SP-345 Evolution of the Solar System


[v] Contents


1. Introduction.
1.1. Fundamental approaches to the problem.
1.2. Planetary system-satellite systems.
1.3. Five stages in the evolution.
1.4. Processes governing the evolutionary stages.
1.5. Model requirements and limitations.
2. The Present Structure of the Planetary and Satellite Systems.
2.1. Orbital properties of planets and satellites.
2.2. Physical properties of planets and satellites.
2.3. Prograde and retrograde satellites.
2.4. The Laplacian model and the distributed-density function.
2.5. Discussion of the distributed-density diagrams.
2.6. Titius-Bode's "law".
3. The Motion of Planets and Satellites.
3.1. The guiding-center approximation of celestial mechanics.
3.2. Circular orbits.
3.3. Oscillations modifying the circular orbit.
3.4. Motion in an inverse-square-law gravitational field.
3.5. Nonharmonic oscillation; large eccentricity.
3.6. Motion in the field of a rotating central body.
3.7. Planetary motion perturbed by other planets.
[vi] 4. The Small Bodies.
4.1. Survey and classification.
4.2. Evolutionary differences between large and small bodies.
4.3. Main-belt asteroids.
4.4. The Hilda and Hungaria asteroids.
4.5. The Trojans.
4.6. The cometary-meteoroid populations.
5. Forces Acting on Small Bodies.
5.1. Introduction.
5.2. Gravitational effects.
5.3. Electromagnetic effects.
5.4. Limit between electromagnetically and gravitationally controlled motion.
5.5. Radiation effects.
5.6. Conclusions.
6. Kepler Motion of Interacting Bodies: Jet Streams.
6.1. Introduction.
6.2. The interplanetary medium.
6.3. Effects of collisions.
6.4. Orbiting particles confined in a spacecraft.
6.5. Conclusions from the spacecraft model.
6.6. Jet streams and negative diffusion.
6.7. Simple model of negative diffusion.
6.8. Contraction time of a jet stream.
6.9. Collisions between a grain and a jet stream.
6.10. Jet streams as celestial objects.
7. Collisions: Fragmentation and Accretion.
7.1. Production of small bodies: fragmentation and accretion.
7.2. Size spectra.
7.3. Three simple models.
7.4. The transition from fragmentation to accretion.
8. Resonance Structure in the Solar System.
8.1. Resonances in the solar system.
8.2. Resonance and the oscillation of a pendulum.
8.3. A simple resonance model.
8.4. Deviations from exact resonance.
8.5. Orbit-orbit resonances.
[vii] 8.6. The Kirkwood gaps.
8.7. On the absence of resonance effects in the Saturnian ring system.
8.8. Spin-orbit resonances.
8.9. Near-commensurabilities.
9. Spin and Tides.
9.1. Tides.
9.2. Amplitude of tide.
9.3. Tidal braking of a central body's spin.
9.4. Satellite tidal braking of planetary spins.
9.5. Solar tidal braking of planetary spins.
9.6. Tidal evolution of satellite orbits.
9.7. Isochronism of spins.
9.8. Conclusions from the isochronism of spins.
10. Post-Accretional Changes in the Solar System.
10.1. Stability of orbits.
10.2. Resonance and stability.
10.3. Stability of Saturnian rings and the asteroidal belt.
10.4. Constancy of spin.
10.5. On the possibility of reconstructing the hetegonic processes.
11. Accretional Processes.
11.1. Survey of Part B.
11.2. Gravitational collapse of a gas cloud.
11.3. Planetesimal accretion: accretion by capture of grains or gas.
11.4. Gravitational accretion.
11.5. Nongravitational accretion.
11.6. Accretion of resonance-captured grains.
11.7. Necessary properties of an accretional process.
11.8. The present state of asteroids, meteoroids and comets, and the exploded-planet hypothesis.
12. On the Accretion of Planets and Satellites.
12.1. Planetesimal accretion.
12.2. A jet stream as an intermediate step in formation of planets and satellites.
[viii] 12.3. Accretion of an embryo.
12.4. Mass balance of the jet stream.
12.5. Energy balance in a jet stream.
12.6. Accretion when the infall into the jet stream is constant.
12.7. Discussion.
12.8. Numerical values.
12.9. Conclusions about the different types of accretion.
12.10. Early temperature profile of accreted body.
12.11. Conclusions about the temperature profile of planets.
12.12. The accretional hot-spot front.
12.13. Differentiation effect of the accretional heat front.
13. Spin and Accretion.
13.1. Grain impact and spin.
13.2. Accretion from circular orbits by nongravitating embryo.
13.3. Gravitational accretion.
13.4. Giuli's theory of accretion.
13.5. Statistical theory of accretion.
13.6. Jet-stream accretion and planetary spins.
14. Relations Between Comets and Meteoroids.
14.1. Basic problems.
14.2. Positive and negative diffusion; meteor streams as jet streams.
14.3. Accretional mechanism in meteor streams.
14.4. Observations of comet formation in a meteor stream.
14.5. Long- and short-period comets.
14.6. Inferences on the nature of comets from emission characteristics.
14.7. Analogies between cometary and asteroidal streams.
14.8. Comparison with the accretion of planets and satellites.
15. Plasma Physics and Hetegony.
15.1. Summary of parts A and B and plan for parts C and D.
15.2. Relation between experimental and theoretical plasma physics.
15.3. The first and second approach to cosmic plasma physics.
15.4. Strategy of analysis of hetegonic plasmas.
15.5. Required properties of a model.
15.6. Some existing theories.
[ix] 16. Model of the Hetegonic Plasma.
16.1. Magnetized central body.
16.2. Angular momentum.
16.3. The transfer of angular momentum.
16.4. Support of the primordial cloud.
16.5. The plasma as a transient state.
16.6. Conclusions about the model.
16.7. The hetegonic nebulae.
16.8. Irradiation effects.
16.9. The model and the hetegonic principle.
17. Transfer of Angular Momentum and Condensation of Grains.
17.1. Ferraro isorotation and partial corotation.
17.2. Partial corotation of a plasma in magnetic and gravitational fields.
17.3. A plasma in partial corotation.
17.4. Discussion.
17.5. Condensation of the plasma: the two-thirds law.
17.6. Energy release during angular momentum transfer.
18. Accretion of the Condensation Products.
18.1 Survey.
18.2. Evolution of orbits due to collisions.
18.3. The Roche limit.
18.4. Model of orbit development.
18.5. Accretion inside rMR.
18.6. Structure of the Saturnian rings.
18.7. Accretion outside rMR.
18.8. Formation of the asteroid belt.
18.9. Conclusions about partial corotation.
18.10. Satellite and planet formation.
18.11. Accretion of volatile substances.
19. Transplanetary Condensation.
19.1. Interplanetary and transplanetary condensation.
19.2. Limit between interplanetary and transplanetary space.
19.3. Condensation of bodies in almost-parabolic orbits.
19.4. Bodies with long-period orbits.
19.5. Diffusion of almost-parabolic orbits: encounters with planets.
19.6. Genetic relations of the comet-meteoroid complex.
19.7. Conclusions about the meteoroid populations.
19.8. Genealogy of the bodies in the solar system.
20. Chemical Structure of the Solar System.
20.1. Survey.
20.2. Sources of information about chemical composition.
20.3. Chemical differentiation before and after the accretion of bodies in the solar system.
20.4. Unknown states of matter.
20.5. The composition of planets and satellites.
20.6. Composition of the Sun.
20.7. Regularity of bulk densities in the solar system.
21. Mass Distribution and the Critical Velocity.
21.1. Mass distribution in the solar system.
21.2. The bands of secondary bodies as a function of gravitational potential energy.
21.3. Comparative study of the groups of secondary bodies.
21.4. Theoretical background for the band formation.
21.5. Attempts to interpret the band structure.
21.6. Three objections.
21.7. Search for a "critical velocity".
21.8. Experiments on the critical velocity.
21.9. Theory of the critical velocity.
21.10. Conclusions about the critical velocity.
21.11. Chemical composition of infalling gas.
21.12. The chemical composition of the solar system and inhomogeneous plasma emplacement.
21.13. Modification of the critical velocity ionization distance due to interaction with a partially corotating plasma.
22. Meteorites and Their Precursor States.
22.1. Interpretation of the evolutionary record in meteorites.
22.2. Sources of meteorites.
22.3. Selection effects.
22.4. Upper size limits of meteorite precursor bodies.
22.5. Precursor states of meteorite parent bodies.
22.6. Jet-stream evolution and properties of meteorites.
22.7. Cohesive forces in meteoritic material.
22.8. Evolutionary sequence of precursor states of meteorites.
[xi] 22.9. Age relationships in the evolution of meteorite parent jet streams.
22.10. General remarks on the record in meteorites.
23. The Structure of the Groups of Secondary Bodies.
23.1. Ionization during the emplacement of plasma.
23.2. Complete ionization.
23.3. Partial ionization.
23.4. Change of spin during the formation of secondary bodies.
23.5. Observational values of mathematical symbol.
23.6. Mass distribution as a function of mathematical symbol
23.7. Discussion of the structure of the groups of secondary bodies.
23.8. Complete list of mathematical symbol
               for all bodies.
23.9. Completeness.
23.10. Conclusions about the model of plasma emplacement.
24. Origin and Evolution of the Earth-Moon System.
24.1. The hetegonic aspect.
24.2. Comparison with other satellite systems.
24.3. Structure of a normal satellite system of the Earth.
24.4. The capture theory.
24.5. Tidal evolution of the lunar orbit.
24.6. Destruction of a normal satellite system.
24.7. Accretion and the heat structure of the Moon.
24.8. Composition of the Moon.
24.9. Conclusions.
25. The Properties of the Early Sun.
25.1. On the use of solar-system data to study the early.
25.2. Solar mass.
25.3. Solar magnetic field.
25.4. Solar spin period.
25.5. Solar radiation, solar wind.
25.6. Effects produced by a D-burning Sun.
25.7. Remarks on the formation of stars.
[xii] 26. Origin of the Earth's Ocean and Atmosphere.
26.1. Earth's ocean and the formation of the solar system.
26.2. The remote precursor stages.
26.3. The immediate precursor stages.
26.4. Accumulation of water during the accretion of the Earth.
26.5. Introduction of water in the lithosphere.
26.6. The ocean and the Earth-Moon system.
26.7. Summary and conclusions.
27. Concluding Remarks.