Figure 2-1. Apollo Spacecraft.


Figure 2-1. Apollo Spacecraft. The launch escape system (left), which consisted of three solid propellant motors, was designed to propel the command module to safety in the event of an aborted launch. If it were not required, the 10.06-meter-tall LES was jettisoned shortly after launch. The joined command and service modules are shown on the left. The command module (3.63 meters long), equipped with couches, served as the crew compartment and control center, and could accommodate all three astronauts. A forward docking ring and hatch allowed the spacecraft to dock with the lunar module, which was stowed in the spacecraft LM adapter during launch aft of the service module. The command module was capable of attitude control about three axes by using its 10 reaction control engines and some lateral lift translation in the atmosphere. Made from aluminum by Rockwell International, the Apollo spacecraft prime contractor, the command module had two hatches and five windows. Thermal protection during reentry was provided by ablative shields of varying thicknesses. The service module (6.88 meters long) provided the primary propulsion and maneuvering capability of the spacecraft. Most of the consumables (oxygen, hydrogen, propellant) were also stored in this module. Prior to reentry, the crew jettisoned the service module. (See volume 2, tables 2-54 and 2-55, for information on major spacecraft subsystems and spacecraft characteristics.)

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