SP-4102 Managing NASA in the Apollo Era

[307] Appendix C

Biographical Sketches of Principal NASA Officials


Hugh L. Dryden

Born in Pocomoke City, Maryland, in 1898. Received B.A. in 1916 and Ph.D in 1919 from The Johns Hopkins University. Joined the National Bureau of Standards in 1918 and during the 1920s and 1930s produced many technical papers in aerodynamics for the Bureau and for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Member of NACA Committee on Aerodynamics from 1931. Named Assistant Director of the Bureau of Standards in 1946 and Associate Director six months later. Joined NACA in September 1947 as Director of Research; became NACA Director in May 1949. Deputy Administrator of NASA from I October 1958 to his death on 2 December 1965.


Harold B. Finger

Born in New York City in 1924. Received B.S. in mechanical engineering from City College of New York in 1944 and M.S. in aeronautical engineering from Case Institute of Technology in 1950. Joined Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory-renamed Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in 1948-in 1944, where he remained until his appointment to the NASA Headquarters staff m 1958 as Chief of the Nuclear Engine Program. Manager of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office from its establishment in August 1960 until his assignment to headquarters early in 1967. Served as Associate Administrator for Organization and Management, 15 March 1967-1 May 1969, when he became an Assistant Secretary in the Department of Housing and Urban Development.


Robert R. Gilruth

Born in Minnesota in 1913. Earned B.S. and M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Minnesota, 1935-1936. Joined Langley Labora [308] tory in 1937; became Assistant Director in 1952. In October 1958 appointed to head the Space Task Group managing Project Mercury, the nation's first manned spaceflight program. Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, November 1961 -January 1972, when he was named to the newly created position of NASA Director of Key Personnel Development. Retired in December 1973.


T. (Thomas) Keith Glennan

Born in North Dakota in 1905. After graduating from Yale University in 1927 with a degree in electrical engineering, he became involved with the new sound motion picture industry and worked in Hollywood as a sound engineer and studio manager from 1935 to 1941. Served as Administrator and then Director of the U.S. Navy Underwater Sound Laboratories, 1942-1945. President, Case Institute of Technology, 1947-1966, with two leaves of absence: first to be a member of the Atomic Energy Commission (1950-1952), then to be the first NASA Administrator (19 August 1958-20 January 1961). Member of many boards and committees, including General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Institute for Defense Analyses, and the Aerospace Corporation.


D. Brainerd Holmes

Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1921. Received B.S. in electrical engineering in 1943 from Cornell University. Worked for Western Electric and Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1945 to 1953, when he joined the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Served as General Manager of RCA's Major Defense Systems Division, in which capacity he was project manager for the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, which was completed on time and within cost. Joined NASA in October 1961 as Director of Manned Space Flight. Named Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Centers on 30 October 1962. Announced resignation on 12 June 1963 and returned to industry as senior vice president of the Raytheon Company.


George E. Mueller

Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1918. Received B.S. from Missouri School of Mines in 1939, M.S. in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1940, and Ph.D in physics from Ohio State University in 1951. Worked in Bell Telephone Laboratories before joining faculty of Ohio State University in 1946. Appointed professor of electrical engineering at Ohio State in 1952. Before joining NASA in 1963, spent five years with Space Technology Laboratories, serving successively as Director of the Electronics Laboratories, Program Director of the Able Space Program, Vice President of Space Systems Management, and Vice President for Research and Development. Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, from I September 1963 to 10 December 1969, when he returned to private industry.


[309] Homer E. Newell

Born in Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1915. Received B.A. and M.A. in teaching from Harvard University and Ph.D in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1940. Taught at the University of Maryland from 1940 to 1944, when he joined the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Became head of NRL Rocket Sonde Branch in 1947 and was in charge of the laboratory's upper atmosphere research programs. Became Acting Superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division and was also Science Program Coordinator for Project Vanguard. Joined NASA in October 1958; became Deputy Director of the Office of Space Flight Programs. Director, Office of Space Sciences, 1 November 19611 November 1963, when he became Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications. Served as NASA Associate Administrator from 1 October 1967 to his retirement at the end of 1973. Author of many papers and several books on mathematics and space science.


Thomas O. Paine

Born in Berkeley, California, in 1921. Earned A.B. in engineering at Brown University in 1942; served as a submarine officer in the Pacific during World War II. Received M.S. and Ph.D from Stanford University (1947 and 1949) in physical metallurgy. Worked as research associate at Stanford before joining General Electric Corporation (GE) in 1949. From 1963 to 1968 was manager of the GE TEMPO Center for Advanced Studies, an interdisciplinary study group. Appointed NASA Deputy Administrator by President Johnson on 31 January 1968. Became Acting Administrator following resignation of James Webb on 7 October 1968. Nominated by President Nixon to become NASA Administrator on 5 March 1969 and confirmed by Senate fifteen days later. Resigned on 15 October 1970 to return to GE; became senior vice president in 1973. Chosen president and chief operating officer of the Northrop Corporation in February 1976.


Samuel C. Phillips

Born in Arizona in 1921. Received B.S. in electrical engineering from University of Wyoming in 1942 and M.S. in electrical engineering from University of Michigan in 1950. Joined the Air Corps in 1942 as a second lieutenant, rising to Air Force brigadier general in 1961, major general in 1964, and lieutenant general in 1968. Served as Director of the Minuteman Program from 1959 to 1963; appointed Vice Commander of the Ballistic Systems Division (Air Force Systems Command) in August 1963. Detailed to NASA Headquarters in January 1964 as Deputy Director of the Apollo Program. Appointed Apollo Program Director in October 1964 and served through August 1969. Commander, Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization, September 1969-April 1972; Director, National Security Agency, April 1972-August 1973; Commander, Air Force Systems Command, August 1973-September 1975, when he became vice president of Energy Systems Management Division of TRW, Incorporated.


[310] Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

Born in Salem, Massachusetts in 1918. Earned B.S. at Harvard University m 1939 and M.S. and Sc.D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1942 and 1951. From 1941 to 1955 he held teaching and project management positions at MIT. Joined RCA in 1955, becoming chief engineer of its Missile Electronics and Controls Division. With NASA from 1960 to 1968, first as Associate Administrator (I September 1960-2 December 1965) and then, succeeding Hugh Dryden, as Deputy Administrator from 21 December 1965 to his resignation on 5 January 1968. Appointed Hunsaker Professor at MIT in 1968. Served as Air Force Secretary from February 1969 to May 1973. President, National Academy of Engineering, 1973-1974. Administrator, Energy Research and Development Administration, January 1975-January 1977. Currently Henry R. Luce Professor at MIT Alfred P. Sloan School of Management.


Willis H. Shapley

Born in Pasadena, California, in 1917. Studied at the University of Chicago 1938-1942. Joined staff of the Bureau of the Budget in 1942, becoming a Principal Examiner in 1948, Assistant Chief (Air Force) of the Bureau's Military Division (1956-1961), and Deputy Chief of the Military Division from 1961 to 1965. In each position he was charged with reviewing research and development programs of DOD and the programs of NACA/NASA, and he was instrumental m drafting the original version of the 1958 Space Act. Served as NASA Deputy Associate Administrator from I September 1965 to his retirement in August 1975.


Abe Silverstein

Born in Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1908. Received B.S. in mechanical engineering from Rose Polytechnic Institute in 1929 and a mechanical engineering professional degree from the same school in 1934. Aerodynamic research engineer at Langley Laboratory from 1929 to 1940; head, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 19401943; transferred to Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory, 1943. Chief, Wind Tunnel and Flight Division, 1943-1949. In 1949 was placed in charge of all research at Lewis Laboratory. Associate Director of Lewis Laboratory, 1952-1958. Transferred to NACA Headquarters in May 1958 to help prepare the transition to NASA. Director of Space Flight Programs for NASA, October 1958-October 1961, in which capacity he contributed greatly to the development of NASA s unmanned probes and satellites. Director, Lewis Research Center, November 1961-November 1969. Became director of Environmental Planning for Republic Steel Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1970.


Wernher von Braun

Born in Wiersitz, Germany, in 1912. Attended institutes of technology in Berlin and Zurich and received doctorate in physics at the University of Berlin in [311] 1934. Joined the rocket experimental center in Peenemunde in 1937 and was director of research until 1945; his work and that of his colleagues led to development of the V-1 and V-2 guided missiles used against the Allies during World War II. Surrendered to U.S. Army in 1945; came to the United States and worked at the White Sands Missile Range before moving to the Redstone Arsenal m Huntsville, Alabama, in 1950. Became U.S. citizen in 1955. Developed the Redstone and Jupiter-C rockets, the latter of which placed Explorer 1, the nation's first unmanned satellite, into orbit on 31 January 1958. Transferred to NASA in 1960 and was Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from July 1960 to February 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Resigned in July 1972 to become corporate vice president (Engineering and Development) at Fairchild Industries. Died in Alexandria, Virginia, on 15 June 1977. Author of many papers on rocketry and space flight, von Braun was one of the best known figures in the history of the U.S. space program and played a crucial role in the development of the Saturn rocket.


James E. Webb

Born in Granville County, North Carolina, in 1906. Received B.A. in education from University of North Carolina in 1928. Studied law at George Washington University and was admitted to the District of Columbia Bar in 1936. Joined Sperry Gyroscope in 1936, rising to vice president in 1943. Became Assistant to the Under Secretary of the Treasury in 1946; served as Director of the Bureau of the Budget from 1946 to 1949 and as Under Secretary of State from 1949 to 1952. In private business from 1952 through 1960; served as president of Republic Supply Company, as assistant to the president of the Kerr-McGee Oil Company, and as a member of the board of McDonnell Aircraft. Administrator of NASA, 14 February 1961-7 October 1968, when he returned to the private sector as a lawyer and consultant. Member, Commission on Government Procurement, March-December 1972. Member of many boards and task forces; currently a trustee of the National Geographic Society and a member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Author of Space Age Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969).


DeMarquis Wyatt

Born in St. Joseph, Missouri, in 1919. Received B.S. in mechanical engineering from Missouri School of Mines in 1941. Served as a research scientist and supervisor at the Lewis Laboratory from 1944 to 1958, specializing in aerodynamic and thermodynamic studies of advanced aircraft and propulsion systems. Served at NASA Headquarters from October 1958 to his retirement in July 1973. Director, Office of Programs, June 1961-November 1963; Deputy Assistant Administrator/Assistant Administrator for Programming, November 1963-March 1967. Assistant Administrator for Program Planning and Analysis, 15 March 1967-May 1970, when he became Assistant Administrator for Planning. Until the 1967 reorganization Wyatt's office had major responsibility for budget preparation and review of program proposals.