The information contained in the mission narratives in this work was derived primarily from uncopyrighted NASA and contractor mission reports, and, in some cases, is quoted verbatim from the original text without attribution. Readers interested in specific sources will find them listed in the bibliography which appears at the end of this work. In a few cases, it was necessary to include information from copyrighted works, and the author acknowledges those cases as follows:


The source for some of the astronaut biographical data is Who’s Who In Space: The International Space Year Edition, by Michael Cassutt, although most information was derived from NASA biographies.


The primary source for descriptions of the mission insignias is the official NASA text that accompanied each emblem. However, additional information has been used from Space Patches From Mercury to the Space Shuttle, written by Judith Kaplan and Robert Muniz. Another source is Dick Lattimer’s unpublished draft of Astronaut Mission Patches and Spacecraft Callsigns, available at the time of this writing at Rice University’s Fondren Library.


The source for the COSPAR designations for the various Apollo spacecraft and launch vehicle stages once on orbit is the R.A.E. Table of Earth Satellites 1957-1986.


The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following people for helping to locate original NASA documents, images and other information, and for checking the transcript for errors.


Becky Fryday, formerly Media Services, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Bunda L. Dean, formerly Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Dale Johnson, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center; Daryl L. Bahls, The Boeing Company; David H. Ransom, Jr., Sedona, AZ; J. L. Pickering, Normal, IL; Ricky Lanclos, Nederland, TX; Dr. Eric M. Jones, editor of the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal Internet Web site; Dr. John B. Charles, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Florastela Luna, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Gary Evans, TRW; Gordon Davie, Edinburgh, Scotland; Janet Kovacevich, formerly Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Joan Ferry and Lois Morris, Woodsen Research Center, Rice University; Joey Pellarin Kuhlman, formerly Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Kenneth Nail, formerly John F. Kennedy Space Center; Kipp Teague, Lynchburg, VA; Donnis Willis, Satsuma, AL; Lee Saegesser, formerly NASA Headquarters; Lisa Vazquez, formerly Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Mike Gentry, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; Margaret Persinger, Kennedy Space Center; Oma Lou White, formerly George C. Marshall Space Flight Center; Paulo D’Angelo, Rome, Italy; Philip N. French and Jonathan Grant, NASA Center for Aerospace Information; Robert Sutton, Chantilly, VA; Robert W. Fricke, Jr., Lockheed Martin; Ruud Kuik, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Dr. David R. Williams, National Space Data Center, GSFC; Hayes M. Harper, Downers Grove, IL; David Harland, Glascow, Scotland; Stephen Tellier, Lunar & Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; Lt. Col. George H. Orloff USA-Ret, Oakhurst, NJ; Harald Kucharek, Karlsruhe, Germany; Kay Grinter, Kennedy Space Center; Lindsay Reed, Beachwood, NJ; Sabrina Echeverria, Bayville, NJ; and Louise Alstork, Stanley Artis, Steve Garber, Hope Kang, Roger Launius, Warren Owens, and Michael Walker, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.