Chapter 1

1 Collected Works of K. E. Tsiolkovskiy, vol. 2 (Reactive Flying Machines), A. A. Blagonravov, ed., NASA Technical Translation TT F-237 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1965), translation of K. E. Tsiolkovskiy: Sobraniye Sochineniy, Tom II, Reacktivnyye Letatel'nyye Apparaty (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSR [USSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House], 1954); Hermann Oberth, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen (Munich and Berlin: Oldenbourg, 1923), and "From My Life," Astronautics, vol. 4, no. 6 (June 1959), pp. 38, 100, 106. Oberth built a rocket for a German movie, but it was never flown.

2 Willy Ley, Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel, 3 rev. ed. (New York: Viking Press, 1961), p. 323.

3 Milton Lehman, This High Man: The Life of Robert H. Goddard (New York: Farrar, Straus & Co., 1963). More on Goddard's pioneering work will be found in his papers, edited by Mrs. Esther Goddard and G. Edward Pendray in three volumes, The Papers of Robert H. Goddard (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970).

4 Interviews with Dr. Lloyd Berkner, 20 Mar 1965, and Dr. Harvey Hall, 6 June 1967. As nearly every scientist who participated in the American satellite program was a Ph.D., the academic label is hereafter omitted.

5 Milton Rosen, The Viking Rocket Story (New York: Harper & Bros., 1955), p. 18; interview with Edward O. Hulburt, Director of Research at the Naval Research Laboratory, 1945-1955, 8 Apr 1964. I. B. Holley, Jr., an Army Air Forces officer and historian stationed at Wright Field during 1945, recalls the briefing and the arrival of the German engineers.

6 Rosen, op. cit., pp. 22-23; see also "Historical Origins of Echo I," pp. 4-5, 15, interview of William J. O'Sullivan, by Edward Morse, 23 Aug 1964, mimeo, NASA historical files (hereafter cited as NHF).

7 The chronology of NRL-Viking-Vanguard developments derives from an official NRL summary, prepared in October 1957 and entitled "Decisions on Prior Programs Affecting Project Vanguard and Ballistic Missile Development," which is enclosure 1 to NRL letter 4100-227 (hereafter cited as encl 1, NRL 4100-227).

8 Harvey Hall, memo for file, ONR: 405, 29 Nov. 1957, copy in NHF; interview Harvey Hall, 6 June 1967; Wernher von Braun, "From Small Beginnings," in Kenneth W. Gatland, et al., Project Satellite (London: Wingate, 1958), pp. 47-49; von Braun statement in F. Zwicky, "Report on Certain Phases of War Research in Germany," pp. 38-42, Headquarters, U.S. Air Materiel Command, January 1947.

9 Hall, ONR:405, pp. 2-3.

10 Negative evidence, namely the lack of memos in NRL files regarding the ESV proposal, substantiates this statement.

11 H. Hall memo, ONR:405, p. 4.

12 Project RAND, Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, May 1946, cited by R. Cargill Hall, "Early U.S. Satellite Proposals," in The History of Rocket Technology: Essays on Research, Development, and Utility, Eugene M. Emme, ed. (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1964), pp. 75-79 (hereafter cited as History of Rocket Technology).

13 U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on the Armed Services, Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee, Hearings: Inquiry into Satellite and Missile Programs, part 1, 85th Cong., 1st and 2d Sess., November 1957 and December 1958, p. 283; Theodore von Kármán, Toward New Horizons: A Report to General of the Army H. H. Arnold, Submitted on Behalf of the A.A.F. Scientific Advisory Group, Army Air Forces report, 15 Dec 1945, p. 56. Von Kármán's autobiography (written with Lee Edson), The Wind and Beyond, was published in 1967 by Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

14 H. Hall, memo, ONR:405, pp. 4-5.

15 Quoted by R. Cargill Hall in History of Rocket Technology, p. 79.

16 See n. 14; First Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense, 1948, p. 129; memo, RDB 57-3086, appendix 4; R. Cargill Hall in History of Rocket Technology, pp. 87-88, n. 85.

17 H. Hall memo, ONR:405, pp. 2, 4-5; "Historical Lessons from Research and Development: The Case of Navaho," citing Francis Bello, "The Early Space Age," Fortune, vol. 16, no. 1 (July 1959), typescript in NHF.

18 R. Cargill Hall in History of Rocket Technology, p. 90.

19 See, for example, James A. Van Allen, L. W. Frazer, and J. F. R. Lloyd, "Aerobee Sounding Rocket-A New Vehicle for Research in the Upper Atmosphere," Science, vol. 108, no. 2818 (31 Dec 1948), p. 746.

20 Rosen, The Viking Rocket Story, pp. 10, 35-39.

21 Ibid., pp. 239-241; NRL 4100-277, encl 1 and encl 3, "Significant Results of Vanguard and Previous High Altitude Rocket Projects." See also, Rocket Research Report, No. 6, "Conversion of Viking into a Guided Missile," and 11, "A Phase Comparison Guidance System for Viking," U.S. Navy, Naval Research Laboratory Report (hereafter cited as NRL Report) 3829, 1 Apr 1951, and 3982, 5 May 1952.

22 NRL 4100-227, encl 4, "Funding History of Related Projects Synopsis FY 1945-1958."

23 NRL 4100-227, encl 1, 3, and 4; NRL Reports 4576, 4727, 4757, and 4899; William R. Corliss, draft, "The Evolution of STADAN," p. 1, 1 June 1966. This draft was later published as The Evolution of the Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), Goddard Historical Note No. 3 (Greenbelt: Goddard Space Flight Center, January 1967).

24 64 Stat. 149, 10 May 1950; interview, Alan T. Waterman, Director NSF, 1950-1963, November 1966.

25 E.g., National Academy of Sciences, Report, Committee on Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research, no. 33, October 1952, copy in NHF.

26 Clayton S. White and Otis O. Benson, Jr. eds., Physics and Medicine of the Upper Atmospheric: A Study of the Aeropause (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1952); interview, Joseph Kaplan, 14 Feb 1968.

27 Interview, Rosen, 22 Nov 1966.

28 J. R. Pierce, under the pseudonym of J. J. Coupling, "Don't Write: Telegraph!" in Astounding Science Fiction (March 1952), vol. 49, pp. 82-96.

29 American Rocket Society Space Flight Committee, "On the Utility of an Artificial Unmanned Earth Satellite," Jet Propulsion, vol. 25, no. 2 (February 1966), pp. 71-73.

30 Shirley Thomas, Men of Space, vol. 2 (Philadelphia: Chilton Book Co., 1960-1968, 8 vols.), pp. 190-194; interview, Lloyd Berkner, 20 Mar 1965. A copy of Grosse's report to President Truman, "Report of the Present Status of the Satellite Problem," 25 Aug 1953, is in NHF.

31 Collier's, vol. 129, no. 12, and vol. 130, nos. 16 and 17 (22 Mar and 18 and 25 Oct 1952); Ley, Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel, pp. 324-325; interview, Kaplan, 14 Feb 1968.

32 Ley, op. cit. p. 325; Harry Wexler, "Observing the Weather from a Satellite Vehicle," Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, vol. 13, no. 5 (September 1954), pp. 269-276); Singer, "Studies of a Minimum Orbited Unmanned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE)," Part I, Geophysical and Astrophysical Applications, Astronautics, vol. 1, pp. 171-184. See also E. Nelson Hayes, "The Smithsonian's Satellite-Tracking Program: Its History and Organization," Annual Report … Smithsonian Institution … 1961, pp. 276-277, 1962,

33 See n. 18; Wernher von Braun, "The Redstone, Jupiter and Juno," in History of Rocket Technology, pp. 109-110.

34 Wernher von Braun, "A Minimum Satellite Vehicle, Based on Components Available from Missile Developments of the Army Ordnance Corps," Guided Missile Development Division, Ordnance Missile Laboratories, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, 15 Sept 1954.

35 Ltr, Whipple to James Van Allen, 10 June 1955, Correspondence File, 1-9, National Academy of Sciences, IGY files (hereafter cited as NAS-IGY files); interview, Alan T. Waterman, 6 Oct 1966.

36 R. Cargill Hall, "Origins and Development of the Vanguard and Explorer Satellite Programs," draft copy, October 1963 with annotation by Homer J. Stewart of JPL, NHF; memo, Dr. E. R. Piore, ONR, 21 Dec 1954, NHF; Commander George W. Hoover, "Why an Earth Satellite," prepared for presentation to the Engineers' Society of Milwaukee, 22 Feb 1956; Whipple notes on draft of this chapter.

37 Interviews, Lloyd Berkner, 26 Mar 1965, and J. Wallace Joyce, 19 July 1967; "The Scientific Earth Satellite," remarks by Dr. J. W. Joyce, Head, Office for the International Geophysical Year, National Science Foundation, before the 27th Annual Meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 12 Nov 1957, NHF. See also Jay Holmes, America on the Moon: The Enterprise of the Sixties (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1962), pp. 43-48.

38 "Catalog of Data in the World Data Centers," vol. 36 of Annals of the International Geophysical Year (New York: Pergamon Press, 1964), p. vi.

39 Joseph Kaplan, "The United States Program for the International Geophysical Year," in National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council News Report, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 17-20, 1954.

40 Congressional Record, 81st Cong., 2d Sess., pp. 2401-2407, 2411; 67 Stat. 488, 8 Aug 1953; Minutes of the 1st Meeting USNC, NAS-IGY Files; The National Science Foundation, A General Review of its First 15 Years, Report of the Science Policy Research Division, Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress, to the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 89th Cong., 1st Sess. (Committee print), p. 33 (hereafter cited as National Science Foundation First 15 Years); National Science Foundation Annual Report, 1956, p. 26. See also ltr, William W. Rubey, Chairman, National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, to Alan T. Waterman, Director of the National Science Foundation, 25 Nov 1953, Berkner papers, NAS-IGY files.

41 Interviews, Lloyd Berkner, 20 Mar 1965, Hugh Odishaw, 21 May 1965, and Homer Newell, 18 July 1966; Jay Holmes, America on the Moon, pp. 44-49.

42 Quoted in appendix 4, memo RDB 57-3086. See also John P. Hagen, "The Viking and the Vanguard," Technology and Culture, vol. 4, no. 4 (fall 1963), pp. 435-437.