SP-287 What Made Apollo a Success?

 

[iii] CONTENTS

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION. By George M. Low.

2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES STRESSING SIMPLICITY. By Kenneth S. Kleinknecht.

3. TESTING TO ENSURE MISSION SUCCESS. By Scott H. Simpkinson.

4. APOLLO CREW PROCEDURES, SIMULATION, AND FLIGHT PLANNING. By Warren J. North and C. H. Woodling.

5. FLIGHT CONTROL IN THE APOLLO PROGRAM. By Eugene F. Kranz and James Otis Covington.

6. ACTION ON MISSION EVALUATION AND FLIGHT ANOMALIES. By Donald D. Arabian.

7. TECHNIQUES OF CONTROLLING THE TRAJECTORY. By Howard W. Tindall, Jr.

8. FLEXIBLE YET DISCIPLINED MISSION PLANNING. By C. C. Kraft, Jr., J. P. Mayer, C. R. Huss, and R. P. Parten.

 

TABLES

 

1-I. DEVELOPMENT AND QUALIFICATION TESTS.
1-II. HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACCEPTANCE TEST FAILURES.
1-III. APOLLO FLIGHT ANOMALIES.
3-I. LUNAR MODULE ACCEPTANCE VIBRATION TEST IN 1967.
3-II. COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE ACCEPTANCE VIBRATION TEST IN 1967.
3-III. CRITERIA FOR LUNAR MODULE QUALIFICATION AND ACCEPTANCE THERMAL TESTING IN 1967.
7-I. MANDATORY GUIDANCE, NAVIGATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS.
(a) Lunar module systems.
(b) Command and service module systems.
8-I. APOLLO SPACECRAFT FLIGHT HISTORY.

 

FIGURES

 

1-1. Vibration test level for acceptance .
1-2. Thermal test level for acceptance.
1-3. Results of vibration acceptance tests for 11 447 tests of 166 different components
1-4. Results of thermal acceptance tests for 3685 tests of 127 different components.
1-5. Apollo 10 fuel-cell temperature oscillations as they originally appeared in flight.
1-6. Disturbance of Apollo 10 fuel-cell temperature as it was identified in the laboratory.
1-7. Buildup of Apollo mission capability.
2-1. Mission Control Center, Houston, Texas
2-2. Service propulsion engine propellant valve and injector .
2-3. Command module hatch.
3-1. Revised Apollo acceptance vibration test guidelines.
3-2. Revised Apollo acceptance thermal test guidelines.
3-3. Results of acceptance vibration tests for 11 447 tests of 166 different components.
3-4. Results of acceptance thermal tests for 3685 tests of 127 different components.
3-5. Installation of the acceptance-tested crew equipment in the Apollo command module at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.
4-1. Astronaut trains underwater in simulated zero-g condition in water-immersion facility. Astronaut wears weights on shoulders, wrists, and ankles. Total ballast is about 180 pounds.
4-2. Lunar landing training vehicle trains crews for last 500 feet of altitude in critical moon landing phase.
4-3. Lunar module mockup installed in KC-135 aircraft. Support structure takes loads imposed in 2-1/2g pullup, after which zero g is achieved for 20 to 30 seconds on a parabolic flight path.
4-4. Familiarization run on the mobile partial-gravity simulator used for lunar walk indoctrination.
4-5. Apollo 12 landing and ascent model of Surveyor and Snowman craters as seen from 1800 feet.
4-6. Command module procedures simulator and lunar module procedures simulator.
4-7. Translation and docking trainer simulates lunar module active docking over last 100 feet of separation distance.
4-8. Dynamics crew procedures simulator.
4-9. Simulated command module crew station for the dynamics crew procedures simulator.
4-10. Lunar module mission simulator with crew station and Farrand optical systems for three windows.
4-11. Visual optics and instructor station for command module mission simulator.
4-12. Apollo 12 landing and ascent visual simulation system.
5-1. Electrical power display when Apollo 12 was at an altitude of 6000 feet.
5-2. Mission-development time line.
5-3. Mission Operations Control Room divisions.
5-4. Partial sample of CSM systems schematic.
5-5. Sample of flight mission rules.
5-6. Sample of Flight Control Operations Handbook.
5-7. Sample of Flight Controller Console Handbook.
5-8. Sample of programed-instruction text.
5-9. Logic of flight control decisions.
6-1. Mission evaluation room with team leaders' table in the foreground and discussion of a system problem in the background .
6-2. Long-range photography of adapter failure during the Apollo 6 mission.
7-1. Steps the ground-based flight controllers take if certain guidance and control values exceed premission limits for the LM during LM descent to the lunar surface.
8-1. Iterative mission-planning process.
8-2. Apollo mission design instrumentation.


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