SP-4102 Managing NASA in the Apollo Era
 

Eighth NASA management conference, Ames Research Center 31 October-1 November 1963.

 
We can lick gravity, but sometimes the paperwork is overwhelming.
Wernher von Braun
 
Art is I; science is we.
Claude Bernard.
 
 

Contents

 

FOREWORD.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER 1. KEY ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS OF NASA'S FIRST DECADE.
 
CHAPTER 2. THE MAKING OF NASA POLICY, 1958-1969.
The Origins of NASA.
The Transfer of Programs to NASA.
The Lunar Landing Decision and Its Aftermath.
The Initial Payoff, 1963-1966.
From Apollo 204 to Apollo 11.
 
CHAPTER 3. HEADQUARTERS ORGANIZATION, OR THE VIEW FROM THE SEVENTH FLOOR.
Creating a Headquarters Organization, October 1958-January 1961
Turn and Counterturn, 1961-1963.
The Situation at the End of l966.
Organizational Changes, 1967-1968.
Conclusion: What Did Top Management Do?.
 
CHAPTER 4. THE NASA ACQUISITION PROCESS: CONTRACTING FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
A Summary of NASA Contracting Philosophy.
Origins of Government by Contract.
How NASA Learned To Deal With Its Contractors, 1958-1962.
The Bell Report and Its Aftermath, 1962-1963.
The NASA Acquisition Process Evaluated.
The Integrity of the NASA Civil Service Staff.
Selection Criteria and Their Effectiveness.
Use of Incentive Provisions.
 
CHAPTER 5. NASA MANPOWER POLICY. Introduction.
The Making of NASA Manpower Policy.
NASA Excepted and Supergrade Positions, 1958-1968.
Characteristics of the NASA Work Force.
Support Service Contracts and the General Accounting Office.
Personnel Management Policy, 1967-1969.
Personnel Retrenchments, 1967-1969.
Some Conclusions.
 
CHAPTER 6. PROGRAM PLANNING AND AUTHORIZATION.
Prerequisites for Successful Planning.
Program Review.
Advanced Studies.
R&D Project Planning and Approval.
Cost-Estimating Procedures.
Phased Project Planning, 1965-1969.
Four Approaches to R&D Programming.
Conclusions.
 
CHAPTER 7. THE NASA BUDGETARY PROCESS .
The Functions of the Bureau of the Budget.
Difficulties in Reviewing the NASA Budget.
How the NASA Budget Was Formulated.
Federal R&D Spending in the 1960s.
Trends in NASA Program Categories.
Phasing Down the Space Program 1965-1970.
 
CHAPTER 8. THE STRUCTURE OF NASA-DOD RELATIONS.
The Scope of Interagency Relations.
The Beginnings of a Division of Labor: Advent and Syncom.
NASA-DOD Relations, 1959-1963.
Gemini and the MOL Decision, January 1963-August 1965.
Conclusions.
 
CHAPTER 9. NASA's LONG-RANGE PLANNING, 1964-1969.
Origins of NASA Planning, 1959-1963.
The Future Programs Task Group, 1964-1965.
The Situation in Mid-1966.
The Role of the Outside Advisor.
Toward a Post-Apollo NASA, September 1966-October 1968.
The End of a Decade- Report of the President's Space Task Group, October 1968-October 1969.
The Adequacy of NASA Planning- Institutional Considerations.
 
CHAPTER 10. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS.

 

NOTES.
APPENDIX A. A NOTE ON SOURCES.
APPENDIX B. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CITED IN TEXT.
APPENDIX C. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRINCIPAL NASA OFFICIALS.
APPENDIX D. TYPES OF CONTRACTS AUTHORIZED BY NASA.
APPENDIX E. CHRONOLOGY OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER EVENTS, 1957-1969.

INDEX.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR.

Illustrations

 

Tables

Table 4-1.- Distribution of direct NASA procurements, FY 1960-1968.
Table 4-2.- Average schedule slippage factor for various classes of projects.
Table 4-3.- Average schedule slippage factor by center.
Table 4-4.- Nonpersonal service contracts: Number of Government and contract personnel, 30 June 1962-31 May 1968.
Table 4-5.- Competition in NASA awards to business firms, FY 1961-1968
Table 4-6.- Breakdown of SEB and non-SEB cases, 1958-1965.
Table 5-1.- NASA scientists and engineers as a percentage of NASA employment 1960-1968.
Table 5-2.- Organizational sources of NASA in-house scientists and engineers.
Table 5-3.- Total scientists and engineers on NASA work by program office, 30 June 1964.
Table 5-4.- NASA requirements for scientists and engineers compared with national requirements, 1960-1970.
Table 5-5.- Reductions in permanent civil service employees, 31 July 196730 June 1970.
Table 6-1.- Cost growth in selected R&D projects, 1958-1966, in millions of dollars.
Table 7-1.- NASA requests, authorizations, appropriations, obligations, and disbursements- all appropriations, 1959-1968, in millions of dollars.
Table 7-2.- NASA budget requests and appropriations, FY 1959-1971, in millions of dollars.

 

Figures

Frontispiece [top of this page]- Eighth NASA management conference, Ames Research Center 31 October-1 November 1963.
Figure 2-1.- Apollo launch vehicles.
Figure 3-1.- NASA organization chart, 17 January 1961.
Figure 3-2.- NASA organization chart, 1 November 1961.
Figure 3-3.- T. Keith Glennan, NASA Administrator from August 1958 to January 1961.
Figure 3-4.- James E. Webb, NASA Administrator from February 1961 to October 1968.
Figure 3-5.- Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator from March 1969 to October 1970.
Figure 3-6.- Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy Administrator from October 1958 to December 1965.
Figure 3-7.- Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Smith DeFrance, and James E. Webb.
Figure 3-8.- Wernher von Braun and Raymond Bisplinghoff.
Figure 3-9.- Homer E. Newell, James E. Webb, and Abe Silverstein
Figure 3-10.- NASA organization chart, 1 November 1963.
Figure 3-11.- NASA organization chart, 2 January 1966.
Figure 3-12.- NASA organization chart, 15 March 1967.
Figure 3-13.- NASA organization chart, 1 May 1968.
Figure 4-1.- Number of incentive contracts under administration by type of contract FY 1961-1966.
Figure 6-1.- The OSSA organization as of 1967.
Figure 7-1.- Federal R&D expenditures, FY 1960-1972.
Figure 7-2.- Ratio of R&D expenditures to total outlays, FY 1960-1972.
Figure 7-3.- Space research and technology expenditures by function.

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