Apollo 12 Objectives

 

Spacecraft Primary Objectives

 

1.      To perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling in a mare area. Achieved.

 

2.      To deploy the ALSEP consistent with a seismic event. Achieved.

 

a.       S‑031: Passive seismic experiment.

 

b.      S‑034: Lunar surface magnetometer experiment.

 

c.       S‑035: Solar wind spectrometer experiment.

 

d.      S‑036: Suprathermal ion detector experiment.

 

e.       S‑058: Cold cathode ion gauge experiment.

 

3.      To develop techniques for a point landing capability. Achieved.

 

4.      To further develop man’s capability to work in the lunar environment. Achieved.

 

5.      To obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites. Achieved.

 

 

Detailed Objectives

 

A.     Contingency sample collection. Achieved.

 

B.     Lunar surface extravehicular operations. Achieved.

 

C.     Portable life support system recharge. Achieved.

 

F.      Selected sample collection. Achieved.

 

G.     Photographs of candidate exploration sites.

 

1.      70 mm stereoscopic photography of the ground track from terminator to terminator during two passes over the three sites, with concurrent 16 mm sextant sequence photography during the first pass. Partially achieved. The first 70 mm pass and the concurrent 16 mm sextant sequence were accomplished. However, the necessity to repeat high resolution photography did not provide sufficient time to complete the second stereoscopic pass.

 

2.      Landmark tracking of a series of four landmarks bracketing the three sites included in the stereoscopic photography, and performed during two subsequent, successive orbits. Partially achieved. First series accomplished. However, necessity to repeat high resolution photography did not provide sufficient time to complete second series. Real‑time decision assigning higher priority to landmark tracking allowed tracking of two landmarks associated with Fra Mauro and Descartes and completion of about one‑fourth of the second stereoscopic pass.

 

3.      High resolution photographs using a 500 mm lens, and additional high resolution oblique photography. Partially achieved. The first photographs were of Herschel instead of Lalande due to crew error. A first attempt to obtain high resolution photographs of Fra Mauro and Descartes was unsuccessful because of a camera malfunction. On a second attempt, photographs were obtained of Fra Mauro and an area slightly east of Descartes.

 

H.     Lunar surface characteristics. Achieved.

 

I.        Lunar environment visibility. Achieved.

 

J.       Landed lunar module location. Achieved.

 

L.      Photographic coverage. Achieved.

 

M.   Television coverage.

 

1.      A crewman descending to the lunar surface. Achieved.

 

2.      An external view of the landed lunar module. Not achieved. The camera was damaged immediately after it was removed from its stowage compartment.

 

3.      The lunar surface in the general vicinity of the lunar module. Not achieved. The camera was damaged immediately after it was removed from its stowage compartment.

 

4.      Panoramic coverage of distant terrain features. Not achieved. The camera was damaged immediately after it was removed from its stowage compartment.

 

5.      A crewman during extravehicular activity. Not achieved. The camera was damaged immediately after it was removed from its stowage compartment.

 

N.    Surveyor III investigation. Achieved.

 

O.    Selenodetic reference point update. Achieved.

 

 

Experiments

 

1.      S-059: Lunar field geology. Achieved.

 

2.      S-080: Solar wind composition. Achieved.

 

3.      S-158: Lunar multispectral photography. Achieved.

 

4.      T-029: Pilot describing function. Achieved.

 

5.      M-515: Lunar dust detector. Achieved.

 

 

Launch Vehicle Objectives

 

1.      To launch on a flight azimuth between 72° to 96° and insertion of the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft into a circular Earth parking orbit. Achieved.

 

2.      To restart the S‑IVB during either the second or third revolution and injection of the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft into the planned translunar trajectory. Achieved.

 

3.      To provide the required attitude control for the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft during the transposition, docking, and ejection maneuver. Achieved.

 

4.      To use the S‑IVB auxiliary propulsion system burn to execute a launch vehicle evasive maneuver after ejection of the command and service module/lunar module from the S‑IVB/instrument unit. Achieved.

 

5.      To use residual S‑IVB propellants and auxiliary propulsion system to maneuver to a trajectory that utilizes lunar gravity to insert the expended S‑IVB/instrument unit into a solar orbit (“slingshot”). Not achieved. The S‑IVB/instrument unit failed to achieved solar orbit.

 

6.      To vent and dump all remaining gases and liquids to safe the S‑IVB/instrument unit. Achieved.

 

 

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