are common. Often seen in less detail in weather-satellite views, these cirrus bands are particularly useful as indicators of the direction of the upper level wind. In the foreground small cumulus clouds are alined in rows."

 


[189]

A photograph from the 190-mile altitude shows the beautiful color contrast between the Mediterranean and the sands of the Sahara. Close inspection of the circular sandy area, Idehan Marzuq, and the irregular sandy area to the left, Edeyin Ubari, will reveal dune formations.

GEMINI XI

 

"A photograph from the 190-mile altitude shows the beautiful color contrast between the Mediterranean and the sands of the Sahara," says EVERETT E. CHRISTENSEN, who directed manned space-flight missions for NASA at the time. "Close inspection of the circular sandy area, Idehan Marzuq, and the irregular sandy area to the left, Edeyin Ubari, will reveal dune formations. Dark areas in the upper right are mountains. While this is one of the world's least populous areas and the deserts are reported as having no rainfall, several million people reside on oases and in the mountain areas."

 


[190]

The nose of the Gemini XI spacecraft with docking bar in lower left is in stark contrast to the orange of the Libyan Desert

GEMINI XI

 

"The nose of the Gemini XI spacecraft with docking bar in lower left is in stark contrast to the orange of the Libyan Desert, DR. CHARLES A. BERRY of the Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, points out. "The Nile traverses the desert like a carelessly dropped blue-green rope from Biba in Egypt (upper left) to Khartoum in the Sudan (lower right). The blue of the long gap across the edge of the world is the Red Sea separated from the blackness of space by Ethiopia. Astronauts Cooper and Conrad, our wives, and I flew over this area on a good-will tour following Gemini V."

 


[191]

The Suez Canal is at the left, the Gulf of Suez in the foreground, and the Red Sea at the right.

GEMINI XI

 

"The success of the Gemini Program was due to the hard work of many elements, culminating in outstanding hardware and crew performance," says DONALD K. SLAYTON, Director of Flight Operations, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA. "This photograph of the Near East is an example of how high quality photographs can detect unusual features such as the oil fire in the upper right corner (a triangular dark spot), and thereby provide productive future applications for space photography." The Suez Canal is at the left, the Gulf of Suez in the foreground, and the Red Sea at the right.

 


[192]

The picture encompasses Sudan, Ethiopia, Somali, French Somaliland, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and South Arabia. Since it is a high-altitude (340 miles) photograph, it contains less geologic detail than those taken at lower altitudes; however, for this very reason, the photo may be of special interest to the meteorologist for comparison with Tiros and Nimbus photographs

GEMINI XII

 

JOCELYN R. GILL, Gemini Science Manager, NASA, observes: "The picture encompasses Sudan, Ethiopia, Somali, French Somaliland, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and South Arabia. Since it is a high-altitude (340 miles) photograph, it contains less geologic detail than those taken at lower altitudes; however, for this very reason, the photo may be of special interest to the meteorologist for comparison with Tiros and Nimbus photographs." The Red Sea is in the foreground, the Gulf of Aden above it, and the Arabian Sea on the horizon. Saudi Arabia and the Empty Quarter show up clearly.

 


[193]

This photograph from an altitude of 410 miles encompasses all of India, an area of 1250 000 square miles

GEMINI XI

 

"This photograph from an altitude of 410 miles encompasses all of India, an area of 1250 000 square miles," GEORGE M. LOW, then the Deputy Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA, notes. "Bombay is on the west coast, directly left of the spacecraft's can-shaped antenna New Delhi is just below the horizon near the upper left. Adam's Bridge between India and Ceylon, at the right, is clearly visible. A cloudless region surrounds the entire subcontinent. Differences in color, green near the west coast, and brown inland, delineate regions of heavy vegetation and semiarid areas."

 


[194]

The view is to the northeast and includes India and Ceylon at the horizon and the atolls of the Maldive island chain near the photograph's center. To the west of India is the Arabian Sea, to the east is the Bay of Bengal, and to the south the Indian Ocean

GEMINI XI

 

"The altitude at the time of this photograph was 465 miles, according to MAXIME A. FAGET, Director, Engineering and Development, Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA. "The view is to the northeast and includes India and Ceylon at the horizon and the atolls of the Maldive island chain near the photograph's center. To the west of India is the Arabian Sea, to the east is the Bay of Bengal, and to the south the Indian Ocean. The cloud structure had changed from that photographed on the previous revolution. Of particular significance are the high cumulus buildups over Ceylon."

 


[195]

The Sun was slowly settling into the west, causing an angular reflection in the glass window of the spacecraft. Dick Gordon and I were looking at western Australia. This picture was taken approximately when we reached the high point of our high-altitude orbit. This was the view from 739.4 miles

GEMINI XI

 

Astronaut CHARLES CONRAD says of this picture: "The Sun was slowly settling into the west, causing an angular reflection in the glass window of the spacecraft. Dick Gordon and I were looking at western Australia. This picture was taken approximately when we reached the high point of our high-altitude orbit. This was the view from 739.4 miles. We were excited and although we had planned the high orbit for months, we never realized what a sight we would see. Fifty minutes earlier we had ignited our Agena rocket engine for the longest burn ever made to change an orbit."

 


[196] The Next Big Step

 

One of the most portentous events of NASA's first 10 years occurred on November 9, 1967. Then, after nearly 6 years of intensive development, the Saturn V-developing 7 500 000 pounds of thrust-functioned perfectly on the Apollo 4 launch. The three-stage Apollo/Saturn vehicle is 363 feet high and is capable of placing nearly 140 tons in Earth orbit and of launching nearly 50 tons to the Moon.

The next three photographs increased confidence that men can examine the Moon's surface in person in the near future.

Stages of the three-stage Saturn V launch vehicle are discarded after burnout. The first stage, and the interstage separating the first and second stages, are jettisoned a few seconds apart in what is called a "dual plane" separation sequence. The photograph on the facing page here shows the interstage falling away from the second stage of the vehicle on the November 9, 1967, flight.

WERNHER VON BRAUN, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, explains what this picture shows and how it was obtained:

"The interstage is glowing from the intense heat of the invisible exhaust flames produced by the second stage's five J-2 engines, two of which are visible in the foreground, burning liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen. The first stage, which was separated about 20 seconds earlier, is visible far below as a small white shape just inside the right ring of the interstage.

"This picture was taken from a frame of 16-mm motion-picture film exposed during the dual plane separation. Two cameras were inside special watertight capsules mounted on the second stage to record the action. The camera capsules were ejected a few seconds after this picture was taken at an altitude of about 40 miles. The capsules reentered the atmosphere and, slowed by paraballoons, splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean where they were retrieved quickly by recovery forces stationed in the area. Personnel were guided to the floating capsules by radio and light beacons and by dye released after splashdown. The cameras were flown back to land and rushed to the photographic laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center for processing."

 


[197]

The interstage is glowing from the intense heat of the invisible exhaust flames produced by the second stage's five J-2 engines, two of which are visible in the foreground, burning liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen. The first stage, which was separated about 20 seconds earlier, is visible far below as a small white shape just inside the right ring of the interstage

 


[198]

These pictures were taken through the command pilot's window on the unmanned Apollo flight November 9, 1967, while the spacecraft soared some 11 000 statute miles above the Earth

SATURN V

 

These pictures were taken through the command pilot's window on the unmanned Apollo flight November 9, 1967, while the spacecraft soared some 11 000 statute miles above the Earth.

"This is a sight astronauts will see on the way to the Moon, SAMUEL C. PHILLIPS, Director of the Apollo Program, NASA, commented.

The picture above on this page was taken when the spacecraft was over South Africa and so oriented that the camera viewed the area to the northwest.

"Viewing this picture from right to left," Phillips pointed out, "we see the Sahara Desert (western Africa), the east coast of South America on the left horizon, and a clearly distinguishable circular airmass flow around a South Atlantic depression. This airmass is commonly known as the 'Roaring Forties' which, in the days of sailing vessels, made the voyage between Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope quite difficult Antarctica is not depicted on this particular photograph, but some ice floes are discernible.

"This photograph was one of 755 exposures made at 10.6-second intervals beginning 4 hours 28 minutes after liftoff. Using Eastman Kodak Ektachrome MS, type S.O.-368 film, it was taken by a Maurer Model 220G 70-mm sequence camera 5 hours and 6 minutes after the liftoff."

The photograph on the facing page was taken while the spacecraft was above the Indian Ocean. It shows the crescent Earth from the South Pole at the left, through the "Roaring Forties" airmass of the South Atlantic Ocean to the west coast of Africa.

"These photographs," Phillips added, "contain significant technical data that are being evaluated to determine the techniques that will be employed for landmark identification for updating the Apollo navigational systems."

They also suggest what remarkable pictures cameras in space will produce during the next 10 years.

 


[199]

The photograph on the facing page was taken while the spacecraft was above the Indian Ocean. It shows the crescent Earth from the South Pole at the left, through the <<Roaring Forties>> airmass of the South Atlantic Ocean to the west coast of Africa

 


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