Apollo 16 Objectives

 

 

Spacecraft Primary Objectives

 

1.      To perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Descartes region. Achieved.

 

2.      To emplace and activate surface experiments. Achieved.

 

3.      To conduct inflight experiments and photographic tasks. Achieved.

 

 

Detailed Objectives

 

1.      Service module orbital photographic tasks. Achieved.

 

2.      Visual light flash phenomenon. Achieved.

 

3.      Command module photographic tasks. Partially Achieved. Timeline changes caused data loss.

 

4.      Visual observations from lunar orbit. Achieved.

 

5.      Skylab contamination study. Partially Achieved. Timeline changes caused data loss.

 

6.      Improved gas/water separator. Not Achieved. Separator failed before it could be evaluated.

 

7.      Body fluid balance analysis. Achieved.

 

8.      Subsatellite tracking for autonomous navigation. Not achieved. Timeline changes caused data loss.

 

9.      Improved fecal collection bag. Achieved.

 

10.  Skylab food package. Achieved.

 

11.  Lunar rover vehicle evaluation. Achieved.

 

 

Crew Participation Experiments

 

1.      S-031: Passive seismic. Partially Achieved. No lunar module ascent stage impact.

 

2.      S-033: Active seismic. Partially Achieved. The fourth mortar was not fired.

 

3.      S-034: Lunar surface magnetometer. Achieved.

 

4.      S-037: Heat flow. Not achieved. Electronics package cable broken.

 

5.      S-059: Lunar geology investigation. Achieved.

 

6.      S-080: Solar wind composition. Achieved.

 

7.      S-152: Cosmic ray detector (sheets). Partially achieved. Partial deployment of panel #4.

 

8.      S-160: Gamma ray spectrometer. Achieved.

 

9.      S-161: X ray fluorescence. Achieved.

 

10.  S-162: Alpha particle spectrometer. Achieved.

 

11.  S-164: S‑band transponder (command and service module/lunar module). Achieved.

 

12.  S-165: Mass spectrometer. Achieved.

 

13.  S-170: Downlink bistatic radar observations of the Moon. Achieved.

 

14.  S-177: Ultraviolet photography of Earth and Moon. Partially achieved. Timeline changes caused data loss.

 

15.  S-178: Gegenschein from lunar orbit. Achieved.

 

16.  S-198: Portable magnetometer. Achieved.

 

17.  S-200: Soil mechanics. Partially achieved. No trench was dug due to time constraints.

 

18.  S-201: Far ultraviolet camera/spectroscope. Achieved.

 

19.  M-191: Microbial response in space environment. Achieved.

 

 

Passive Experiments

 

1.      M-078: Bone mineral measurement. Achieved.

 

2.      M-211: Biostack. Achieved.

 

3.      S-176: Apollo window meteoroid. Achieved.

 

 

Operational Test

 

1.      Lunar module voice and data relay. Achieved.

 

 

Inflight Demonstration

 

1.      Fluid electrophoresis in space. Achieved.

 

 

Subsatellite Experiments

 

1.      S‑164: S‑band transponder. Achieved.

 

2.      S‑173: Particle shadows/boundary layer. Achieved.

 

3.      S‑174: Magnetometer. Achieved.

 

 

Operational Tests - Manned Spacecraft Center and U. S. Department of Defense

 

1.      Chapel Bell (classified, Department of Defense test).

 

2.      Radar skin tracking.

 

3.      Ionospheric disturbance from missiles.

 

4.      Acoustic measurement of missile exhaust noise.

 

5.      Army acoustic test.

 

6.      Long‑focal‑length optical system.

 

7.      Sonic boom measurement.

 

 

Launch Vehicle Objectives

 

1.      To launch on a flight azimuth between 72 and 100 and insert the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft into the planned circular Earth parking orbit. Achieved.

 

2.      To restart the S‑IVB during either the second or third revolution and inject the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft into the planned translunar trajectory. Achieved.

 

3.      To provide the required attitude control for the S‑IVB/instrument unit/spacecraft during transposition, docking, and ejection. Achieved.

 

4.      To perform an evasive maneuver after ejection of the command and service module/lunar module from the S‑IVB/instrument unit. Achieved.

 

5.      To target the S‑IVB/instrument stages for impact on the lunar surface at latitude 2.3 south and longitude 31.7 west. Achieved.

 

6.      To determine actual impact point within 5.0 kilometers (2.7 nautical miles) and time of impact within one second. Not achieved. The desired accuracy was not achieved.

 

7.      To vent and dump the remaining gases and propellants to safe the S‑IVB/instrument unit. Achieved.

 

 

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