SP-4102 Managing NASA in the Apollo Era
 

 

[315] Appendix E

Chronology of Administrative and Other Events, 1957-1969

 

1957
 
 
4 October - The Soviet Union announced that it had successfully orbited an Earth-orbital satellite, Sputnik 1, as its contribution to the International Geophysical Year. This was followed by the launch of Sputnik 2, three times as large as its predecessor and carrying a dog as passenger, on 3 November.
 
7 November - President Dwight Eisenhower named James Killian, head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as Special Assistant for Science and Technology and chairman of the President's Science Advisory Committee. On 27 November the Committee was transferred from the Office of Defense Mobilization to the Executive Office.
 
 
1958
 
 
31 January - The Army's Juno I successfully launched Explorer 1, the first U.S. Earth-orbital satellite. The payload was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, while the experiment of Prof. James Van Allen of the University of Iowa detected a hitherto unknown belt of radiation above the Earth.
 
7 February - Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy established the Advanced Research Projects Agency at a level above and distinct from the services. The new agency was intended to sponsor projects without immediate military application, although the military services were authorized to act as executive agents on many of its projects.
 
5 March - President Eisenhower approved recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Government Organization that the new civilian space agency be lodged in a reconstituted National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
 
14 April - Administration's draft legislation submitted to Congress.
 
15 July - The final version of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 was passed by Congress. It provided for an agency headed by a single Administrator, for a National Aeronautics and Space Council to set overall policy, and for a Civilian-Military Liaison Committee to coordinate the programs of the Defense Department and the new agency. The act authorized the Administrator to fill up to 260 "excepted" positions exempt from civil service regulations and stipulated that the agency would take title to all patents developed in the course of work performed under contract to the agency.
 
29 July - President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act.
 
3 August - The National Academy of Sciences established a Space Science Board, one of whose principal functions was to advise the Space Agency on its science programs. The Board was funded jointly by the National Science Foundation and NASA until 1964, when NASA assumed sole responsibility.
 
15 August - The Senate confirmed the nomination of T. Keith Glennan as NASA Administrator and Hugh Dryden as NASA Deputy Administrator. At the time of their appointments, Glennan was president of the Case Institute of Technology, and Dryden was Director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
 
27 August - A rider to the NASA Appropriation Act stipulated that NASA would have to seek authorizing legislation before it could request appropriations for the 1960 fiscal year. This requirement was made permanent in 1959.
 
30 September - The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics went out of existence at the close of business.
 
1 October - NASA began its official existence. By Executive Order 10783, the President transferred to NASA all the property and civilian personnel of the Naval Research Laboratory's Vanguard Division. Also transferred were several lunar probes sponsored by the Army, the F-1 rocket engine under Air Force study, and over $100 million in unexpended funds.
 
7 October - Project Mercury, the nation's first manned flight program, was established. The project was to be directed by a Space Task Group stationed at the Langley Research Center and headed by Robert Gilruth.
 
3 December - Executive Order 10793 transferred to NASA the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's functions and Government-owned property. The laboratory, founded in 1944, was to operate as a facility of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.
 
 

1959

 
 
January - The position of Associate Administrator was established at NASA Headquarters. Richard Homer, Assistant Air Force Secretary (Research & Development) was named to fill the position on 1 June.
 
3 April - An agreement between NASA and the Department of Defense (DOD) established a procedure for the detailing of military personnel to NASA.
 
13 April - The Advanced Research Project Agency's Tiros meteorological satellite was transferred to NASA.
 
1 May - NASA renamed its Space Center in Beltsville, Maryland, the Goddard Space Flight Center, in honor of one of the founders of modern rocketry. The center, formally established in January 1959, was largely staffed by Vanguard personnel transferred to NASA.
 
August - Glennan promulgated guidelines for contract awards exceeding $1 million. The Administrator, assisted by ad hoc boards, became responsible for establishing the selection criteria for each contract.
 
21 October - President Eisenhower announced decision to transfer the Army's Saturn project to NASA. As part of the transfer, NASA was to receive the Development Operations Division of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, located at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.
 
12 November - A NASA-DOD agreement established the principles by which each agency was to reimburse the other for services rendered.
 
December - A headquarters reorganization created a new Office of Launch Vehicle Programs, with responsibility for Saturn and the new Huntsville installation. The new Office was headed by Maj. Gen. Don Ostrander (USAF), acting head of the Advanced Research Projects Agency.
 
 
1960
 
 
14 March - The transfer of the Development Operations Division to NA became effective.
 
15 March - President Eisenhower named the Huntsville facility the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The formal mass transfer of personnel and facilities from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency took place on 1 July. The new center was headed by Wernher von Braun, who had been in charge of launch vehicle development at the Redstone Arsenal before the transfer took place.
 
May - NASA established a Space Science Steering Committee to act as an internal advisory body for the Director of Space Flight Programs, Abe Silverstein. Following the 1963 reorganization, the Committee was renamed the Space Science and Applications Steering Committee, and its subcommittees were expanded from seven to thirteen.
 
June - Congress authorized an increase in the number of NASA excepted positions from 260 to 290.
 
28-29 July - At a NASA Industry Program Plans Conference in Washington, D.C., Silverstein announced that the agency's manned circumlunar mission project would be named Apollo.
 
1 September - RCA engineer Robert C. Seamans, Jr., succeeded Homer as Associate Administrator.
13 September - NASA and DOD formally established an Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board, chaired by the NASA Deputy Administrator and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, to coordinate programs, avoid wasteful duplication, and identify problems. The agreement provided that actions based on Board consideration of matters "may be taken by individual members."
 
12 October - The Advisory Committee on Organization established by Glennan the preceding March submitted its final report. The Committee, headed by Lawrence Kimpton, chancellor of the University of Chicago, consisted of outsiders with extensive experience in business and Government. While the report surveyed the entire scope of NASA organization, it apparently had little effect on the conduct of operations - coming as it did at the end of the Eisenhower Administration.
 
 
1961
 
 
10 January - A task force headed by Jerome Wiesner of MIT issued a report to President-elect John F. Kennedy. The report concluded that NASA had placed too much emphasis on manned space flight and not enough on unmanned space science and that NASA activities showed little sign of forward planning.
 
7 February - President Kennedy nominated James E. Webb, a lawyer and former Director of the Budget, to be NASA Administrator. Webb's nomination was confirmed by the Senate on 9 February.
 
February-August - At Webb's behest, NASA officials conducted several studies that laid the groundwork for the November reorganization.
 
23 February - Webb and Deputy Secretary of Defense Roswell Gilpatric agreed that NASA and DOD would not initiate development of space launch vehicles or boosters without mutual consent.
 
20 April - Congress approved an administration proposal to reorganize the Space Council. Public Law 87-26 transferred the Council to the Executive Office of the President, made the Vice President the chairman, reduced the Council to Five statutory members, and authorized the Council to "assist" as well as advise :he President.
 
5 May - In the nation's first manned space flight, Alan Shepard was launched by a Redstone booster for a fifteen-minute suborbital flight.
 
25 May - President Kennedy addressed a joint session of Congress and outlined the broad-gauged national space program prepared by Webb and Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. Kennedy proposed (a) the goal, "before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth"; (b) the development of a nuclear rocket; (c) the development of communications and meteorological satellites. The President accompanied his message with a request for an additional $549 million, most of which was earmarked for :he lunar program.
 
5 June - NASA announced the establishment of an Office of Programs under DeMarquis Wyatt to serve as a planning and review staff to the Associate Administrator.
 
28 June - A joint report issued by NASA, DOD, and the Federal Aviation Agency concluded that the development of a commercial supersonic transport aircraft was technically feasible and in the national interest, that the Government's role should be one of assistance to industry, and that "maximum feasible recovery of direct government expenditures should be sought."
 
20 July - A joint NASA-DOD Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group was created under the co-chairmanship of Nicholas Golovin (NASA) and Lawrence Kavanau (DOD). Although the group could not resolve the question of mission mode for Apollo, it made several important recommendations, including one that the Air Force proceed with the development of the Titan III launch vehicle.
 
9 August - NASA announced first major Apollo contract award, to MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory for Apollo Guidance and Navigation.
 
24 August - NASA announced selection of site at Cape Canaveral, Florida, as site of Apollo launches. A NASA-DOD agreement provided that the site would be operated as a joint venture under single management to prevent duplication and that the Air Force would be assigned responsibility for all "range operations."
 
September-December - NASA announced prime contractors for the three stages of the Advanced Saturn launch vehicle: Boeing for the first stage (S-IC), North American Aviation (Rocketdyne Division) for the second (S-II), and Douglas Aircraft for the third (S-IVB).
 
19 September - NASA announced that a new Manned Spacecraft Center would be established at Houston, Texas, with the Space Task Group as its nucleus.
 
October - Congress authorized NASA to raise its ceiling of excepted positions from 290 to 425.
 
1 November - NASA announced a major headquarters reorganization. The following offices were abolished: Advanced Research Programs, Space Flight Programs, Launch Vehicle Programs, and Life Science Programs. Five new offices were established: Advanced Research and Technology (under Ira Abbott); Space Sciences (Homer Newell); Manned Space Flight (D. Brainerd Holmes); Applications (vacant, subsequently filled by Morton Stoller); and Tracking and Data Acquisition (Edmond Buckley). All NASA field installations were to report directly to Associate Administrator Seamans.
 
28 November - Despite a report from the source evaluation board rating the Martin Company higher technically, Webb, Dryden, and Seamans selected North American Aviation as prime contractor for the Apollo command and service modules.
 
7 December - Seamans announced the creation of a new program, Gemini, as a follow-on to Mercury. Its major purposes were to develop the technique of rendezvous in space and to extend orbital flight time.
12 December - NASA requested the Army Corps of Engineers to assume responsibility for managing its construction of new facilities, particularly at the Cape.
 
21 December - First meeting of the Manned Space Flight Management Council, chaired by Holmes and including the Manned Space Flight Center directors and their staff.
 
1962
 
24 January - Establishment of NASA Office of Public Affairs.
 
9 February - NASA announced that General Electric had been selected for a major supporting role in Apollo to provide integration analysis of the total space vehicle, assure reliability of the entire space vehicle, and develop and operate a checkout system.
 
21 February - Webb wrote to the president of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), requesting that the Bell System provide experienced staff to prepare studies and analyses in support of the lunar landing. On 23 March AT&T announced the formation of Bellcomm, Inc., a profit-making corporation owned by AT&T and Western Electric and working exclusively for NASA.
 
30 April - Task force on Government Contracting for Research and Development submitted its report. The Committee, chaired by David Bell, the Director of the Budget, included Webb and McNamara. Its principal recommendations were (a) that Government salaries should be competitive with those offered for similar work by private industry; (b) that certain functions should never be contracted out; (c) that Government facilities should be used to the fullest possible extent; and that, where possible, the Government should use fixed-price rather than cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts and that provision be made for incentive arrangements.
 
29 May - Webb appointed a study group chaired by Walter Sohier, NASA General Counsel, to review source evaluation procedures and various methods of improving contractor performance. Throughout 1962 NASA moved toward the introduction of incentive clauses in its major development contracts.
 
1 July - The Launch Operations Center at Cape Canaveral was officially activated as a separate NASA field installation.
 
11 July - In a press conference NASA explained the choice of lunar orbit rendezvous as the Apollo mission mode. NASA also announced that an improved version of the Saturn I would be developed to test-fly the Apollo configuration in Earth orbit.
 
21 July - NASA selected design for the Advanced Saturn launch complex northwest of the Cape. The launch vehicles would be erected and checked out vertically and then transported to launch complex 39, already under construction.
 
31 August - President Kennedy signed the communications satellite bill, establishing a private corporation in charge of the U.S. portion of a future global communications satellite network.
 
11 October - Congress passed the Federal Salary Reform bill, which increased the rate for GS-18 from $18 500 to $20 000 and created a nonquota category of scientific and research positions to be filled by agencies, including NASA, upon approval by the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
 
30 October - Holmes was named Deputy Associate Administrator for the Manned Space Flight Centers. Under this arrangement, MSFC, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and the Launch Operations Center would report directly to Holmes, rather than to Seamans.
 
20 November - NASA named Adm. W. Fred Boone (USN-Ret.) to the newly created position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Defense Affairs.
 
 
1963
 
 
14 January - A NASA-DOD agreement provided that Merritt Island Launch Area would be operated as a NASA installation, separate and distinct from the Air Force's Atlantic Missile Range; that NASA would be responsible for master planning of Merritt Island; and that DOD would remain responsible for operation and management of range facilities of Atlantic Missile Range as a national asset, providing common range service to DOD and NASA.
 
17 January - NASA's budget request for FY 1964 was sent to Congress and included $5 million for land acquisition and engineering services for an Electronics Research Center in the Boston area.
 
21 January - NASA-DOD agreement confirmed NASA's role as Gemini project manager, created Gemini Program Planning Board to plan experiments for NASA and DOD, and agreed that "DOD and NASA will initiate major new programs or projects in the field of manned space flight aimed chiefly at the attainment of experimental or other capabilities in near-earth orbit only by mutual agreement."
 
25 February - Memo from Seamans to all center directors recommending that requests for proposals, including the incentive clause, "contain the precise language of the definitive contract terms."
 
March - Establishment of NASA Office of Industry Affairs, with the Procurement Division placed under it. At the same time, the Industrial Applications Division of the Office of Applications was renamed the Technology Utilization Division and charged with disseminating information on the commercial applications of space technology.
 
15-16 May - Astronaut Gordon Cooper's twenty-two-orbit flight concluded the Mercury program.
 
5 June - Delivering Air Force Academy commencement address, President Kennedy said, "It is my judgment that this Government should immediately commence a new program in partnership with private industry to develop at the earliest practical date the prototype of a commercially successful supersonic transport superior to that being built in any other country of the world." In a 14 June
letter to Speaker of the House he described the proposed supersonic transport development.
 
12 June - D. Brainerd Holmes announced his resignation as Deputy Associate Administrator for the Manned Space Flight Centers. Dr. George E. Mueller, Vice President for R&D of Space Technology Laboratories, was named to succeed him on 23 July.
 
24 September - At meeting of the Manned Space Flight Management Council it was resolved that the monthly program review and the monthly Management Council meetings should be combined and that the size of the Council should be decreased.
 
14 October - First meeting of the NASA Management Committee, chaired by Seamans and attended by key headquarters functional officials, including the heads of the Offices of Industry Affairs, Public Affairs, International Affairs, and Administration.
 
29 October - At meeting of Manned Space Flight Management Council, Mueller stressed the importance of an approach to meeting schedules that would "maximize 'all-up' systems flight tests." He also said the philosophy should include obtaining "complete systems at the Cape . . . and scheduling both delivery and launch dates." (Minutes of Management Council).
 
1 November - Major reorganization of NASA Headquarters became effective, consolidating the program offices and delineating certain staff functions. George Mueller was named Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, with MSC, MSFC, and the Launch Operations Center reporting to him; Homer Newell became Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, and Wallops Station reporting to him; while Raymond Bisplinghoff, the Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, directed the Ames, Flight, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers. These program managers would report to the Associate Administrator. Also reporting to Seamans would be the Deputy Associate Administrators for Industry Affairs, Administration, Programming, and Defense Affairs.
 
29 November - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed executive order changing the name of the Launch Operations Center to the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC).
 
10 December - Defense Secretary McNamara announced cancelation of the Dyna-Soar manned aero-spacecraft project. Some of the funds saved would be diverted into long-range exploration of the military uses of man in space, the chief project of which would be a Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) using Gemini-type spacecraft.
 
 
1964
 
 
9 January - NASA and the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) signed a memorandum of understanding on supersonic transport. FAA was to be responsible for Erection and management of design and evaluation of proposals; NASA, for conducting background research, providing technical advice, making resource' available to FAA, and vehicle flight testing.
 
14 January - NASA-DOD agreement on instrumentation ships provided that ships required to support NASA and DOD programs would be placed in pool operation on behalf of both agencies, and that the Navy would be the lead agency on ship modification and conversion.
 
30 January - In letter to Webb, President Johnson requested that NASA outline its post-Apollo plans. NASA established Future Programs Task Group under Francis Smith to reply to President.
 
30 January - Basic agreement between NASA and U.S. Weather Bureau to establish a National Operational Meteorological Satellite System. The Weather Bureau would determine overall requirements, operate command and data acquisition stations, and process data for integration into weather analyses. NASA would design and launch spacecraft, operate launch sites, and conduct launch operations.
 
April - NASA issued NPC 401 on use of contracts for nonpersonal services
 
20 April - NASA-DOD agreement assigned responsibility to DOD for providing contract administration services within the Philadelphia region. This agreement served as prototype for NASA use of DOD contract administration services throughout the United States.
 
27 April-4 May - House Science and Astronautics Committee's Subcommittee on NASA Oversight held hearings on failure of Ranger 6 lunar probe.
 
July-December - Joint study conducted by AACB Launch Vehicle Panel confirmed NASA decision to use the Saturn rather than the Titan III launch vehicle for Apollo.
 
1 September - NASA Electronics Research Center at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was formally activated.
 
15 September - A task force headed by NASA Deputy Associate Administrator Earl Hilburn issued first report on Studies Relating to Management Effectiveness in Scheduling and Cost Estimating. Second report submitted on 15 December.
 
10 December - Webb, McNamara, Donald Hornig, the President's Science Advisor, and Kermit Gordon, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, reached preliminary agreement on the purpose and scope of the MOL.
 
 

1965

 
 
January - Future Programs Task Group issued final report. This outlined future program possibilities, but did not specifically choose among them. In a letter to the President of 16 February, Webb endorsed the exploration of Mars by unmanned vehicles and the use of the Saturn booster and the lunar module for a variety of missions.
 
25 January - Webb and McNamara announced NASA-DOD agreement on MOL. Both agencies would conduct cooperative studies to identify experiments that might be conducted in conjunction with the military program, while DOD continued intensive studies aimed at defining primary military objectives.
 
22 May - NASA-DOD agreement outlined principles in the management of colocated tracking stations.
 
22 July - Harry Goett dismissed as Director of Goddard Space Flight Center after persistent disagreements with senior NASA management. Dr. John Clark, director of Sciences in the Office of Space Science and Applications, named Acting Director.
 
6 August - Saturn/Apollo Applications directorate established within Office of Manned Space Flight to plan and direct programs utilizing technology developed in Apollo.
 
25 August - At a White House news conference, President Johnson announced approval of DOD development of the MOL at a cost of $1.5 billion. First unmanned flights, launched by a Titan IIIC, would begin late in 1966 or early 1967. At the same press conference, he announced that he was extending the DOD system of planning-programming-budgeting to civilian agencies, including NASA.
 
1 September - Willis Shapley, formerly Deputy Chief of the Military Division of the Bureau of the Budget, became NASA Associate Deputy Administrator.
 
28 October - NASA officially instituted its policy of phased project planning. Research and development process divided into four stages: advanced studies, project definition, design, and development/operations.
 
2 December - Hugh Dryden, NASA Deputy Administrator since 1958, died ~t age 67.
 
29 December - NASA Headquarters reorganization plan disseminated throughout NASA. The plan provided for the following changes: establishment of Office of the Administrator, in which the Administrator and Deputy Administrator would be supported by the Associate Deputy Administrator with a strong secretariat; and establishment of operating pattern whereby the Deputy Administrator, Dr. Seamans, would serve as general manager. Among other changes, Director of Office of Tracking and Data Acquisition would be made Associate Administrator or Tracking and Data Acquisition, and heads of all functional staff offices as well as the four program offices would report to Deputy Administrator.
 
 
1966
 
 
14 January - Webb invited Norman Ramsey, a Harvard physics professor, to form a committee to evaluate NASA's advisory structure.
 
21 March - A report of a subcommittee of the House Government Operations Committee recommended that NASA's Apollo Applications and the Air Force's MOL be merged in order to avoid wasteful duplication.
 
19 May - A report of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences questioned the adequacy of NASA funding for aeronautical R&D and suggested a separate budget for aeronautics as a possible solution.
 
5 August - The consulting firm of Booz, Allen and Hamilton submitted its report to NASA on the effectiveness of the agency's incentive contracts. Based or a study of fifteen major contracts, the report concluded that incentive contracts were more effective than cost-plus-fixed-fee in holding down costs but that NASA still had much to learn about their benefits and limitations.
 
15 August - Ad Hoc Advisory Committee chaired by Norman Ramsey sub misted its report to the Administrator. Its principal recommendation, that NASA establish a general advisory committee of non-NASA scientists reporting to the Administrator, was rejected by Webb and Newell.
 
29 August - Seamans signed project approval document authorizing Apollo Applications proposal. The approved plan called for launching the fueled upper stage of a Saturn IB, which would then be outfitted by the astronauts as an orbital "workshop."
 
8 September - A NASA task force led by Wesley Hjornevik submitted its "Considerations in the Management of Manpower in NASA." Purpose of report was to consider "possible methods by which Center complements could be adjusted by management to meet the needs of changing roles and missions."
 

15 November - With successful flight of Gemini 12, NASA's Project Gemini officially ended.

 
 

1967

 
 
27 January - Three-man crew for NASA's first manned Apollo spaceflight died when flash fire swept through the Apollo 1 spacecraft on the launch pad at KSC. Victims were Virgil Grissom, one of seven original Mercury astronauts, Edward H. White, and Roger B. Chaffee. NASA appointed Apollo 204 Review Board, chaired by Floyd Thompson, Director of Langley Research Center, on 28 January.
 
February - In its report on The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period, the President's Science Advisory Committee rejected the idea of selecting a single major goal as focal point for U.S. post-Apollo program and urged instead a "balanced program based on the expectation of eventual manned planetary exploration."
 
15 March - NASA carried out a major headquarters reorganization, the fourth since 1961. Harold B. Finger, Manager of NASA-Atomic Energy Commission Space Nuclear Propulsion Office since its formation in 1960, was named to new position of Associate Administrator for Organization and Management. Reporting to Finger would be the Assistant Administrators for Administration, Industry Affairs, Technology Utilization, and University Affairs. DeMarquis Wyatt became Assistant Administrator for Program Plans and Analysis. Budget and programming functions previously under Wyatt were transferred to the Office of Administration, headed by William Lilly, where they would be integrated into a NASA-wide system for resources management and budgeting.
 
9 April - Apollo Review Board submitted final report. While Board was unable to pinpoint exact ignition source, it did identify many engineering and design deficiencies that led to the disaster.
 
10 April-10 May - House Science and Astronautics Committee's Subcommittee on NASA Oversight held hearings on Apollo fire. It adjourned without issuing a report. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences held concurrent hearings but issued no report until January 1968.
 
1 May - NASA established the Lunar and Planetary Missions Advisory Board to assist in developing a general strategy for manned and unmanned lunar and planetary missions. Board would work with all senior officials involved in such missions and would report to the Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications. An Astronomy Missions Board with similar responsibilities for space astronomy was established on 13 November.
 
9 May - At hearing before Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Webb announced that NASA was extending Boeing Company's responsibilities to include integration of command and service module and lunar module with Saturn booster system.
 
17 May - In memorandum for the record, Seamans recorded decisions taken several days before by senior management: (a) main Apollo program to take priority over Apollo Applications; (b) all Apollo hardware to be configured for mainline mission; (c) Apollo Applications flight schedules and mission requirements to remain tentative pending further progress on mainline Apollo and further definition of payloads.
 
18 May - Bernard Moritz appointed Assistant Administrator for Special Contracts Negotiation and Review, with special responsibility for such major contracts as those involving the Apollo command and service modules and the Saturn S-II stage.
 
June - U.S. General Accounting Office issued report concluding that certain support service contracts at the Goddard and Marshall Space Flight Centers were excessively costly and that the Government could have saved money by using civil service employees.
 
25 August - NASA announced that Homer Newell would become Associate Administrator, effective 1 October. He would be succeeded as Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications by Dr. John Naugle.
 
September - Owing to reductions in the NASA budget request, NASA suspended production of the Saturn V rocket beyond the fifteenth vehicle and canceled the Voyager unmanned mission to Mars and the NERVA II nuclear rocket program.
 
October - Leo Pellerzi, General Counsel to the U.S. Civil Service Commission, declared certain NASA support service contracts illegal, chiefly because contract personnel were performing the regular work of the agency. During the next few months, NASA issued guidelines to bring such contracts under tighter central control.
 
October - U.S. Civil Service Commission submitted its "Evaluation of Personnel Management" to Webb. The report concluded that there were a number of problem areas in NASA personnel management: lack of headquarters leadership in supervisory training and promotions, lack of understanding by supervisors of their personnel management responsibilities, and lack of management support for equal opportunity programs. To reply to the report, Webb established an internal Personnel Management Review Committee on 21 November.
 
2 October - Webb announced resignation of Deputy Administrator Seamans, effective 5 January 1968.
 
9 November - Successful launch of Apollo 4. This was the first launch of the Saturn V rocket, as well as the first launch from KSC.
 
 
1968
 
 
January - Establishment of NASA Management Council, chaired by Newell and attended by representatives of all the headquarters program and functional offices.
 
26 January - Resignation of Edmond Buckley as Associate Administrator for Tracking and Data Acquisition. He was succeeded by his deputy, Gerald Truszynski.
 
27 January - In a memorandum to all key NASA officials, Webb outlined a revised system for project approval and control. A NASA operating plan would serve as an official statement of resource plans for the current year, and each item in the plan would be covered by project approval documents, all of which would be reviewed by the Office of Organization and Management.
 
11 March - Associate Administrator Newell announced that the project status reviews before top management would become "general management reviews" to be attended by all key headquarters officials.
 
2 May - NASA issued revised guidelines for phased project planning. The four phases were now designated preliminary analysis, definition, design, and development/operations.
 
16 September - At a White House press conference, James Webb announced his resignation as NASA Administrator, effective 7 October. Thomas Paine, who had been named Deputy Administrator by President Johnson the preceding February, became Acting Administrator.
 
December - President-elect Richard M. Nixon named Dr. Charles Townes to head a task force to make recommendations in space planning.
 
 
1969
 
 
February - President Nixon established a Space Task Group to draft a plan for the next decade of the U.S. space program. Chaired by Vice President Spiro Agnew, the task group included NASA Administrator Paine, Secretary of the Air Force Robert Seamans, and Lee DuBridge, the President's Science Advisor.
 
5 March - President Nixon announced nomination of Acting Administrator Paine to be NASA Administrator. Nomination confirmed by Senate on 20 March.
 
20 March - Appointment of NASA Associate Administrator for Organization and Management Harold Finger to be Assistant Secretary for Urban Research and Technology, Department of Housing and Urban Development. Nomination confirmed by Senate on 25 April.
 
May - NASA "procurement lead time" study uncovered major delays in the processing of NASA R&D contracts.
 
7 May - NASA announced establishment of task group on manned space stations under Dr. George Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, and of task group on space shuttle under Charles Mathews, Mueller's deputy.
 
1 June - Report of task force headed by Dr. Townes recommended continuation of $6 billion space effort, disapproved of any commitment to large orbiting space station, and urged commitment to unmanned planetary probes.
 
10 June - Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard announced cancelation of MOL because of cuts in defense spending and advances in unmanned satellite systems.
 
20 July - Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed on Moon.
 
22 July - NASA announced revised plans for first orbital workshop, with 1972 launch using first two stages of Saturn V to launch workshop and Apollo Telescope Mount together. Workshop would be outfitted on ground and would arrive in Earth orbit equipped for immediate occupancy by astronauts and with Apollo Telescope Mount attached.
 
1 September - Lt. Gen. Samuel Phillips (USAF), Apollo Program Director since 1964, resigned to become Commander of Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization. He was succeeded by Rocco Petrone, Director of Launch Operations at KSC since 1966.
 
15 September - President's Space Task Group presented report The Post Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future to President Nixon. Report recommended goal of balanced manned and unmanned programs; increased emphasis on utilization of space technology; and development of new systems and technology space operations that emphasized commonality, reusability, and economy through development of new space transportation capability and space station modules. Report outlined three possible NASA programs for manned Mars landing before end of the century.
 
10 November - NASA announced resignation of Dr. George Mueller as Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, effective 10 December. No successor was named.
 
13 November- - President Nixon sent to Senate nomination of Dr. George M. Low as NASA Deputy Administrator. At the time of his nomination, Low was Apollo spacecraft manager at MSC. Senate confirmed nomination on 26 November, and Low was sworn in on 3 December.
 
29 December - NASA announced decision to close Electronics Research Center at Cambridge, Massachusetts, owing to budget cuts.
 
 

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