Apollo 7 Objectives[1]

 

 

Launch Vehicle Primary Detailed Objectives

 

1.      To demonstrate the adequacy of the launch vehicle attitude control system for orbital operation. Achieved.

 

2.      To demonstrate S‑IVB orbital safing capability. Achieved.

 

3.      To evaluate S‑IVB J‑2 engine augmented spark igniter line modifications. Achieved.

 

 

Launch Vehicle Secondary Detailed Test Objectives

 

1.      To evaluate the S‑IVB/instrument unit orbital coast lifetime capability. Achieved.

 

2.      To demonstrate command and service module manned launch vehicle orbital attitude control. Achieved.

 

 

Spacecraft Primary Objectives

 

1.      To demonstrate command and service module and crew performance. Achieved.

 

2.      To demonstrate crew, space vehicle, and mission support facilities performance. Achieved.

 

3.      To demonstrate command and service module rendezvous capability. Achieved.

 

 

Spacecraft Primary Detailed Test Objectives

 

1.      P1.6: To perform inertial measurement unit alignments using the sextant. Achieved.

 

2.      P1.7: To perform an internal measurement unit orientation determination and a star pattern daylight visibility check. Achieved.

 

3.      P1.8: To perform onboard navigation using the technique of the scanning telescope landmark tracking. Achieved.

 

4.      P1.10: To perform optical tracking of a target vehicle using the sextant. Achieved, during rendezvous.

 

5.      P1.12: To demonstrate guidance navigation control system automatic and manual attitude controlled reaction control system maneuvers. Partially achieved, by the automatic mode prior to the service propulsion system burns and the manual mode. Although all required modes were demonstrated, all rates were not checked.

 

6.      P1.13: To perform guidance navigation control system controlled service propulsion system and reaction control system velocity maneuvers. Achieved, at various times during the mission.

 

7.      P1.14: To evaluate the ability of the guidance navigation control system to guide the entry from Earth orbit. Achieved, during entry.

 

8.      P1.15: To perform star and Earth horizon sightings to establish an Earth horizon model. Not Achieved. On the two occasions attempted, the Earth horizon was indistinct and variable, with no defined boundaries or lines, thus precluding obtaining the necessary data.

 

9.      P1.16: To obtain inertial measurement unit performance data in the flight environment. Achieved, in conjunction with the inertial measurement unit alignment checks. Two pulse integrating pendulous accelerometer bias tests were also performed.

 

10.  P2.3: To monitor the entry monitoring system during service propulsion velocity changes and entry. Achieved, during the first service propulsion service burn and entry.

 

11.  P2.4: To demonstrate the stabilization control system automatic and manual attitude controlled reaction control system maneuvers. Achieved, except for testing the high and auto rate modes.

 

12.  P2.5: To demonstrate the command and service module stabilization control system velocity control capability. Achieved.

 

13.  P2.6: To perform a manual thrust vector control takeover. Achieved.

 

14.  P2.7: To obtain data on the stabilization control systems capability to provide a suitable inertial reference in a flight environment. Achieved, during the zero‑g phase of the mission prior to the fourth service propulsion system burn and prior to the S‑IVB separation. Desired data during the boost phase was not obtained.

 

15.  P2.10: To accomplish the backup mode of the gyro display coupler‑flight director attitude indicator alignment using the scanning telescope in preparation for an increment velocity maneuver. Achieved, although there was a problem with the flight director attitude indicator in the later part of the mission.

 

16.  P3.14: To demonstrate the service propulsion system minimum impulse burns in a space environment. Achieved, during the fourth and sixth service propulsion burns.

 

17.  P3.15: To perform a service propulsion system performance burn in the space environment. Achieved, during the fifth service propulsion burn.

 

18.  P3.16: To monitor the primary and auxiliary gauging system. Achieved, during the fifth service propulsion burn.

 

19.  P3.20: To verify the adequacy of the propellant feed line thermal control system. Achieved, by the demonstration of normal operation and the cold soak test.

 

20.  P4.4: To verify the life support functions of the environmental control system. Achieved.

 

21.  P4.6: To obtain data on operation of the waste management system in the flight environment. Achieved.

 

22.  P4.8: To operate the secondary coolant loop. Achieved, and included daily redundant component tests.

 

23.  P4.9: To demonstrate the water management subsystems operation in the flight environment. Achieved, throughout the mission, despite a problem with the chlorination procedure and some hardware problems.

 

24.  P4.10: To demonstrate the postlanding ventilation circuit operation. Achieved.

 

25.  P5.8: To obtain data on thermal stratification with and without the cryogenic fans of the cryogenic gas storage system. Achieved. Although only two of the three stratification tests were successful and part of the third test was accomplished (the rest was deleted), sufficient data were obtained.

 

26.  P5.9: To verify automatic pressure control of the cryogenic tank systems in a zero‑g environment. Achieved.

 

27.  P5.10: To demonstrate fuel cell water operations in a zero‑g environment. Achieved.

 

28.  P6.7: To demonstrate S‑band data uplink capability. Achieved.

 

29.  P6.8: To demonstrate a simulated command and service module overpass of the lunar module rendezvous radar during the lunar stay. Achieved, during the 48th revolution.

 

30.  P7.19: To obtain data on the environmental control system primary radiator thermal coating degradation. Achieved, from 092:37 to 097:00 GET.

 

31.  P7.20: To obtain data on the block II forward heat shield thermal protection system. Achieved, during entry.

 

32.  P20.8: To perform a command and service module/S‑IVB separation, transposition and simulated docking. Achieved.

 

33.  P20.10: To demonstrate the performance of the command and service module/Manned Space Flight Network S‑band communication system. Achieved.

 

34.  P20.11: To obtain data on all command and service module consumables. Achieved.

 

35.  P20.13: To perform a command and service module active rendezvous with the S‑IVB. Achieved.

 

36.  P20.15: To obtain crew evaluation of intravehicular activity in general. Achieved.

 

 

Spacecraft Secondary Detailed Test Objectives

 

1.      S1.11: To monitor the guidance navigation control systems and displays during launch. Achieved.

 

2.      S3.17: To obtain data on the service module reaction control subsystem pulse and steady state performance. Achieved.

 

3.      S7.24: To obtain data on initial coning angles when in the spin mode as used during transearth flight. Partially achieved. The first of three tests was accomplished. A pitch control mode was also accomplished but was not planned prior to launch. The third test was deleted (the crew objected because they expected excessive cross‑coupling).

 

4.      S7.28: To obtain command and service module vibration data. Achieved, during boost, powered flight, and deorbit.

 

5.      S20.9: To perform manual out‑of‑window command and service module attitude orientation for retrofire. Achieved, by two tests.

 

6.      S20.12: To perform crew controlled manual S‑IVB attitude maneuvers in three axes. Achieved.

 

7.      S20.14: To verify that the launch vehicle propellant pressure displays are adequate to warn of a common bulkhead reversal. Achieved.

 

8.      S20.16: To obtain photographs of the command module rendezvous windows during discrete phases of the mission. Achieved, although the second and third of four scheduled tests were deleted.

 

9.      S20.17: To obtain data on propellant slosh damping following service propulsion system cutoff and following reaction control subsystem burns. Achieved, by three tests.

 

10.  S20.18: To obtain data via the command and service module/Apollo range instrumentation aircraft communication subsystems. Achieved.

 

11.  S20.19: To demonstrate command and service module VHF voice communications with the Manned Space Flight Network. Achieved, throughout the mission and during recovery.

 

12.  S20.20: To evaluate the crew optical alignment sight for docking, rendezvous, and proper attitude verification. Achieved, throughout the mission and in conjunction with deorbit attitude.

 

13.  S7.21: To obtain data on the service module lunar module adapter deployment system operation. Achieved.

 

 

Experiments

 

1.      S005 (Synoptic Terrain Photography): To obtain elective, high quality photographs with color and panchromatic film of selected land and ocean areas. Achieved. Of the more than 500 photographs obtained, approximately 200 were usable for the purposes of the experiment. The objective of comparing color with black‑and‑white photography of the same areas was not successful because of problems with focus, exposure, and filters.

 

2.      S006 (Synoptic Weather Photography): To obtain selective, high quality color cloud photographs to study the fine structure of the Earth's weather system. Achieved. In particular, excellent views of Hurricane Gladys and Typhoon Gloria were obtained. The color photographs enabled meteorologists to ascertain much more accurately the types of clouds involved than with black‑and‑white satellite photographs. Oceanographic surface features were also revealed more clearly than in any of the preceding manned flights.

 

3.      M006: To establish the occurrence and degree of bone demineralization during long spaceflights. Achieved, by preflight and postflight X-Ray studies of selected bones of crew members.

 

4.      M011: To determine if the space environment fosters any cellular changes in human blood. Achieved, by comparison of preflight and postflight crew blood samples.

 

5.      M023: To measure changes in lower body negative pressure as evidence of cardiovascular deconditioning resulting from prolonged weightlessness. Achieved, by preflight and postflight medical examinations.

 

 

Test Objectives Added During Mission

 

1.      Pitch about Y axis. Achieved.

 

2.      Optics degradation evaluation. Achieved.

 

3.      Sextant/horizon sightings. Not achieved. Erroneous procedures were given to the crew.

 

4.      Three additional S‑band communication modes. Achieved.


 

[1]Apollo objectives and their level of achievement for all flights are derived from mission reports and from Boeing’s final flight evaluation reports for Apollo 7, 8, 9 and 10.

 

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