SP-4012 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK: VOLUME III
PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS 1969-1978
 
 

NOTES

CHAPTER 1

 

1. NASA Policy Directive 8610.5, "Reimbursement for Launch Vehicles and Other Services Which Are Associated with Space Flights to Non-U.S. Government Users," Jan. 12, 1973.

2. William Hines, "Feast Over; NASA's Fiscal Famine Under Way," Sunday Star (Washington, D.C.), June 9, 1968.

3. For an overall look at each fiscal year, consult Executive Off. of the President, Off. of Management and Budget (OMB), The United States Budget in Brief (Washington, published each fiscal year).

4. Executive Off. of the President, OMB, The United States Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 1979 (Washington, 1978), pp. 74-75.

5. NASA, "Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 1970," vol. 1, "Summary Data," 1969, pp. RDI, CFI, and RPM1.

6. The following letters are representative of the dialogue between NASA and BoB/OMB: James C. Fletcher to George P. Schultz, Sept. 30, 1971; Caspar W. Weinberger to Fletcher, July 21, 1972; Fletcher to James T. Lynn, Nov. 20, 1975; and Fletcher to Lynn, Nov. 26, 1975 (all located in the NASA History Off. Documents Collection, Washington, D.C.).

7. For further information on NASA's budget process, see Arnold Levine, Managing NASA in the Apollo Era, 1963-1969, NASA SP-4102 (Washington, 1983).

8. Space Task Group, "The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future; Space Task Group Report to the President," Sept. 1969; see also NASA, "America's Next Decades in Space; A Report for the Space Task Group," Sept. 1969.

9. Marshall Space Flight Center, "Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Fact Book," SA44-77-01, June 1977, p. 1.

 

CHAPTER 2

 

1. "Manned vs Unmanned Argument Becoming Academic -Myers," Space Daily, Mar. 1, 1972, p. 5.

2. "NASA's Man for Manned Space Flight," Aerospace Facts (Thiokol Corp.) (July-Sept. 1974): 6-9.

3. NASA, This Is NASA, NASA EP- 155 (Washington, 1979), p. 20; and Thomas O. Paine to Clinton P. Anderson, Nov. 21, 1969. Also see Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean; A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 508, 643; Barton C. Hacker and Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans, A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1977), pp. 173-75, 387-88, 581-82; and Courtney G. Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979), pp. 25, 110-11, 167-68.

4. For a one-volume summary, see JSC, "Apollo Program Summary Report," JSC-09423, Apr. 1975.

5. For astronaut biographies and more information, see U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Technology, Report, Astronauts and Cosmonauts, Biographical and Statistical Data, 98th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, 1983).

6. W. David Compton and Charles D. Benson, Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab, NASA SP-4208 (Washington, 1983), pp. 104-10.

7. Ibid., pp, 339-60.

8. Ibid., p. 347.

9. Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209 (Washington, 1978), pp. 161-93.

10. Ibid, pp. 161-93.

11. Ibid., pp. 195-224. Also see JSC, "Apollo Soyuz Mission Evaluation Report," JSC-10607, pp. 4-1 through 4-4.

12. Space Task Group, "The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future; Space Task Group Report to the President," Sept. 1969, pp. 14-15; see also NASA, "America's Next Decade in Space; A Report for the Space Task Group," Sept. 1969.

13. For details on the approach and landing tests, consult NASA, "Space Shuttle Orbiter Test Flight Series," Press Release 77-16, Feb. 4, 1977; and David Baker, "Evolution of the Space Shuttle; Approach and Landing Test Program," Spaceflight 19 (June 1977): 213-17; and Baker, "Evolution of the Space Shuttle; Free Flight Tests Begin," Spaceflight 20 (Jan. 1978): 21-40.

 

CHAPTER 3

 

1 . Space Task Group, "The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future; Space Task Group to the President," Sept. 1969; see also NASA, "America's Next Decades in Space; A Report for the Space Task Group," Sept. 1969.

2. Homer E. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211 (Washington, 1980), pp. 287-95.

3. Office of the White House Press Secretary, White House Fact Sheet, "U.S. Civil Space Policy," Oct. 11, 1978, p. 1.

4. House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, United States Civilian Space Programs, 1958-1978, Report, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, 1981), pp. 721-60.

5. Wallace H. Tucker, The Star Splitters. The High Energy Astronomy Observatories, NASA SP-466 (Washington, 1984), provides an overall history of HEAO and its fields of investigation.

6. NASA Hq., "OAO-B," Press Release 70-174, Oct. 29, 1970.

7. Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, United States Civilian Space Programs, pp. 745-46.

8. Ibid., pp. 747-48, 751.

9. For information on spacecraft design changes, see W. H. Follett, L. T. Ostwald, J. 0. Simpson et al., "A Decade of Improvements to Orbiting Solar Observatories," n.d., 12 pp. Located in NASA History Office Documents Collection, Washington, D.C. An introduction to the follow-on series is provided by Robert R. Ropelewski, "OSO to Study Sun in Quiet Period," Aviation Week and Space Technology (July 26, 1970): 34-36.

10. Ezell, Edward C. and Linda N. Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958-1978, NASA SP-4212 (Washington, 1984), pp. 121-38.

11. Ibid., 155-66, 434-46; and Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, United States Civilian Space Programs, pp. 764-83.

12. James A. Dunne and Eric Burgess, The Voyage of Mariner 10, NASA SP-424 (Washington, 1977).

13. For a project history of Viking consult Ezell and Ezell, On Mars.

14. R. 0. Fimmel, James Van Allen, and Eric Burgess, Pioneer-First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond, NASA SP-446 (Washington, 1980.; "Pioneer Saturn" [Special Issue], Science 207 (Jan. 25, 1980): 400-53; and "Pioneer Saturn" [Special Issue], Journal of Geophysical Research 85 (Nov. 1, 1980): 5651-5958.

15. Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, United States Civilian Space Programs, pp. 804-05.

16. For a discussion of NASA's life sciences program, see chapt. 16, Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, pp. 274-82.

17. J. W. Dyer, ed., Biosatellite Project Historical Summary Report (Moffett Field, CA: Ames Research Center, 1969).

 

CHAPTER 4

 

1. NASA Hq. Press Release 69-76, "Space Applications Office Reorganized," May 15, 1969. John E. Naugle, associate administrator for space science and applications, made this remark two years before the official split between science and applications. From 1969 until the reorganization in 1971, OSSA underwent changes that made the eventual separation essentially a change on paper only; the two parts of OSSA had already begun functioning as separate entities.

2. "OSSA's R&D Tasks toward Seventies Stress Satellites for Serving Man," Aerospace Management (General Electric) 5 (May 1969): 73-79.

3. "The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future," Sept. 1969, pp. i, iii, 6, 12.

4. House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, United States Civilian Space Programs, 1958-1978, Report, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, 1981), pp. 1120-21.

5. "OSSA's R&D Tasks toward Seventies," pp. 73-79.

6. Memo, George M. Low to John W. Townsend, Jr., Mar. 16, 1972.

7. Harry Press and Wilbur B. Huston, "Nimbus: A Progress Report," Astronautics & Aeronautics (March 1968): 56-65; and Gerald L. Wick, "Nimbus Weather Satellites: Remote Soundings of the Atmosphere," Science (June 18, 1971): 51-53.

8. Charles Cote, Ralph Taylor, and Eugene Gilbert, eds., Nimbus 6 Random Access Measurement System Applications Experiments, NASA AP-457 (Washington, 1982).

9. Gerald S. Schatz, "Global Weather Experiment," News Report (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council) 28 (Dec. 1978): 1, 6-7, 9-13; and "GATE, GARP, and the World Weather Program," GATE News (NOAA) (May 9, 1974).

10. "Statement of Dr. John DeNoyer, Director of Earth Observations Programs, Office of Space Science and Applications, before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives" (Feb. 1970), pp. 14-15.

11. Pamela E. Mack, "The Politics of Technological Change: A History of Landsat," unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1983, pp. 34-35.

12. W. David Compton and Charles D. Benson, Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab, NASA SP-4208 (Washington, 1983), pp. 182-96, 345-47.

13. Mack, pp. 58-70, 99-106.

14. Mack, chaps. 11-14, discusses the experiences of the user communities.

 

CHAPTER 5

 

1. NASA, Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, 1974 Activities (Washington, 1976), p. 31.

2. NASA Steering Group, "Report on Closing of NASA ERC," Oct. 1, 1970; and NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1970, Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy, NASA SP-4015 (Washington, 1972), p. 219.

3. NASA, Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, 1978 Activities (Washington, 1979), p. 33.

4. NASA Hq., "Research and Technology Office Reorganized," Press Release 70-183, Oct. 27, 1970.

5. George N. Chatham, "Toward a New National Policy for Aeronautics," Astronautics & Aeronautics (March 1970): 16-17.

6. Roy P. Jackson, "Spotlight on Aeronautics," speech, AIAA National Capital Section, Washington, D.C., March 2, 1972. Located in NASA History Office Documents Collection.

7. Jackson, "Remarks," speech, Conference on Aircraft Engine Noise Reduction, Cleveland, OH. Located in NASA History Off. Documents Collection.

8. Alan M. Lovelace, "NASA's Goal: Keeping the US Number One in Aeronautics," Air Force Magazine (Feb. 1976); 36-40.

9. James J. Kramer, "NASA Aeronautics FY 1978 Authorization Request, Statement," congressional testimony, Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation and Weather, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Feb. 16, 1977. Located in NASA History Off. Documents Collection.

10. NASA Hq., "NASA Establishes General Aviation Technology Office," Press Release 73-93, May 7, 1973.

11. NASA Hq., "General Aviation Technology Program," Press Release 76-51, March 1976.

 

CHAPTER 6

 

1. For further information on tracking and data acquisition techniques, see Samuel Glasstone, Sourcebook on the Space Sciences (New York, et al.: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1965), pp. 217-39.

2. John T. Mengel and Paul Hergert, "Tracking Satellites by Radio," Scientific American 198 (Jan. 1958), deals specifically with the Minitrack system. See also Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard: A History, NASA SP-4202 (Washington, 1970), pp. 145-63.

3. William R. Corliss, "Histories of the Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)," NASA CR-140390, June 1974, pp. 24-57, discusses the evolution of STADAN equipment. For information on communications and data handling operations and equipment, see Corliss, Scientific Satellites, NASA SP-133 (Washington, 1967), pp. 133-63.

4. For information on manned spaceflight tracking, communications, and data acquisition equipment, see Howard C. Kyle, "Manned Spaceflight Communications Systems," in A. V. Dalakrishnan, ed., Advances in Communication Systems, vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1966), pp. 195-204; Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexender, This New Ocean; A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 392-97; Corliss, "Histories of the Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)," pp. 140-61; Barton C. Hacker and Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1977), pp. 584-92; and JSC, "Apollo Program Summary Report," JSC-09423, Apr. 1975.

5. For information on the Deep Space Network, see Nichola A. Renzetti, ed.,"A History of the Deep Space Network, from Inception to January 1, 1969," JPL Tech. Rept. 32-1533, vol. 1, Sept. 1, 1971; JPL, "DSIF: Goldstone," JPL Tech. Memo 33-205, 1965; and Corliss," A History of the Deep Space Network," NASA CR-151915, May 1, 1976.

6. Edmond C. Buckley to George E. Mueller et al., "Data Relay Satellite System Requirements and Interface Panel," Sept. 1, 1967; and Gerald M. Truszynski to John F. Clark, "Data Relay Satellite System Studies," Dec. 3, 1968.

7. Richard L. Stock to record, "Senate Space Committee Inquiry Re: TDRSS," Sept. 7, 1973.

8. James C. Fletcher to Roy L. Ash, Sept 28, 1973; and Thomas V. Lucas to Robert Lottmann, "TDRSS Economic Benefit/Cost Analysis," Apr. 5, 1974.

9. Truszynski to record, "TDRSS Possible Bidders," Feb. 27, 1975; and Fletcher to record, "Selection of Contractor for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Services (TDRSS)," Feb. 1977.


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