SP-4104 NASA Engineers and the Age of Apollo

 

Appendix B

Demographic Tables

 

The following tables provide statistical summaries of the number of scientists and engineers in NASA (in comparison to other categories of NASA employees from 1958-1970 (table 1), NASA Apollo era engineers' fields of specialization by training (table 2) and NASA occupation (table 3), their ascent through civil service ranks through 1980 (table 4), their educational levels (table 5), their average ages (table 6), the number of years they have worked in NASA, and their ethnic and gender distribution.

Table 1 is drawn from information in the NASA Historical Data Book, 1958-1968: Vol. 1: NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012 (Washington, D.C.) and "NASA Pocket Statistics" for January 1971 (NASA History Office). Tables 2-8 were prepared from data generated and analyzed in 1985 by the Personnel Analysis and Evaluation Office at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Individuals represented by the category "Nominees" are the 446 verified cases of the 621 names submitted by NASA senior managers in 1984 as those persons of "NASA's pioneering generation of aerospace engineers" who most "reflect those characteristics which have typified NASA during its first quarter century" (see Appendix A).

 


Table 1. NASA Scientists and Engineers (S & Es) and Total NASA Personnel, 1958-1970 a

 

Fiscal Year

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

.

Total Personnel

7,966

9,235

10,232

17,471

23,686

29,934

32,499

34,049

35,708

35,860

33,641

31,733

31,223

Percent rate increase over previous FY

-

15.9

10.7

70.7

35.5

26.3

8.5

4.7

4.8

0.4

-3.3

-8.3

-1.6

Accessions

375

2,115

1,793

3,634

7,044

8,706

6,316

5,014

5,361

4,742

1,948

1,278

1,070

Separations

226

850

842

1,621

2,153

3,241

3,945

4,079

4,891

4,597

3,458

2,015

1,672

Net accessions

149

1,265

951

2,013

4,891

5,465

2,371

935

470

145

1510

-737

-602

Annual turnover rate (separations as percent total annual personnel)

2.8

9.2

8.2

9.2

9.0

10.8

12.1

11.9

13.6

12.8

9.9

6.3

5.3

Scientists and engineers b

2,648

3,194

3,509

5,765

8,161

10,978

12,427

13,265

14,060

14,455

14,221

13,839

13,837

Percent rate increase S & Es over previous FY

-

20.6

9.8

64.2

41.5

34.5

13.1

6.7

5.9

2.8

-1.6

-2.6

0.0

S & Es as percent total personnel

33.2

34.5

34.2

32.9

34.4

36.6

38.2

38.9

39.3

40.3

41.0

43.6

44.3

Apollo generations S & E accessions still in NASA as of 1980

2,477

5,310

2,088

Contract employees (estimated)

N/A

N/A

36,500

57,500

115,500

218,400

347,100

376,700

360,000

272,900

211,200

200,000

170,000

a Permanent civil service employees only. Sources: NASA Historical Data Book, 1958-1968. Vol.1: NASA Resources. NASA SP-4012. Washington, D.C., 1976. NASA Pocket Statistics, Washington, D.C., January 1971; Personnel Analysis and Evaluation Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., May 1986. Until 1976, the fiscal year ended June 30.

b Includes NASA Occupational Codes 200, 700 and 900: general and aerospace scientists and engineers, and "primarily life sciences."

 


Table 2. Apollo Generation: Percent of Highest Degree Field, Total Population and Nominees

 

Field

Group 1 (to 1960)

Group 2 (1961-1965)

Group 3 (1966-1970)

Total/average

Nominees

.

Electrical engineering

17.0

24.0

22.0

21.0

23.8

Mechanical engineering

22.5

19.0

12.0

17.8

17.9

Aeronautical engineering

16.0

10.0

9.5

10.8

-

Aerospace engineering

-

-

-

-

9.9

Other engineering fields a

8.6

13.4

9.1

10.4

12.8

Total engineering

64.1

66.4

52.6

60.0

64.4

Other technical fields b

5.9

1.8

0.5

2.7

2.6

Mathematics and science c

25.2

24.6

35.5

28.4

18.8

Social sciences d

3.9

5.2

6.2

5.1

11.1

Arts, humanities, law, and theology

0.6

0.9

0.7

0.7

0.4

No degree field

2.0

0.5

0.3

0.9

0.0

a Civil, industrial, chemical, general, nuclear, agricultural, architectural, mineral, biomedical, petroleum, geological, geophysical, environmental, material, metalurgical, ceramic, and textile engineering.
b Agriculture, naval engineering or architecture, engineering technology, engineering mechanics, statistics, computer sciences, systems analysis.
c Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, biochemistry, physiology, zoology, astronomy, geophysics, earth sciences, other science.
d Education, business management, psychology, social sciences, communications, military science, naval science, interdisciplinary studies, public affairs, health professions.
Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985.

 


Table 3. Apollo Generation: Percent in Occupational Categories, Total Population and Nominees

 

Occupation
Group 1
(to 1960)
Group 2
(1961-1965)
Group 3
(1966-1970)
Total/average
Nominees

.

Research and development

-

-

-

-

16.0

Design

-

-

-

-

22.1

Testing and evaluation

-

-

-

-

9.0

Fluid flight mechanics

17.7

9.4

10.3

12.5

-

Flight systems

14.8

19.0

13.5

15.8

-

Piloting

0.3

0.2

0.7

0.4

-

Materials and structures

8.0

4.9

5.9

6.3

-

Propulsion and power

6.0

4.6

4 1

49

-

Measurement and instrumentation

10.9

11.0

112

110

-

Data systems

10.1

10.5

15.4

12.0

12.0

Data analysis

-

-

-

-

5.0

Facilities and operations

-

10.0

13.1

12.6

11.9

Construction

-

-

-

-

0 .5

Operations and maintenance

-

-

-

-

7.7

.

Total

77.8

72.7

73.7

74.8

60.3

.

Technical assistance

-

-

-

-

0.5

Technical information

-

-

-

-

0.9

Non-aerospace science end engineering

3.0

3.5

2.0

2.8

-

Unclassified

3.7

3.0

3.3

3.3

-

.

Total

6.7

6.5

5.3

6.1

1.4

.

Space science

2.6

2.2

6.5

3.8

-

Life science

0.5

2.7

2.3

1.8

-

.

Total

3.1

4.9

8.8

5.6

-

.

Management

11.5

14.3

9.8

11.9

-

Administrative professional

1.0

1.5

1.6

1.4

-

Management

-

-

-

-

36.5

Planning

-

-

-

1.1

-

Regulatory

-

-

-

-

-

.

Total

12.5

13.8

9.4

13.3

37.8

Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985. Because of changes in occupational codes between 1960 and 1985, uniform codes for both the total population and the nominee group are unavailable. Table represents a merging of occupational codes.

 


Table 4. Apollo Generation: Percent Grade Achieved as of 1980, Total Population and Nominees

Grade a

Group 1 (to 1960)

Group 2 (1961-1965)

Group 3 (1966-1970)

Total/average

Nominees

.

GS 7

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

-

GS 8

-

-

0.0

0.0

0.2

GS 9

0.2

0.2

0.9

0.4

-

GS 11

1.3

0.9

3.0

1.7

1.4

GS 12

7.0

9.4

26.0

14.1

11.0

GS 13

32.0

47.9

48.4

42.7

29.1

GS 14

30.4

26.5

14.0

23.5

23.0

GS 15

22.2

12.4

5.9

13.5

16.4

GS 16

0.3

-

-

0.3

4.3

GS 17

6.5

2.7

1.6

3.6

14.6

a GS, government service; SES, Senior executive service.

Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985.

 


Table 5. Apollo Generation: Percent Highest Degree, Total Population and Nominees.

Degree

Group 1 (to 1960)

Group 2 (1961-1965)

Group 3 (1966-1970)

Total/average

Nominees

.

No degree

1.5

0.5

0.4

0.8

0.0

Associate

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

Bachelor

68.0

68.0

60.0

65.3

69.0

Masters

23.0

25.0

27.0

25.0

26.5

Doctorate

7.0

7.0

14.0

9.3

4.3

442 valid cases out of 621 nominees.

Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985.

 


Table 6. Apollo Generation: Average Age in 1980, Total Population and Nominees.

Age (years)

Group 1 (to 1960)

Group 2 (1961-1965)

Group 3 (1966-1970)

Total/average

Nominees

.

25-29

-

-

0.2

0.2

-

30-34

-

0.3

11.8

4.0

0.6

35-39

0.1

9.8

31.5

13.8

7.7

40-44

10.8

27.7

23.2

20.6

17.2

45-49

28.9

28.3

14.8

24.0

28.0

50-54

27.8

17.8

8.6

18.1

22.9

55-59

24.7

11.3

6.5

14.2

17.1

60-64

6.5

4.0

2.8

4.4

5.4

65-69

1.1

0.7

0.5

0.8

0.6

70+

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.1

Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985.

442 valid cases out of 621 nominees.

 


Table 7. Average Years of NASA Service in 1984 for Apollo Generation: Total Populationa and Nominees

.

Total Population

Nominees

Average b years

Standard Deviation

No.

%

%

.

20+ years

21.0

0.9

2477

25

28.3

15-19 years

17.2

1.2

5310

54

57.4

10-14 years

12.8

1.3

2088

21

14.3

a Total cases = 9875.
b Mean average.
 
 


Table 8. Ethnic and Gender Distribution, Total Population and Nominees

.

Total Population a

Nominees b

Total (%)

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

.

.

Male

97.0

98.0

96.0

96.2

97.0

Female

3.0

2.0

4.0

3.8

3.0

American Indian

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.7

0.3

Asian

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.9

1.0

Black

1.5

1.5

3.0

4.5

2.0

Hispanic

0.4

1.0

1.0

3.8

0.8

White

97.0

96.0

95.0

90.1

96.0

a Group 1 = 20+ years; arrived NASA up to 1960
Group 2 = 15-19 years; arrived NASA 1961-1964
Group 3 = 10-14 years; arrived NASA 1965-1970
b 442 valid cases out of 621 nominees.

Source: Personnel Evaluation and Analysis Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., June 1985.


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