SP-4206 Stages to Saturn
 

[457-491] Notes

 

CHAPTER 1

 

 

1. The name of the locale, Cape Canaveral, was officially changed on 28 Nov. 1963 to honor the late President John F. Kennedy, and the NASA facility was henceforth called John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

2. The official NASA history of Kennedy Space Center and the launch facilities and concepts is by Charles D. Benson and William B. Faherty, Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations, NASA SP-4204 (Washington, 1978). Material for this section was compiled from the following sources: KSC, The Kennedy Space Center Story (Kennedy Space Center, Fla., 1969); NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1969: Chronology on Science, Technology and Policy, NASA SP-4014 (Washington, 1970); MSFC, "Chronology of MSFC-1969" (draft copy), (1972); NASA, Saturn V News Reference (1968); MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-506 (1969).

3. MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-506, passim; MSFC, Chronology of MSFC-1969, passim; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, passim.

4. There are many books covering this period. For a readable and authoritative summary, see the well-illustrated historical survey by Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway, History of Rocketry and Space Travel (New York, 1969), pp. 22-40, which also includes an excellent bibliography. See also Eugene M. Emme, A History of Space Flight (New York, 1965), passim., which includes a bibliography. For the lifesaving rocket, see Mitchell R. Sharpe, Development of the Lifesaving Rocket, Marshall Space Flight Center, Historical Note no. 4, 10 June 1969. The bibliographical study by Katherine Murphy Dickson, History of Aeronautics and Astronautics: A Preliminary Bibliography, NASA HHR-29 (Washington, 1968), features annotated entries, and lists many government documents, as well as articles from scholarly journals and periodicals of both European and American origin.

5. For an overview of this era and its leading personalities, see the histories by Loyd S. Swenson Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966); von Braun and Ordway, History; and Emme, History. Tsiolkovsky's collected papers are available in translation as NASA Technical Translations F-243, 326,327 and 328(1965). For an authorized biography of Goddard see Milton Lehman, This High Man: The Life of Robert H. Goddard (New York, 1963); but see also Esther Goddard and G. Edward Pendray, eds., The Papers of Robert H. Goddard (New York, 1970), 3 vols. Willy Ley, Rockets, Missiles, and Men in Space (New York, 1968) includes considerable historical information. Ley not only knew Oberth and other pioneering figures of the twenties and thirties, he also participated in many experimental projects. Frederick C. Durant, III, and George S.James, eds., First Steps Toward Space, Smithsonian Annals of Flight, no. 10 (Washington, 1974), includes a memoir by Oberth, as well as contributions concerning Goddard and the Smithsonian, and essays on rocket research in Europe and the U.S. in the twenties and thirties. Eugene M. Emme, ed., The History of Rocket Technology: Essays on Research Development and Utility (Detroit, 1964), includes summary essays on U.S. rocket technology in the pre-World War II years.

6. See, for example, von Braun and Ordway, History; Emme, History of Space Travel; and Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean. Wartime Russian rocketry is analyzed in Coleman Goldberg, An Introduction to Russian Rocketry: History, Development, and Prospects, Off. of the Asst. Chief of Staff, Intelligence. U.S. Army Field Detachment R, 1 June 1959. Copy in JSC files.

7. Ernst Stuhlinger, et al., eds., Astronautical Engineering and Science: From Peenemuende to Planetary Space (New York, 1963), pp. 366-367; von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 63-74.

8. Dornberger summarizes the V-2 work in Emme, Rocket Technology, pp. 29-45, and has published his own memoir, entitled V-2 (New York, 1954). This book is one of the most authoritative works on the V-2 and Peenemuende generally available, in addition to Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemuende to Canaveral (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962); and Krafft A. Ehricke, "The Peenemuende Rocket Center, Part 2," Rocketscience, 4 (June 1950):35. See also, Mitchell Sharpe, "Evolution of Rocket Technology: Historical Note, Saturn History Project," Jan. 1974, pp. 15-20 (copy in SHP files); von Braun and Ordway, History, 104-117. Practically every aspect of the V-2, from basic research to its early design and testing to its deployment, can be found in a large collection of technical reports from Peenemuende, located in the Redstone Scientific Information Center, U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala.

9. Von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 114-117; Dornberger, V-2, passim. Plans for rounding up German scientific and technical personnel were in progress by early 1945. During the spring, the idea was known as Operation Overcast. In 1946, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip, the designation which became the most familiar. See Clarence Lasby, Operation Paperclip (New York, 1971).

10. Von Braun and Ordway, History, p. 18; Sharpe, "Evolution," pp. 42-48. Between May 1945 and Dec. 1952, the U.S. recruited 642 foreign technicians and specialists under Paperclip. Lasby, Operation Paperclip, gives the absorbing details of their utilization by the Air Force, Army, and Navy. Generally, most of the specialists served individually or in very small, close-knit groups. The von Braun team of 132 was by far the largest single group.

11. For an overview of the early postwar era, see von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 120-139; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 18-31. More specific studies include J. L. Chapman, Atlas: The Story of a Missile (New York, 1960); James Baar and William Howard, Polaris (New York, 1960); and Julian Hartt, Mighty Thor (New York, 1961). See also Ernest G. Schwiebert, ed., A History of the U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missiles (New York, 1965), and Michael Armacost, Politics of Weapons Innovation: The Thor-Jupiter Controversy (New York, 1969).

12. Von Braun and Ordway, History, 120 ff.

13. On the origins of the Redstone Arsenal, see David S. Akens, Historical Origins of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC Historical Monograph no. 1 (December, 1960). For accounts of the struggle between the Army and Air Force about the IRBM, see Armacost, Politics of Weapons Innovation, and John B. Medaris's memoir, Countdown for Decision (New York, 1960). On the role of ABMA, Jupiter, and Polaris, See von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 130-132; Baar and Howard, Polaris; Wyndham D. Miles, "The Polaris," in Emme, ed., Rocket Technology.

14. Von Braun and Ordway, History, 132-136; Schwiebert, History, passim; Chapman, Atlas; Hartt, Mighty Thor. See also, Robert G. Perry, "The Atlas, Thor, and Minuteman," in Emme, ed., Rocket Technology.

15. The most detailed and objective description of the events leading to the selection of Vanguard over other competitors is found in Constance M. Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard-A History (Washington, 1971). See also von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 150 et seq.; Emme, History of Spaceflight; R. Cargill Hall, "Early U.S. Satellite Proposals," Wernher von Braun, "The Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," and John P. Hagen, "The Viking and the Vanguard," in Emme, ed., Rocket Technology.

16. Walter Haeussermann to Robert G. Sheppard, "Comment Edition of History of Saturn Launch Vehicles," 22 June 1976. For the story of the Jupiter launch vehicle and the Explorer satellite, see, Medaris, Countdown, passim.; von Braun, "Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," in Emme, ed., Rocket Technology; Stuhlinger et al., Astronautical Engineering, pp. 209-239.

17. See, for example, the essay by John P. Hagen, "Viking and Vanguard," cited above; Milton W. Rosen, Viking Rocket Story (New York, 1955); Green and Lomask, Vanguard. On IGY, Sputnik, and the NASA story, see Emme, History of Spaceflight, pp. 120-130; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 18 et seq.; and Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, 1966).

18. For summaries of the era, see, von Braun and Ordway, History, pp. 163 passim; Emme, History of Space Flight, 153 passim. The official history of the Mercury program is Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean. For the NASA history of Gemini, see James M. Grimwood and Barton C. Hacker, On the Shoulders of Titans, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1977). On the Apollo spacecraft and lunar lander, see Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979).

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

1. Eugene M. Emme, ed., Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the, Exploration of Space, 1915-1960 (Washington, 1961), pp. 81-92; Eugene M. Emme, "Historical Perspectives on Apollo,"Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets (Apr. 1968), p. 371; Armacost, Thor-Jupiter.

2. H. H. Koelle et. al., Juno V Space Vehicle Development Program, Phase I: Booster Feasibility Demonstration, ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, Rept. DSP-TM-10-58, 13 Oct. 1958, p. 1. Cited hereafter as Juno V Feasibility. Oswald H. Lange, "Development of the Saturn Space Carrier Vehicle," in Stuhlinger et al., Astronautical Engineering, pp. 2-23.

3. Koelle, Juno V Feasibility, p. 1; Lange, "Development," p. 3. The ABMA proposal is cited in David S. Akens, Historical Origins of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC Historical Monograph no. 1 (Dec. 1960), p. 58.

4. Robert D. Sampson, "Informal Working Papers: Technical History of Saturn," Saturn Systems Office (1961), pp. 3-4; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, p. 79; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Subcommittee on Governmental Organization for Space Activities, Investigation of Governmental Organization for Space Activities, 86th Cong., 1st sess., pp. 108-111, 121, 125-128, 628-629.

5. Koelle, Juno V Feasibility, pp. 1-2; William A. Mrazek, "The Saturn Project," Astronautics, 5 (July 1960): 26-27; von Braun, "The Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," in Emme, ed., History of Rocket Technology, pp. 107-119.

6. Von Braun, "Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," p. 120, Copy of ARPA Order no. 14-59 in SHP files, and recopied in NASA, Documents in the History of NASA: An Anthology, NASA History Off., HHR-43, Aug. 1975, pp. 238-239.

7. Koelle, Juno V Feasibility, p. 4.

8. A. A. McCool and G. H. McKay, Jr., "Propulsion Development Problems Associated with Large Liquid Rockets," MSFC, TMX-53075, 12 Aug. 1965, p. 5.

9. David S. Akens, Saturn Illustrated Chronology: Saturn's First Eleven Years, April 1957 Through April 1968, MSFC, MHR-5, 5th ed. (1971), pp. 2-3. William A. Mrazek, "The Saturn Launch Vehicle Family," lecture at Univ. of Hawaii, June 1966, p. 2.

10. Quotations from Mrazek, "Saturn Family." William A. Mrazek interviews, MSFC, 3 Sept. 1971, and 30 July 1975; Koelle, Juno V Feasibility, p. 10.

11. John B. Medaris and Roy Johnson, "Memorandum of Agreement: ARPA and AOMC. Subject: High Thrust Booster Program Using Clustered Engines," 23 Sept. 1958; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 3; Mrazek interview, 3 Sept. 1971; Mrazek, "Saturn Family," pp. 2-3. Quotation from the latter. Interviews with Konrad Dannenberg, MSFC, 30 July 1975, and with William A. Mrazek, 30 July 1975, were extremely useful in clarifying many details of Saturn I's origins and development. See also, interviews with D. D. Wyatt, NASA, 2 Dec. 1971, and Homer E. Newell, NASA, 2 Dec. 1971.

12. For brief summaries of this period, see Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Orders of Magnitude: History of NACA and NASA, 1915-1976, NASA SP-4403 (Washington, 1976), pp. 14-17; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 53, 82-83. A more detailed review is in Rosholt, Administrative History, especially Chaps. 1 and 3. Overtones of national security and a space race with the Russians are obvious in contemporary memoranda. See, for example, Arthur A. Kimball to Nelson A. Rockefeller, Chmn., President's Advisory Comm. on Government Organization, "Organization for Civil Space Programs," 25 Feb. 1958, JSC files.

13. Anderson, Orders of Magnitude, pp. 14-18; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 75-106; Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 40-47; Emme, "Perspectives," p. 371.

14. NACA, Aerodynamics Committee, "Minutes of Meeting: Committee on Aircraft, Missile and Spacecraft Aerodynamics," 21 Mar. 1958, JSC files; NACA, memo, "Suggestions for Space Program (For Internal Use Only)," 28 Mar. 1958, JSC files. Early NASA moves towards ABMA and JPL are discussed in Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 45-47.

15. Emme, "Perspectives," p. 372.

16. Working Group on Vehicular Program, "Report to the NACA, Special Committee on Space Technology: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program," 18 July 1958, pp. 1-7, 11-23, copy in JSC files.

17. Ibid., pp. 26-30, 34-35.

18. H. Guyford Stever interview, NASA, 7 Feb. 1974, copy in JSC files.

19. Koelle, Juno V Feasibility, p. 4.

20. Wernher von Braun, "Saturn the Giant," in Edgar M. Cortright, ed., Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, NASA SP-350 (Washington, 1975), p. 41; Wernher von Braun, "Saturn: Our Best Hope," Space World, 1 June 1961): 13; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, p. 71; William A. Mrazek, "The Saturn Project" Astronautics, 5 (July 1960): 27, 74: Koelle, et al., Juno V Space Vehicle Development Program (Status Report-15 November 1958), ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., Rept. no. DSP-TM-11-58 (15 Nov. 1958), pp. 20 ff. (cited hereafter as Koelle, Juno V Status).

21. Wesley L. Hjornevik to the NASA Administrator, "Next Steps in the Development of a National Booster Program," 2 Jan. 1959, JSC files.

22. NASA, Propulsion Staff, "A National Space Vehicle Program: A Report to the President," 27 Jan. 1959,JSC files. Rosen was always a staunch advocate of big booster, a feeling that stands out in this document. In a note attached 29 Sept. 1967, when the report was declassified, Rosen was acknowledged as the author.

23. U.S. Army Ordnance Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., news release, "Project Saturn," 12 Feb. 1959; Advanced Research Projects Agency, "Saturn Chronology," ARPA retired Files, 1959, copy in SHP files; von Braun, "Saturn the Giant," p. 41.

24. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 4; Emme, "Perspectives," p. 372; T. Keith Glennan to Roy W. Johnson, 20 Mar. 1959, JSC files.

25. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, "Investigation of Space Activities," Johnson testimony, pp. 111-113, 140.

26. ARPA, "Saturn Chronology," pp. 12-14.

27. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 5.

28. Milton W. Rosen interview, NASA, 14 Nov. 1969.

29. ARPA, "Saturn Chronology," pp. 14-15.

30. Herbert F. York to Eugene Emme, 10 June 1974.

31. Herbert F. York to Eugene Emme, 2 May 1973; ARPA, "Saturn Chronology," pp. 5-6.

32. Wesley L. Hjornevik to the Administrator, "Utilization of ABMA," 20 Jan. 1959, JSC files.

33. Senate Comm.on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, "Investigation of Space Activities," Johnson testimony, pp. 164-165.

34. NASA Hq., "Notes on Meeting on Vehicle Program Status, Friday, April 17, 1959," 17 Apr. 1959, JSC files.

35. York to Emme, 2 May 1973.

36. Emme, "Perspectives," p. 373.

37. T. Keith Glennan to the President, "Responsibility and Organization for Certain Space Activities," 2 Nov. 1959 (copies of 21 Oct. and 30 Oct. memos attached), JSC files.

38. McKinsey and Co., Inc., "Providing Supporting Services for the Development Operation Division," 14 Jan. 1960; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 6; Emme, "Perspectives," p. 373.

39. Akens, Historical Origins, pp. 81, 89-91. The full text of Eisenhower's remarks appears as Appendix "F" in Historical Origins.

40. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 4-6.

41. Mrazek, "Saturn Family," p. 3.

42. Mrazek, "Saturn Project," pp. 17, 74. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 5-6.

43. John L. Sloop interview, NASA, 14 Nov. 1969; Rosen interview, 1969; Walter.T. Olson to John Sloop, 21 Jan. 1972.

44. Senate Comm.on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, "Investigation of Space Activities," Johnson testimony, p. 123.

45. Abraham Hyatt to Abe Silverstein, 24 Aug., 1959.

46. Saturn Vehicle Team, "Report to the Administrator, NASA, on Saturn Development Plan," 15 Dec. 1959.

47. Abraham Hyatt to Thomas O. Paine, 25 Nov. 1969; Hyatt to Eugene Emme, 21 Mar. 1973; von Braun, "Saturn the Giant," p. 41.

48. Von Braun, "Saturn: Our Best Hope," p. 13; Mrazek, "Saturn Family," pp. 3, 4.

49. Eldon W. Hall and Francis C. Schwenk, "Current Trends in Large Booster Developments, Aerospace Engineering, May 1960, p. 21.

50. Saturn Vehicle Team, "Report," pp. 1-8.

51. Quoted in Emme, "Perspectives," p. 373.

52. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Review of the Space Program, 86th Cong., 2d sess., Jan.-Feb, 1960, pp. 167-190.

53. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to T. Keith Glennan, 14 Jan. 1960; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 8.

54. Robert O. Piland to Chief, Flight Systems Div., "Advanced Propulsion Requirements Meeting at Headquarters, June 8-9, 1960 (Information)," 17 June 1960, JSC files.

55. Homer J. Stewart to the Administrator, "Vehicle Requirements for the Space Program," 18 July 1960.

56. NASA, Off. of Program Planning and Evaluation, "A Proposed Long Range Plan," 4 Nov. 1960, pp. 4, 12, copy in JSC files.

57. Ibid., pp. 18-21.

58. Ibid., pp. 22-25.

59. Ibid,, pp. 38-39.

60. President's Science Advisory Comm., "Report of Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space," 14 Nov. 1960, pp. 1,6.

61. Ibid., pp. 2-3.

62. Emme, "Perspectives," pp. 375-376; Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 117, 187-188.

63. Jerome B. Wiesner, "Report to the President-Elect of the Ad Hoc Committee on Space," 10 Jan. 1961, passim.

64. Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 183-192; Hugh L. Dryden interviews, NASA, 26 Mar. 1964; Robert C. Seamans, Jr. interview, NASA, 27 Mar. 1964. Interviews taped for archives of John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, copies in JSC files.

65. Public Papers of the Presidents, John F. Kennedy, 1961 (Washington, 1962), p. 95.

66. John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go To The Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge, Mass., 1970), p. 106; Hugh Sidey; "Soviet Spacemen," Life, 21 Apr. 1961, pp. 26-27.

67. Cited in Emme, "Perspectives," p. 378.

68. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1962 NASA Authorization Hearings, 87 Cong., 1st sess., Mar.-Apr. 1961, pp. 1-5, 31, 374-378.

69. Public Papers...Kennedy, 1962 (Washington, 1963), pp. 674-688. For additional background, see Courtney Brooks, James Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979), Chapter 1. For a thorough review and assessment of this era and historic decision, see the fine study by Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon.

 

CHAPTER 3

 

1. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 12; Donald H. Heaton, "Minutes of the Executive Meeting at AFBMD on October 28, 1960," memo for record, 2 Nov. 1960, JSC files.

2. MSFC, Saturn Systems Off., Saturn Quarterly Progress Report January-March 1961, p. 42, cited hereafter as MSFC, SSO, Saturn QPR. These documents are housed in the files of the Historical Off., Marshall Space Flight Center, cited hereafter as MSFC files.

3. NASA, "Minutes: Space Exploration Program Council," pp. 5-6 Jan. 1961, JSC files.

4. See, for example, various Quarterly Progress Reports issued during 1961 by MSFC, Saturn Systems Off., MSFC files.

5. The Dyna-Soar persisted within the Air Force for two more years until the program was canceled in 1963 for lack of funds, and, more conclusively, because it was overtaken by newer technology in the form of Gemini two-man missions. See, for example, Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 532-533, fn. 61.

6. Hugh Dryden to Hugh Odishaw, 6 Mar. 1961.

7. "Discussion Notes, Lunar Landing Steering Group," memo, 31 July 1961. Among the dozen attendees, including Rosen, were Seamans, Silverstein, Gilruth, and Eberhard Rees, von Braun's top deputy from MSFC.

8. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 31; MSFC, SSO, Saturn QPR, Jan.-Mar. 1962, p. 23; Oswald Lange, "Development of the Saturn Space Carrier Vehicle," in Stuhlinger, et al., Astronautical Engineering, p. 18.

9. Ernst D. Geissler, "Project Apollo Vehicular Plans," text of Geissler's presentation to a NASA management meeting at Langley Research Center, Apr. 1962, pp. 1-2.

10. Ibid., pp. 1, 11-13.

11. Ibid., pp. 2, 10-12.

12. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 50; NASA News Release, 11 July 1962; MSFC Press Release, 8 Feb, 1963.

13. NASA, "News Release: Space Task Group Becomes Separate NASA Field Element," 3 Jan. 1961, JSC files. See also Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 83 ff.; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 114-116.

14. Robert R. Gilruth to Staff, "Advanced Vehicle Team," 25 May 1960, JSC files.

15. J. T. Markley, "Trip Report: Project Apollo," 30 Oct. 1960, JSC files.

16. NASA, "News Release: STG," 3 Jan. 1961; T. Keith Glennan, "Instructions, Management Manual: Functions and Authority-Space Task Group," 1 Jan. 1961; Paul E. Purser, "Announcement to NASA Employees: Designation of STG as Manned Spaceflight Center," 1 Nov. 1961, copies in JSC files.

17. "Discussion Notes, Lunar Landing Steering Group," memo, 31 July 1961.

18. Emme, "Perspectives," p. 376.

19. Robert R. Gilruth to Nicholas E. Golovin, 12 Sept. 1961. The Earth parking orbit did, in fact, become established Apollo-Saturn mission procedure. Gilruth's additional recommendation for a "single-burn" stage for translunar injection (TLI) was not followed, however, since the S-IVB third stage of the Saturn V placed the Apollo spacecraft into parking orbit, then refired for the TLI phase.

20. John M. Logsdon, "Selecting the Way to the Moon: The Choice of the Lunar Orbital Rendezvous Mode," Aerospace Historian, 18 (June 1971): 66-68. For full details, see Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo.

21. John C. Houbolt to Robert C. Seamans, 15 Nov. 1961,JSC files.

22. Milton W. Rosen to D. Brainerd Holmes, "Large Launch Vehicle Program," 6 Nov, 1961, JSC files. For details and membership of these various groups, see Logsdon, "Selecting," and Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo.

23. Combined Working Group on Vehicles for Manned Space Flight, "Report," 20 Nov, 1961, attached to Rosen-Holmes memo, cited above.

24. Logsdon, "Selecting," p. 68.

25. Milton Rosen, interview, NASA, 14 Nov. 1969.

26. Quoted in Logsdon, "Selecting," p. 68.

27. A.T. Mattson to Charles J. Donlen, "Report on Activities 16 Apr. to 19 Apr. 1962, Regarding Manned Spacecraft Projects," 20 Apr. 1962, JSC files.

28. D. Brainerd Holmes to von Braun, 4 June 1962, JSC files.

29. Von Braun, "Concluding Remarks by Dr. Wernher von Braun About Mode Selection for the Lunar Landing Program Given to Dr. Joseph F. Shea, Deputy Dir. (Systems) Off. of Manned Space Might," memo for the record, June 1962, pp. 1-5.

30. Logsdon, "Selecting," pp. 69-70; interview, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA, 27 Mar. 1964. According to von Braun, Wiesner said later that he felt all three modes (direct, EOR, LOR) were feasible, but that more study and more effort might have been given to a Saturn V direct mode mission. Von Braun, "Saturn the Giant" in Cortright, ed., Apollo Expeditions (1974), p. 5. (draft copy).

31. Ivan D. Ertel and Mary Louise Morse, The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology, vol. 1, NASA SP-4009, (Washington, 1969), pp. 165-166, 201-202. See also Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo.

32. For dates of initiation and completion of new installations, and costs, see MSFC, "MSFC Technical Facilities History and Description," 30 June 1968. For photos and illustrations of installations, including brief technical descriptions, see MSFC, Technical Facilities and Equipment Digest, January 1967. For details of the transfer, including figures, see David S. Akens, Historical Origins of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC Historical Monograph no. 1 (Huntsville, Ala., 1960), especially Appendix C. Additional data are noted in David S. Akens, An Illustrated Chronology of the NASA Marshall Center and MSFC Program, 1960-1973 (Huntsville, Ala., 1974), MHR-10, pp. 404, 406-407.

33. Kurt H. Debus, "The Evolution of Launch Concepts and Space Flight Operations," in Stuhlinger et al., Astronautical Engineering, pp. 25-41; MSFC, Historical Off., History of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, January 1-June 30, 1962, Vol. 1, MHM-5 (1962), pp. xii, 2; KSC, The Kennedy Space Center Story, pp. 3, 49-52. For full details, see Benson and Faherty, Moonport.

34. For a summary of the historical origins of Michoud, see William Ziglar, "History of NASA, MTF and Michoud," NASA HHN-127, Sept. 1972 (a preliminary draft copy in JSC files). See also, Boeing, Thrust, 4 Oct. 1958; and Milton Alberstadt, "Muskrats, Moonships, and Michoud," 1968. The Boeing Thrust was a company paper published at Michoud. Alberstadt's article is a reprint from an uncited source. (Copies in SHP files.) General information is contained in publicity pamphlets, issued by MSFC/Michoud, "Michoud Operations," 1964, and "From Michoud to the Moon," 1966. For detailed analysis of production and facility operations, see, MAF, Historical Report, Michoud Operations (1 Jan. 1967-31 Dec. 1963); ibid. (1 July 1963-31 Dec. 1963). Detailed pictorial coverage is the basis of the format for MSFC, Michoud and Mississippi Test Operations: Management Information, vol. 2, 3rd ed., May 1965; ibid., vol. 2, 4th ed., Dec. 1965. Scheduling details are charted in NASA, Off. of Manned Space Flight, Construction of Facilities, MSFC-Bk. 3-Michoud, Oct., 1965.

35. MSFC, Michoud and Mississippi Test Operations: Management Information, vol. 2, 3rd ed., May 1965, pp. 60-66; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 41-42.

36. "Mississippi Test Facility," news release, in MTF folder, 1969; "Way Station to the Moon," Business Week, 2 Apr. 1966, p. 62; "A Roar for Pearl River," Boeing Magazine, December 1965, p. 9; General Electric, "General Electric/Mississippi Test Support Department's First Five Years as Prime NASA Support Contractor at Mississippi Test Facility," 1967, (unpaged draft, apparently a preliminary copy, in typescript).

37. "Report from Mississippi," GE Challenge, Spring 1967, pp. 10-12; "Way Station," Business Week, 2 Apr. 1966, p. 63; John F. Judge, "GE Details," Aerospace Technology, 9 Oct. 1967, pp. 48-51; "Mississippi Test Facility," news release, in MTF folder, 1969; background briefs, "Static Test. . .S-IC," and "Static Test S-II," background briefs, in MTF folder, 1969; miscellaneous PAO brochunes in MTF folder, 1969; NAR, "Mississippi Test Operations," 15 Jan. 1971: MSFC, Michoud and Mississippi Test Operations: Management Information, May and Dec. 1965, cited above; General Electric, "General Electric/MTSD," cited above. On 14 June 1974, MTF was renamed National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL), a permanent NASA field installation reporting directly to NASA Hq. Activities included engine tests, as well as a variety of research and technical activities, especially those related to Earth resources and environment.

38. Stuhlinger presentation in Army Ballistic Missile Agency, "ABMA Presentation to the NASA, ABMA, Rept no. D-TN-1-59, 15 Dec. 1958, pp. 129-149.

39. H. H. Koelle, F. L. Williams, W. G. Huber, and R. C. Callaway, Jr., Juno V Space Vehicle Development Program, Phase I: Booster Feasibility Demonstration, ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, Rept. no. DSP-TM-10-58, 13 Oct. 1958; H. H. Koelle, et al., "Juno V Space Vehicle Development Program (Status Report-15 November 1958)," ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., Rept. no. DSP-TM-11-58, 15 Nov. 1958; von Braun presentation in ABMA, "ABMA Presentation," pp. 63-125; Myron Uherka, "System Description for Saturn Vehicle (SA-1 Through SA-4)," ABMA, Rept. no. DSL-TM-10-59, 2 Apr. 1959.

40. The basic technical document for the Saturn I is MSFC, Saturn Systems Off., "Saturn C-1, Project Development Plan," 10 Aug. 1961, a comprehensive and hefty overview. A useful companion study is MSFC, Saturn. . .1962, basically a photographic history, with excellent technical photo coverage of design details and fabrication. See also Lange, "Development," in Stuhlinger et al., Astronautical Engineering; Frederick E. Vreuls, "The S-I Stage," Astronautics, 7 (Feb. 1962): 33, 70, 71; Chrysler Corp., "This is Your Chrysler Saturn Story," 1964.

41. Homer B. Wilson, "Saturn Base Heating Review," 1967; J. S. Butz, "Safety, Simplicity Stressed in Saturn Design Approach," Aviation Week, 9 May, 1960, pp. 52-55, et seq.

42. Karl L. Heimburg, "Saturn Developmental Testing," Astronautics, 7, (Feb. 1962): 54, 56, 58; Konrad L. Dannenberg, "The Saturn System Develops," Astronautics, 7, (Feb. 1962): 106; Akens, Historical Origins, p. 63; Akens et al., History of MSFC, July 1-December 31, 1960, MHM-2, May 1961, pp. 44-45; MSFC, "MSFC Technical Facilities History and Descriptions," 30 June 1968; MSFC, Technical Facilities and Equipment Digest (Jan. 1967); von Braun interview, NASA, 17 Nov. 1971.

43. Heimburg, "Saturn Testing," pp. 49, 54, 58; B. J. Funderburk, Automation in Saturn I First Stage Checkout, MSFC, NASA TN D-4328, Jan. 1968, passim; Akens, Historical Origins, p. 8; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 8; MSFC, Technical Digest, p. 8.

44. MSFC, Saturn I Summary, TMX 57401, 15 Feb. 1966, unpaged; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 28-31; Lange, "Development," Astronautical Engineering, pp. 15-16.

45. Chrysler Corp., Space Div., "Saturn IB Orientation: Systems Training Manual," no. 851-0, 15 Feb. 1965, pp. 2-3; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 39, 42; MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, Sept. 1968, pp. 1.2-1.3; MSFC, Historical Off., History of MSFC, July 1-December 31, 1962, MHM-6, May 1963, pp. 169-181.

46. For an explanation of the Saturn IB weight saving program, see H. D. Lowrey, "The Saturn IB Launch Vehicle System" speech to Soc. of Automotive Engineers, Detroit, Mich., 9 Nov. 1964. For overall system description, manufacturing, and operations, see Chrysler, "Saturn IB Orientation"; MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference; MSFC, Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Project Development Plan, NASA-TM-X-60121, 1 Jan. 1967; MSFC, Technical Digest, pp. 76-77,81-82. For detailed description, and cut-away drawings of major systems and components, see MSFC, Saturn IB Vehicle Handbook, vol. 1, "Vehicle Description," vol. 2, "S-IB Stage," CR-81077, 25 July 1966.

 

 

CHAPTER 4

 

1. Michael T. Davis, Robert K, Allgeier, Jr., Thomas G. Rogers, and Gordon Rysavy, The Development of Cryogenic Storage Systems for Space Flight (Washington, 1970), p. 1.

2. Davis et al., Cryogenic Storage, p. 12. For a highly technical review of cryogenic research, see the contribution of John A. Clark, "Cryogenic Heat Transfer," in Thomas F. Irvin, Jr., and James P. Harnett, eds., Advances in Heat Transfer (New York, 1968), 5: 325-517. For description of cryogenic production techniques and applications, see the articles "Cryogenics" and "Cryogenic Engineering" in the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (New York, 1960), pp. 569-75.

3. There were significant milestones in the development of other missiles and launch vehicles which used either solid propellant motors or other kinds of liquid propellants. The first upper-stage liquid rocket engine, for example, originated in the Vanguard program, using nitric acid and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine as propellants.

4. Leland F. Belew, W. H. Patterson, and J. W. Thomas, Jr., "Apollo Vehicle Propulsion Systems," AIAA Paper 65-303, July 1965, pp. 1-2.

5. Edward E. Straub, "The H-1 Engine," Astronautics, 7 (Feb. 1962): 39; A. A. McCool and Keith B. Chandler, "Development Trends of Liquid Propellant, Engines," in Ernst Stuhlinger et al., eds., From Peenemuende to Outer Space (Huntsville, Ala., 1962), pp. 294-96.

6. William J. Brennan, "Milestones in Cryogenic Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines," AIAA Paper 67-978, Oct. 1967, passim.

7. For an overview of these and related topics, see Brennan, "Milestones," pp. 10-13. For a technical discussion of early thrust chamber designs, consult Heinz H. Koelle, ed., Handbook of Astronautical Engineering (New York, 1961), pp. 20.69-20.75. Theories on thrust chambers prevalent in the late sixties are discussed in Dieter K. Huzel and David H. Huang, Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, 2d ed. (Washington, 1971), pp. 81 - 120. See especially the illustration on p. 113, depicting variations in tube cross sections. Koelle, Handbook, pp. 20.90-20.99, includes analysis of turbopump design parameters. For a more extended treatment, see Huzel and Huang, Design, pp. 176-261. Gas generators are also described in Koelle, Handbook, pp. 20.102-20.105, and in Huzel and Huang, Design, pp. 131-36.

For clarification of many details of propulsion system design and operation covered in Chapters 4 and 5, the author wishes to acknowledge interviews with Leonard Bostwick and Milan Burns, MSFC, 31 July 1975, and with Joseph Attinello, Robert Fontaine, and Paul Fuller, Rocketdyne, 4 Mar. and 10 Mar., 1971.

8. A. J. Burks, Development of LOX-Hydrogen Engines for the Saturn Apollo Launch Vehicles," MSFC, Engie Program Off., 10 June 1968, p. 1. At the time, Burks was the assistant manager of the office. Although this report applied specifically to LOX-LH2 systems, his comment on engines as the pacing item applied to propulsion systems in general.

9. Leonard C. Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines for Saturn/Apollo Launch Vehicles," AIAA Paper for Propulsion, Joint Specialist Conf., June 1968, p. 1.

10. Bostwick, "Development of LOK/RP-1 Engines"; Belew, Patterson and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems."

11. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 3; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines: Project Development Plan (MA 001-A50-2H), 1 July 1965, p. 2.5. The direct antecedents of the H-1 included not only the Thor and Jupiter engine system designs, but also designs from three other engine development programs, known as the MA-3, the X-1 and the S-4.

12. "Saturn H-1 Engine Design Features and Proposed Changes," ORDAB-DSDE, 21 Sept. 1959, DSDDE memo no. 2017; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, pp. 2.1, 2.6; Rocketdyne, "News from Rocketdyne: Data Sheet, H-1 Rocket Engine," 15 July 1968.

13. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics, p. 109; Rocketdyne, "News/Data Sheet, H-1"; Straub, "The H-1 Engine," pp. 39, 96. Straub was a Rocketdyne engineer involved with the H-1 engine from its inception. Engine production continued under NASA cognizance after the formal transfer of specified ARPA and ABMA projects on 16 Mar. 1960.

14. MSFC Saturn Off., Saturn Monthly Progress Report, 16 Nov.- 12 Dec. 1963, pp. 5-6: MSFC Engine Project Off., H-1 Engine Project Development Plan, 1 Dec. 1963, pp. 33-38; MSFC Engine Project Off., Engine Quarterly Report, Apr.-June, 1964, p. 21; MSFC, Michoud Assembly Facility Historical Report, 1 Jan.-30 June 1965, pp. 5, 23; MSFC Industrial Operations, Engine Program Off., Quarterly Progress Report: F-1, H-1, J-2 and RL-10 Engines, January-March, 1965, 15 Mar. 1965, pp. 15-16; Paul Anderson, Contracts Off., MSFC, "Contract NAS8-18741," 30 June 1967.

15. MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 9.5; Bostwick and Burns interview; Attinello, Fontaine, and Fuller interviews.

16. MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, pp. 2.6, 3.23; Rocketdyne, H-1 Rocket Engine Technical Manual R-3620-1: Engine Data, 1968, pp. 1.1, 1.8, 1.28; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle Propulsion Systems," p. 2; MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, Sept. 1968, pp. 4.1-4.2, 4.6; Straub, "H-1 Engine," pp. 39, 36.

17. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 3; Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," pp. 3-4.

18. Charles E. Cataldo, H-1 Engine LOX Dome Failure, NASA TM X-53220, July 1964, pp. 1-4; KSC to Apollo Program Dir., Hq., teletype, "SA-7 Launch Schedule," 17 July 1964; Apollo Spacecraft Program Off., Hq. to KSC, teletype, "SA-7 Launch Schedule," 22 July 1964; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 3; Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," p. 4.

19. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 3; Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," p. 5.

20. Arthur W. Thomson, "Meeting Held December 1, 1966 to Review Problems with the H-1 Engine on S-IB-7 and S-IB-8," 1 Dec. 1966 memo for record.

21. Ibid; Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," pp. 5-6.

22. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 3; Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," pp. 6-7.

23. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 4; David E. Aldrich, "The F-1 Engine," Astronautics, 7 (Feb. 1962): 40; David E. Aldrich and Dominick J. Sanchini, "F-1 Engine Development," Astronautics, (Mar. 1961): 24. Aldrich at the time was Rocketdyne's manager and chief engineer on the F-1 engine project; Sanchini was the assistant engineer.

24. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 5; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 2.3; Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics, p. 77.

25. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 4; Bostwick and Burns interview; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 2.3.

26. Aldrich and Sanchini, "F-1 Development," p. 25; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 2.3; Brennan, "Milestones," p. 9.

27. Franklin L. Thistle, "Rocketdyne: The First 25 Years," North American Rockwell Corp., 1970, pp. 22, 25, 28; Aldrich, "F-1," p. 96; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 5; Rocketdyne, "Data Sheet: F-1 Rocket Engine," 12 Dec. 1967; Aldrich and Sanchini, "F-1 Development," p. 47; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, pp. 9.4-5.

28. Joseph P. McNamara interview, North American Rockwell, 5 Mar. 1971; Brennan, "Milestones," p. 8; MSFC, Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 2.4.

29. Aldrich, "F-1," p. 40; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Propulsion Systems," pp. 4-5; Brennan, "Milestones," p. 8; MSFC. Launch Vehicle Engines, p. 2.4.

30. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, Dec. 1968, 3.1 and following.

31. Aldrich and Sanchini, "F-1 Development," pp. 46-47; Aldrich, "F-1," p. 69; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, 3.1-2; Aldrich and Sanchini, "Design and Development of a 1 500 000-Pound- Thrust Space Booster Engine," Rocketdyne Report, July 1963, pp. 2-3.

32. Bostwick, "Development of LOX/RP-1 Engines," p. 9,

33. Hugh Dryden to Hugh Odishaw, 6 Mar, 1961.

34. Bostwick, "Development," p. 9; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 49, 88; MSFC Historical Off., History of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center From July 1 Through Decenber 31, 1962, MHM-6 (1963), p. 131; von Braun to Seamans, draft of memo, 1962. Although the memo itself is undated, internal evidence indicates it was prepared late in Nov. 1962, following a meeting of the Off. of Manned Space Flight on 17 Nov. Copy in the personal files of Jerry Thomson, MSFC, examined by the author on 27 July 1972. Cited hereafter as MSFC, Thomson files.

35. Jerry Thomson to multiple addressees, "Activities CSAHC from Inception to September 1, 1962," 21 Sept. 1962; Jerry Thomson to multiple addressees, "Minutes 2nd Meeting CSAHC 2-3 October at Rocketdyne," 17 Oct. 1962. MSFC, Thomson files.

36. Von Braun to Seamans, draft of memo, 1962; Jerry Thomson to multiple addressees, "Minutes...Meeting on F-1 Engine Combustion Instability...December 4, 1962." MSFC, Thomson files.

37. Jerry Thomson to Rocketdyne, letter draft, Dec. 1962; S.F. Morea, "Presentation to Mr. D. Brainerd Holmes on F-1 Combustion Stability Effort-January 31,1963," memo for record, 18 Feb. 1963; A. O. Tischler, "Meeting on F-1 Combustion Stability Effort-January 31, 1963," memo for record, 18 Feb. 1963; A. O. Tischler, "Meeting on F-1 Combustion Instability at NASA HQ, 31 January 1963," memo for record (all in MSFC, Thomson files); Holmes to Seamans, 4 Feb. 1963, copy in SHP files.

38. Holmes to von Braun, 25 Mar, 1963. MSFC, Thomson files.

39. Bostwick, "Development," p. 9; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 49, 88.

40. Crocco to von Braun, 13 May 1963; Jerry Thomson, memo for record, autumn 1963; Hugh Dryden to von Braun, 4 Feb. 1964. MSFC, Thomson files.

41. Jerry Thomson, "Minutes of 6th Combustion Ad Hoc Committee...4-5 December 1963," memo for record; Crocco and Harrje to Thomson, 29 July 1964; Crocco to P. D. Castenholz, 16 Aug. 1964. MSFC, Thomson files.

42. Brennan, "Milestones," p. 9; Bostwick, "Development," p. 9; McNamara interview; Robert Fontaine interview, 4 Mar. 1971, and 10 Mar. 1971; Bostwick and Burns interview, 31 July 1975.

43. Brennan, "Milestones," p. 9; contractor briefing session, Rocketdyne, 4 Mar. and 10 Mar. 1971.

44. NASA/MSFC Resident Off., Rocket Test Site, Edwards, Calif. to S. F. Morea, MSFC, "Weekly Report Ending 15 April 1965," teletype; NASA/MSFC F-1 Project Off., Rocketdyne/Canoga Park, Calif., to S. F. Morea, MSFC, "Weekly Report Ending 15 January 1965," teletype.

45. NASA/MSFC F-1 Project Off., Rocketdyne/Canoga Park, Calif. to S. F. Morea, MSFC, "Weekly Report Ending 25 June 1965," teletype; Leland Belew to General S. C. Phillips, "Apollo Flash Report" telegram, 1 July 1965 and 9 July 1965; NASA/MSFC F-1 Project Off., Rocketdynet/Canoga Park, Calif., to S. F. Morea, MSFC, "Weekly Report Ending 20 August 1965," teletype; Bostwick, "Development," p. 10.

46. Aldrich, "F-1," p. 69.

47. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 3,4-5.

48. Bostwick, "Development," pp. 9-10; McNamara interview; contractor briefing sessions, Rocketdyne, 4 Mar. and 10 Mar. 1971.

49. Belew et al., "Apollo Propulsion Systems," pp. 5-6; Aldrich, "F-1" p. 40; Aldrich and Sanchini, "Design and Development," pp. 8-10; David E. Aldrich, "Saturn V Booster-The F-1 Engine," Rocketdyne Report, Mar. 1965, p. 18.

50. Aldrich, "Saturn V Booster," p. 4; Aldrich and Sanchini, "Design and Development, p. 2; Belew et al., "Apollo Propulsion Systems," p. 6; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 3.1-2.

51. Aldrich, "Saturn V Booster," p. 13; Francis X. de Carlo, "Furnace Brazing," Rocketdyne Report, undated, pp. 1, 5, 7, 10.

52. De Carlo, "Furnace Brazing," pp. 11, 14, 17, 32, 33; Ernst G. Huschke, Jr., "Furnace Brazing of Liquid Rocket Engines," Rocketdyne Report, 1963, passim.

53. Aldrich, "Saturn V Booster," pp. 4, 18; Aldrich and Sanchini, "Design and Development," pp. 5, 6; Bostwick, "Development"; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 3.2-3, 3.6-7, 3.10.

54. Aldrich and Sanchini, "F-1 Development"; MSFC, "Launch Vehicle Engines," pp. 9.4-5.

55. Akens, Saturn Chronology, passim; Thistle, "25 Years," pp. 35, 40, 44; Rocketdyne, "Data Sheet: F-1," p. 1.

56. Marshall Star "Engine Storage Lifetime Extended by Tests Here," 2 June 1971; Marshall Star "F-1 Engine Is Static Fired After Storage," 12 July 1972. Apparently, selected J-2 engines were also fired about the same time.

57. Straub, "H-1 Engine," p. 39.

 

 

CHAPTERS 5

 

1. Rocketdyne, Propulsion: The Key to Moon Travel," 1964. For a richly detailed history of LH2 development by an engineer who participated in many of the key research programs and knew virtually all the participants, see John L. Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel, 1945-1959, SP-4404, (Washington, 1978).

2. There are numerous books on dirigible technology and the use of hydrogen gas. See, for example, Douglas H. Robinson, Giants in the Sky (Seattle, WA, 1973). A translation of Tsiolkovsky's 1903 treatise, discussing liquid hydrogen fuels, is included in NASA, Collected Works of K. E. Tsiolkovsky, vol. 2, NASA TTF-237, pp. 72-117. For a brief discussion of LH2 research, see John D. Clark, Ignition: An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants (New Brunswick, N.J., 1972), pp. 103-114.

3. George H. Osburn, Robert Gordon, and Herman L. Coplen, "Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine Development, 1944-1950" (a paper presented at the 21st International Astronautical Congress, Constance, West Germany, 1970), p. 1; R. Cargill Hall, "Early U.S. Satellite Proposals" in Emme, The History of Rocket Technology, p. 75 passim; Richard S. Lewis, Appointment on the Moon (New York, 1968), p. 28. The story of von Kármán's achievements is recounted in his autobiography, The Wind and Beyond (Boston, 1967).

4. General Dynamics/Astronautics, A Primer of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Centaur (San Diego, 1964), p. 3. Osburn, Gordon, and Coplen, "Liquid Hydrogen Development," pp. 3-4, 9; Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen, pp. 64 ff.

5. Osburn, Gordon, and Coplen, "Liquid Hydrogen Development," pp. 3, 9-10, 12. The Osburn paper also includes detailed explanations of the production and handling of liquid hydrogen in the pioneer facility.

6. The quotation is from Lewis, Appointment, p. 34. Sources for this portion of the narrative include Lewis, Appointment, pp. 29-34; and Hall, "Early Proposals." See also Constance M. Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard: A History (Washington, 1971), pp. 1-24.

7. John Sloop, "NACA High Energy Rocket Propellant Research in the Fifties" (a paper presented at the AIAA 8th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1971), unpaged. See also, Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen, pp. 71 ff., for early Lewis work and for Krafft Ehricke's work at GD/A.

8. Sloop, "NACA Rocket Research," John L. Sloop interview, NASA Hq., 2 Dec. 1971.

9. Sloop, "NACA Rocket Research"; Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen, pp. 187 ff.

10. General Dynamics/Astronautics, Centaur Primer: An Introduction to Hydrogen-Powered Space Flight (San Diego, 1962), pp. x-x1.

11. General Dynamics, Centaur Primer, p. 1. For an account of the Atlas program, consult J. L. Chapman, Atlas: The Story of a Missile (New York, 1960).

12. General Dynamics, Centaur Primer, pp. 12-13. For early LH2 work in jets, see Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen, pp. 113 ff. For Pratt and Whitney's effort, see ibid., pp. 149 ff.

13. Lewis, Appointment, pp. 261-62; General Dynamics, Centaur Primer, p. 1; General Dynamics, NASA Centaur, p. 3; MSFC, "Launch Vehicle Engines: Project Development Plan," 1 July 1965, pp. 9, 11.

14. Oswald H. Lange, "Development of the Saturn Space Carrier Vehicle," in Stuhlinger et al., Astronautical Engineering and Science (New York, 1963), pp. 4-5.

15. General Dynamics, Centaur Primer, pp. 1-2; Lewis, Appointment, pp. 261-62. Col. Donald Heaton to Hyatt, NASA Hq., "RL-10 Engine Management Arrangements," 14 Jan. 1960.

16. David S. Akens, Saturn Illustrated Chronology: Saturn's First Eleven Years, April 1957 through April 1968, MSFC, MHR-5, 1971, pp. 10, 14, 16-17, 30, 39.

17. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp. 93,103; Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen.

18. Douglas Aircraft Corp., "Saturn Data Summary Handbook," Douglas Rept. no. N66-28064, 1 Oct. 1965, pp. 10-11; Frank Ginsti, "Engineering's Prized New Ally," United Aircraft Quarterly Bee-Hive, 37 (Jan. 1962): 34-36.

19. Jerry Thomson interview, MSFC, 21 July 1972; David L. Christensen interview, Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, 25 Mar. 1971. Thomson was a key engineer in the engine program at MSFC. Christensen, also an engineer, had worked at ABMA, then as a technical liaison for the Pall Corp.

20. General Dynamics, Centaur Primer, pp. 11-12; Leland F. Belew, Floyd Drummond, and Rodney D. Stewart, "Recent NASA Experience with Hydrogen Engines," AIAA Paper 64-270, 1964, pp. 2-3. Leland F. Belew, W. H. Patterson, and J. W. Thomas, Jr., "Apollo Vehicle Propulsion Systems," AIAA Paper 65-303, July 1965, p. 7.

21. Willlam J. Brennan, "Milestones in Cryogenic Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines"; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle," p. 9; Pratt & Whitney, "News Release," 1965. For additional details, see, A. A. McCool and G. H. McKay, Jr., "Propulsion Development Problems Associated with Large Liquid Rockets," MSFC, TM X-53075, 12 Aug. 1963, pp. 16-19.

22. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle," p. 7, passim; Belew, Drummond, and Stewart, "Recent NASA Experience," pp. 1-2.

23. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine: Background Information, press release; Saturn Vehicle Team," Report to the Administrator, NASA, on Saturn Development Plan," 15 Dec. 1959.

24. Floyd M. Drummond interview, MSFC, 1 Sept. 1971; Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 2-3; W. R. Studhalter, "The J-2 Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine," Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Paper no. 687 B, 1963, p. 20.

25. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," p. 3.

26. Contractor facility tour and briefing, 4 Mar. 1971; Jack Monaghan interview, Rocketdyne, 4 Mar. 1971.

27. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 3-5; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle, p. 10; MSFC, Saturn Systems Off., Saturn Monthly Progress Report, 12 Apr.- 12 May 1962, pp. 12-13; ibid., 14 May-12 June 1962, p. 11; MSFC, Saturn Off., Saturn MPR, 15 Sept.-15 Oct. 1962, pp. 5-6.

28. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 39, 50; NASA News Release, July 11, 1962.

29. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 4-5.

30. Ibid.; Paul Fuller, "Liquid Hydrogen Technology, J-2 Engine" (a paper presented to a meeting of the AIAA, July 1965), pp. 4-5.

31. Thomson interview; Christensen interview; Drummond interview; Robert Pease interview, MSFC, 3 Sept. 1971; Richard N. Rodgers interview, MSFC, 24 Aug. 1971.

32. Rocketdyne, "Existing Technology," p. 2; Rocketdyne, J-2 Engine," p. 4. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 6.1-6.2; Fuller, "Liquid Hydrogen Technology," p. 2.

33. Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 5-8; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 6.1.

34. Studhalter, J-2 Rocket Engine," p. 3; Brennan, "Milestones," p. 6; Rocketdyne, "Existing Technology Utilized in J-2 Engine System Design," 10 Mar. 1971, p. 5.

35. Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp: 3, 5. Tank pressures in the vehicle were kept low to save the weight of heavier test tank construction. Each pump had a very efficient inducer stage to operate at low pressures. The NPSH for LH2 at 4 psia was 40 meters, and NPSH for LOX at 12.5 psia was 7.6 meters.

36. Fuller, "Liquid Hydrogen Technology," pp. 3-4; Rocketdyne, "J-2 Engine...Change Points," 9 March 1971, p. 1; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 6.6-6.7.

37. Brennan, "Milestones," p. 8; Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," p. 9; Rocketdyne, "Existing Technology," pp. 1-2; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 6.2-6.4.

38. Belew, Drummond, and Stewart, "Recent NASA Experience," pp. 3-4; Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 9, 13; Brennan, "Milestones," p. 8; Rocketdyne, "Existing Technology," p. 4; Fuller, "Liquid Hydrogen Technology," p. 2; John L. Sloop to Monte Wright, NASA, 8 July 1976.

39. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 5-6; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 71, 78-79, 98; Fuller, "Liquid Hydrogen Technology," p. 5; Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle," p. 12.

40. DAC, Saturn S-IVB Monthly TRP, July 1965, p. 48; MSFC Engine Program Off., Semiannual Progress Report, July-Dec., 1965, pp. 21-23; MSFC files. MSFC press releases, nos. 66-4 and 66-8, 7 Jan. 1968; Rocketdyne, "J-2 Engine," p. 6; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 115-16, 130-31; MSFC Test Lab, Historical Report, Jan.-Dec. 1965, pp. 7-8. For details of flight missions, see Chapters 11 and 12.

41. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 110, 145, 175; MSFC Press Release no. 67-39, 28 Feb. 1967; MSFC, Saturn V Program Off., Saturn V Semiannual Progress Report, Jan.-June 1967, pp. 68-72; MSFC files; Saturn V Semiannual Progress Report, July-Dec. 1967, pp. 76-79; MSFC files.

42. Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 5, 7; Belew, Drummond, and Stewart, "Recent NASA Experience," p. 3.

43. Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," p. 17.

44. Drummond interview; Pease interview; Rodgers interview.

45. Belew, Patterson, and Thomas, "Apollo Vehicle," p. 1; Pease interview.

46. Rocketdyne, "J-2 Rocket Engine," p. 4; Studhalter, "J-2 Rocket Engine," pp. 20, 26. The composition of Invar included Fe 63%; Ni 36%; other 1%.

 

 

CHAPTER 6

 

1. William A. Mrazek, Launch Vehicle Systems," in NASA, "Science and Technology Committee for Manned Space Flight," (MSC, Houston, Tex., 29 June 1964), 1: 1-2, cited hereafter as STAC Conference; Akens, Saturn Illustrated Chronology, p. 50.

2. Abraham Hyatt to the Associate Administrator, Meeting with Director, Development Operations Division, ABMA, Huntsville," 11 Jan. 1960; von Braun to Maj. Gen. Don F. Ostrander (USAF), NASA, 8 Jan. 1960; Abraham Hyatt to von Braun, 18 Jan. 1960.

3. Maj. Gen. Don Ostrander, NASA, to von Braun, 26 Jan. 1960; minutes, "Saturn Orientation Conference," 26-27 Jan. 1960. The latter is a verbatim copy, taped during the two-day session.

4. Abraham Hyatt to O. H. Lange, 22 June 1960.

5. T. Keith Glennan, "Administrator's Statement on the Selection of a Contractor for the Saturn S-IV Stage," memo, 28 Apr. 1960: Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 8, 10, 13.

6. Glennan memo, "Administrator's Statement." By the fall of 1960, Convair won the S-V contract, but the future of this third stage became marginal. In Jan. 1961, von Braun recommended a change in the C-1, from three to two stages, and NASA management concurred. The development of the S-V subsequentiy was canceled.

7. Controller General of the U.S. to Overton Brooks, Chmn., Comm. on Science and Astronautics, 22 June 1960; Committee on Science and Astronautics news release, 18 July 1960. Evidently, there were questions about the significance of Chrysler's proposal to build its own plant near Cape Canaveral. This would have entailed government funds and equipment, the GAO noted. In any case, Chrysler's technical proposal received very low ratings. See, for example, Milton W. Rosen, "Technical Evaluation of Saturn S-IV Proposal; Comments On," memo, 8 June 1950. For additional comment on NASA procurement policies, see Vernon van Dyke, Pride and Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964), pp. 214-16.

8. John Mazur, "Chronological Summary of Negotiations of Saturn. . . Vehicle Stage S-IV. . .," memo, May 1960; von Braun to Ostrander, 18 May 1960; von Braun to Ostrander, "Agreements and Design Assumptions of First Saturn S-IV Coordination Conference," with attachments, 15 June 1960.

9. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 8, l0, 13.

10. Oswald H. Lange, "Development of the Saturn Space Carrier Vehicle," in Stuhlinger, et al., Astronautical Engineering, pp. 8, 18; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 14, 16-17, 20, 31, 35.

11. The S-I first-stage booster for Saturn I made 10 launches, including 5 with a live S-IV stage. The S-IVB third stage made 5 launches with the Saturn IB, and 6 more on the Saturn V through the first lunar landing (AS-506). By the time of the final Apollo-Saturn mission (AS-512), the S-IVB notched 6 more launches for a total of 17 flights. The first two stages of the Saturn V, the S-IC and the S-II had an even dozen launches on Apollo missions. The S-IC/S-II combination also launched the Skylab orbital workshop. The last 4 Saturn IB/S-IVB launches involved three Skylab crews and the ASTP crew, for a grand total of 21 S-IVB flights.

12. MSFC, "S-IVB Summary Chronology: Contract NAS7-101-Douglas Aircraft Company," 1963; D. Brainerd Holmes to Robert C. Seamans, "S-IVB Sole Source Procurement with Douglas Aircraft Company," 15 Dec., 1961.

13. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 39-40, 43, 50; H.E. Bauer, "Operational Experiences on the Saturn S-IVB Stage," Society of Automotive Engineers Reprint no. 680756, Oct. 1968, p. 1; Mrazek, "Launch Vehicle Systems," vol. 1, pp. 1-2.

14. Ludwig Roth and W. M. Shempp, "S-IVB High Energy Upper Stage and Its Development," Douglas Aircraft Corp., Douglas Paper no. 4040, 1967, pp. 1-2.

15. Bauer,"Operational Experiences,"p. 11.

16. Ibid., pp. 2-3; Lange, "Development," p. 17; Roy E. Godfrey, "S-IVB Stage," STAC Conference, pt. 5, pp. 1-2.

17. E. D. Geissler, "Ascent Trajectory Considerations," STAC Conference, pt. 3, pp. 1-13.

18. Earl L. Wilson interview, MDAC, 11 Mar, 1971; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference; "S-IVB Fact Sheet"; Charles C. Wood and H. G. Paul, "A Review of Cryogenic Technology Aspects of Space Flight," a paper for the International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 1967, unpaged. This paper by Wood and Paul, both MSFC engineers, includes a very informative summary of cryogenic problems of rockets in terms of tankage, orbital maneuvers, low-gravity operations, and insulation.

19. Lange, "Development," p. 8.

20. For specific differences in the S-IVB/IB stage and the S-IVB stages, see, George E. Mueller to NASA Administrator, "Conversion of an S-IVB/IB Stage to S-IVB/V Configuration," 14 Sept. 1965, and attachments.

21. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," p. 2; Harold E. Bauer interview, MDAC, 8 Mar. 1971; E. Harpoothian, "The Production of Large Tanks for Cryogenic Fuels," Douglas Paper no. 3155, 12 Nov. 1964, pp. 3, 10, 19-20, 31. Harpoothian at the time was Chief Engineer, Structures Dept., Development Engineering, Douglas Aircraft Co.

22. Tour of contractor facilities, Mar. 1971; Bauer interview; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," pp. 4, 6-7, 10, 26, 31; K. H. Boucher, "Saturn Third Stage S-IVB Manufacturing," p. 4; contractor briefing and tour of facilities, McDonnell Douglas and North American Rockwell, Mar. 1971. For examples of typical aerospace construction techniques of the mid-1960s, see Frank W. Wilson and Walter R. Prange, eds,, Tooling for Aircraft and Missile Manufacture (New York, 1964).

23. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 49, 58; Bauer, "Operational Experiences," pp. 3-5; Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," p. 4; contractor briefing and tour of facilities, McDonnell Douglas and North American Rockwell, Mar. 1971.

24. Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 6, 9, 11; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," pp. 6-7, 13-14, 35; Theodore Smith interview, MDAC, 3 Mar. 1971; Bauer, "Operational Experiences," pp. 3, 4.

25. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," p. 4; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," p. 14; Roth and Shempp, "S-IVB Development," p. 17; A. C. Robertson and E. L. Brown, "The Development of a Bonded Common Bulkhead for Saturn," Douglas Paper no. 3817, p. 2; Theodore Smith interview.

26. Robertson and Brown, "Development of Common Bulkhead," p. 2; Theodore Smith interview.

27. Robertson and Brown, "Development of Common Bulkhead," p. 3. Robertson was from Douglas, and Brown from MSFC. See also Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 13-19; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," pp. 39-44.

28. Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 34-35, 37, 39, 57-58, 60-61. Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," pp. 14, 44; Gerald L. Riggs interview, MDAC, 11 Mar. 1971; tour of MDAC facility, 3 Mar. and 11 Mar. 1971.

29. Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," pp. 8, 30; Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 41-43, 63, 67, 69; Bauer, "Operational Experience," pp. 5-7.

30. Robert W. Prentice interview, MDAC, 11 Mar. 1971; Harold E. Bauer and Theodore Smith interviews.

31. Ernst D. Geissler, "Project Apollo Vehicular Plans," a report at a NASA meeting at Langley Research Center, Apr. 1962, p. 4.

32. Harold Bauer and Theodore Smith interviews.

33. Glen A. Herstine, "Why Internal Insulation for the Saturn S-IV Liquid Hydrogen Tank?" Douglas Paper no. 1422, Aug. 1964, pp. 1-3.

34. Ibid., pp. 3-7; Theodore Smith interview; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," p. 16: Bauer, "Operational Experiences," pp. 8, 11.

35. Theodore Smith interview; Herstine, "Internal Insulation," pp. 3-7.

36. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," p. 8; Theodore Smith interview. Specially treated balsa was nevertheless used in some problem areas of the tankage, such as the section where the LH2 tank joined the common bulkhead. See, for example, D. L. Dearing and R. J. Steffy, "The Significance of Parameters Affecting the Heat Transfer. . . ," Douglas Paper no. 3374, June 1965, p. 6 ff.

37. Bauers "Operational Experience," pp. 8-9; Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 44-46.

38. Theodore Smith interview.

39. D. L. Dearing, "Development of the Saturn S-IV and S-IVB Liquid Hydrogen Tank Internal Insulation," Douglas Paper no. 3511, Aug. 1965, pp. 2-3; Boucher, "Saturn S-IVB Manufacturing," pp. 46, 54-55; tour of contractor facilities, Mar. 1971.

40. Dearing "Development Internal Insulation," pp. 2-3.

41. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 5.4-5.6.

42. Roth and Shempp, "S-IVB Development," pp. 18-19; Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," p. 26; Earl Wilson interview; H. R. Linderfelt interview, McDonnell Douglas, 9 Mar. 1971.

43. MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-506, MSFC-MAN-506, 10 June 1969, pp. 6.11-6.12; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 5.5-5.6.

44. Ibid., 5.6-S.7. As a back-up concept, the S-IVB carried seven extra ambient helium spheres on the thrust structure. Two provided redundancy for LOX tank pressurization, and five provided redundancy for the LH2 tank (ibid.). O. S. Tyson, one of MSFC's resident managers at Douglas during S-IV/IVB development, commented that the availability of significant amounts of helium in this country constituted a special advantage in the U.S space program, since the efficient helium system permitted lower design weights and plumbing for stage pressure systems and other functions. Tyson interview, 3 Mar. 1971.

45. J. D. Shields interview, MDAC, 11 Mar. 1971; Roth and Shempp, "S-IVB Development," p. 19; MSFC Saturn V News Reference, pp. 5.5-5.6, 5.8; anonymous MDAC memo to author, 11 June 1976.

46. D. J. Allen and L. G. Bekemeyer, "Design of the Saturn S-IV Stage Propellant Utilization System," Douglas Paper no. 1292, Mar. 1962, pp. 2, 15-16; MSFC; Saturn V News Reference, p. 5.9; Lorenzo P. Morata interview, MDAC, 8 Mar. 1971.

47. Morata interview; Allen and Bekemeyer, "Design of PU System," pp. 19, 21. For details of the PU System design and operation, see Allen and Bekemeyer, pp. 3-14, 16-22.

48. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 5.9.

49. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 5.9-5.10; MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-506, pp. 6.19-6.20; Robert Prentice interview.

50. Refer to News Reference and Flight Manual, cited above, passim. See also, Godfrey, "S-IVB Stage," STAC Conference, pt. 5.

51. E. A. Hellebrand, "Structures and Propulsion," pt. 2, p. 6.

52. Harpoothian, "Production of Large Tanks," p. 30; Roth and Shempp, "S-IVB Development," p. 14; Godfrey, "S-IVB," STAC Conference, pt. 5, pp. 5-8.

53. John D. Clark, Ignition: An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1972), p. 108; Harold E. Felix interview, MDAC, 9 Mar. 1971.

54. J. B. Gayle, ed., Investigation of S-IV All Systems Explosion, NASA TND-563, Sept. 1964, passim.

55. Edmund F. O'Connor to Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, telegram, 9 Feb. 1967; Felix interview; MSFC Saturn V Program Off., Semiannual. . .Report, January-June 1967, pp. 33, 52-56, MSFC files; Douglas Aircraft Co., S-IVB Quarterly Report, Mar. 1967, pp. 51, 54-55, MSFC files; anonymous MDAC memo to author, 11 June 1976. Loss of S-IVB-503 led to substitution of stage serial numbers 504 for 503N, 505 for 504N, and 506 for 505N. The availability of excess 507 tankage led to its reincarnation as S-IVB-506, with S-IVB-507 and subsequent stages produced as originally planned (Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 161-162).

56. McDonnell Douglas Corp., "McDonnell Douglas S-IVB Rocket for NASA's Saturn Launch Vehicle," news release, July 1969; MSFC Test Lab., "Historical Report, Jan.-Dec. 1965," pp. 7-8, MSFC files. For description of the automatic checkout concept and its development, refer to Chapter 13.

57. O. S. Tyson interview, MSFC Resident Mgr. at McDonnell Douglas, 3 Mar. 1971.

58. Edmund F. O'Connor to Samuel Phillips (day and month obscured), 1966. Static firing was discontinued, however, later in the program.

59. Theodore Smith, Harold Bauer, and O. S. Tyson interviews.

60. Earl Wilson interview. Nevertheless, the Centaur became a highly reliable upper stage mated to both Atlas and Titan boosters and was used in a wide variety of planetary and Earth-orbital missions.

61. Wilson interview; Theodore Smith interview.

62. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," pp. 2-3; Godfrey, "S-IVB," STAC Conference, part 5, p. 8. Theodore Smith, Harold Bauer, Robert Prentice, and J. D. Shields interviews.

 

 

CHAPTER 7

 

1. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 33; MSFC, "Saturn V, Project Development Plan," Nov. 1967, pp. 2.2, 3.10, cited hereafter as "Saturn V PDP"; von Braun, "Saturn the Giant" in Cortright, ed., Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, pp. 42, 46.

It would have been interesting to learn more of the contractor selection process, but a search for these records at MSFC in Oct. 1975 was unsuccessful. The S-IC contract negotiations were probably similar to those described for the S-IV and S-II, which the author pieced together from available documents.

2. Milton W. Rosen interviews, NASA, 14 Nov. 1969 and 1 Dec. 1971; Rosen to D. Brainerd Holmes, "Large Launch Vehicle Program," 6 Nov. 1961, with attached report interview, 20 Nov. 1961, JSC files.

3. Von Braun interview, MSFC, 17 Nov. 1971; von Braun, "Saturn the Giant," p. 42; Ernst Geissler interview, MSFC, 7 Sept. 1971; John M. Logsdon, "Selecting the Way to the Moon: The Choice of the Lunar Orbiter Rendezvous Mode," Aerospace Historian, 18 (June 1971): 66.

4. George Alexander, "Boeing Faces Unique Fabrication Challenge," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 77 (l3 Aug. 1962): 52, 59, 63; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 11.4; Boeing Co., Launch Systems Branch, "Controactor Program Procedures, 1966, 1967, 1968; Boeing Co., Launch Systems Branch, "Saturn S-IC, Annual Progress Report," FYs 1964 through 1968.

5. Von Braun interview, 17 Nov. 1971; Matthew Urlaub interview, MSFC, 29 July 1975; Rosen interview, NASA, 1 Dec. 1971.

6. Alexander, "Boeing Faces," pp. 55, 59; Alexander, "S-IC Heavy Tooling Installed at Marshall." Aviation Week and Space Technology, 78 (25 Mar. 1963), unpaged reprint in SHP files; William Clarke, "Roll Out the Booster," Boeing Magazine, 35 (Aug. 1965): 13; William Clarke, "Try This On for Size," Boeing Magazine, 35 (Feb. 1965): 9; William Sheil, "Saturn Stands Up," Boeing Magazine, 34 (Apr. 1964): 6; MSFC Saturn V News Reference, p. 2.5.

For clarification of many details of design, development, and manufacturing of the S-IC stage, the author wishes to acknowledge interviews with Matthew Urlaub and Hans F. Wuenscher. MSFC, 3 Sept. 1971, and Mathias P. Siebel, MSFC, 9 Sept. 1971. Wuenscher and Siebel were both top managers in MSFC's Manufacturing Engineering Lab during this period.

7. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 2.1-2.5; MSFC, "Saturn V PDP," p. 3.7.

8. Alexander, "Boeing Faces," p. 53; Darrell Bartee, "Hitching Posts for Saturn," Boeing Magazine, 35 (Jan. 1965): 6; Whitney G. Smith, "Fabricating the S-IC Booster," AIAA Paper 65-294, July 1965, p. 6; MSFC, "Saturn V PDP," pp. 3.10, 3.18; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 2.4.

9. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 1.7-1.9; Smith, "Fabrication in S-IC," pp. 5-6; Alexander. "Boeing Faces," p. 53; J. E. Kingsbury, MSFC, to author, 21 June 1976.

10. MSFC, "Saturn V PDP," pp. 3.7-3.15; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 2.3-2.4, 2.9-2.16: Alexander, "Boeing Faces," p. 55; M. A. Kalange and R. J. Alcott, "Saturn V S-IC Stage Engine Gimbal Actuation System," 18 May 1965, passim; William B. Sheil, "Migration to Huntsville, Boeing Magazine, 35 (May 1965): 6.

11. Whitney G. Smith, "Fabricating the Saturn S-IC Booster," AIAA Paper no. 65-294, July 1963, p. 1; Alexander, Boeing Faces," p. 52; Alexander "S-IC."

12. Smith, "Fabricating S-IC," pp. 2-3; Eugene M. Langworthy and Leland Bruce, "Chemical Milling, on Apollo and Saturn Gore Segments," Society of Aeronautical Weight Engineers, Technical Paper no. 477, May 1965, pp. 1, 5-7.

13. Alexander, "Boeing Faces," p. 55; Darrel Bartee, "Curves Cured to Order," Boeing Magazine, 34 (Nov. 1964): 12-13; Darrel Bartee, "Lunar Look," Boeing Magazine, 33 (July 1963): 10-11; Mathias Siebel, "Building the Moon Rocket" (paper presented to meeting of National Machine Tool Builders Association, 3 Nov. 1965), pp. 11-13.

14. Willlam Clarke, "The Uncommon Welder," Boeing Magazine, 35 (March 1965): 12; Alexander, Boeing Faces," p. 59; Alexander, "S-IC"; Smith, "Fabricating S-IC," pp. 4-5; MSFC, Manufacturing Plan: Saturn V Booster Stage, S-IC 15 January 1963, vol. 1 (with change inserts through July 1965), pp. 2.1-2.54.

15. Smith, "Fabricating S-IC," pp. 2.4; Siebel, "Building," pp. 18-20; Alexander, "Boeing Faces," pp. 53, 55; Bartee, "Lunar Look," pp. 10-11; MSFC, Manufacturing Plan, vol. 1 pp. 3.1-3.40.

16. William Clarke, "Purity Surety," Boeing Magazine, 34 (Dec. 1964): 11.

17. Smith, "Fabricating S-IC, pp. 4-5; Alexander, "S-IC."

18. Alexander, "S-IC"; Alexander, "Boeing Faces," pp. 55, 59; Smith, "Fabricating S-IC," pp. 4-5; William Clarke, "Tanks for Saturn," Boeing Magazine, 35 (May 1965): 15; William B. Sheil, "Ground Testing a Moon Bird," Boeing Magazine, 35 (July 1965): 3, 5; MSFC Manufacturing Plan, vol. 2, pp. 7.1-7.302.

19. William B. Sheil, "Countdown to Liftoff," (reprint) Boeing Magazine, 1966, pp. 12-13; William Clarke, "The Immovable Object." (reprint) Boeing Magazine, 1966, p. 3; MSFC, news release, "Saturn V Rocket Booster Test Stand," 5 Aug. 1965; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 8.9.

20. Matthew Urlaub, interview. The author wishes to express his thanks to Mr. Urlaub for permission to review his personal files relating to the S-IC stage. There were the usual design and engineering problems, but no disastrous problems, such as tank explosions or other major setbacks. Representative copies of Urlaub's weekly memos to Dr. Arthur Rudolph, the Saturn V Program Manager, are in the SHP files. See, for example: "S-IC Stage Weekly Status Report," 9 Jan. 1964; 31 Jan. 1964; 14 Feb. 1964; 28 Feb. 1964; 6 Mar. 1964; 9 Apr. 1964. See especially the weekly reports for 13 Oct. 1964, and 4 Nov. 1964.

21. Elmer L. Field, "The S-II Stage," Astronautics, Feb. 1962, p. 35.

22. T. Keith Glennan, "Memorandum for the Administrator," 19 Jan. 1961.

23. MSFC, news release, "First Phase S-II Contractor Selection," 12 May 1961.

24. James E. Webb, "Memorandum for the Record: Selection of Contractors to Participate in Second Phase of Saturn S-II Stage Competition," 8 June 1961.

25. MSFC, "Minutes of the Phase II Pre-Proposal Conference for Stage S-II Procurement on June 21, 1961," JSC files.

26. MSFC, Saturn V PDP, Nov. 1967, p. 2.2.

27. D. Brainerd Holmes to Associate Administrator, "Management of Saturn S-II Facilities Program," 27 May 1963; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 66-67; Roy Godfrey interview, MSFC, 29 July 1975.

28. S-II stages, like other Saturn stages, incorporated numerous design variations over the period of their production. This composite description is derived from the following sources: MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 4.1-4.19; MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-506, 10 June 1969, pp. 5.1-5.30; MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual SA-510, 25 June 1971, 5.1-5.30; MSFC, Saturn V Project Development Plan, Nov. 1967, pp. 3.19-3.27; NAA, Saturn S-II Stage Program Plan, 1 Apr. 1966; NAA Manufacturing Plan for Saturn S-II, Stages 16-25, 14 June 1967, NAA, Saturn S-II, General Manual, 1965; NAA, Saturn S-II Stage: S-II-4 and Subsequent, Mar. 1963; NAA, The Saturn S-II, 14 May 1964; NAA, Saturn V-Stage II: Power for the Drive into Space, Aug. 1967; NAR, Manufacturing Plan for Saturn S-II Stage, 1 June 1969. Unless otherwise noted, the physical description of the S-II stage structures and systems is based on these documents.

29. NAA, The Saturn S-II, p. 22, NAA, "Saturn S-II: Annual Progress Report," Aug. 1963, pp. 135, 138-40; A. C. van Leuven interview, NAR, 12 Mar. 1971.

30. Van Leuven interview; H. Raiklen interview, NAR, 11 Mar. 1971; William F. Parker interview, NAR, 8 Mar. 1971; interview, William F. Parker, NAR, 8 Mar. 1971; P. Wickham interview, NAR, 9 Mar. 1971; Richard E. Barton (Dir. of Public Relations, Rockwell International) to author, 18 June 1976, with attached anonymous memo dated 10 May 1976.

31. For details of the bulkhead assembly sequence, see Tony C. Cerquettini, "The Common Bulkhead for the Saturn S-II Vehicle," NAA Report, 1967; NAR, Manufacturing Plan, 1969, pp. 15-25; interviews cited in note 30 above.

32. For description, photos, and drawings of the foam process, see NAR, Manufacturing Plan, 1969, pp. 89-90; NAR, Manufacturing Development Information Report, 1968, pp. 45, 55, 83-85. The company also had to devise special phenolic cutter heads to trim the insulation to shape, and use integrated electronic sensors to measure the desired insulation thickness during the cutting procedure. See also interviews with van Leuven and Wickham.

33. Refer to the sources cited in note 28 above.

34. Ibid; Raiklen interview; G. A. Phelps interview, NAR, 12 Mar. 1971.

35. Quoted in "The Toughest Weld of All" Skyline, 1968, unpaged reprint in SHP files. Skyline was the company magazine of North American Rockwell. Other manufacturing details and description from NAA, Saturn S-II; Annual Progress Report, 1963, 1964, 1965; NAR, Manufacturing Development Information Report, 1968, NAR, Manufacturing Plan, 1969; contractor facilities tour and briefing given the author in Mar, 1971; interviews with van Leuven, Wickham, Raiklen, and Parker.

36. Quoted in "The Toughest Weld of All."

37. Refer to the sources cited in note 35 above. See also Charles Jordan and Norman Wilson interviews, both of NAR, 2 Mar. 1971. An executive at North American who reviewed a draft of the manuscript maintained that over a period of time, the NASA welding concepts were not appreciably superior to North American techniques. Barton to author, with attachment, 18 June 1976.

38. Ray Godfrey and Bill Sneed interviews, MSFC, 28 July 1973.

39. H. G. Paul to Cline, "S-II Insulation Status," 2 June 1964; NAR, Saturn S-II: Chronology of Events, 1958-1970 (no date, unpaged). This is a remarkably comprehensive and candid record of NAR's S-II program, comprising a two-inch thick document typed on notebook-size paper. Apparently prepared for management reference.

40. Samuel C. Phillips to von Braun, 1 Apr. 1965.

41. Arthur Rudolph to Herman Weidner, 10 May 1965.

42. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 109-120; NAR, Saturn S-II Chronology, passim.

43. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 120-121; NAR, Saturn S-II Chronology, passim; Samuel Yarchin to William F. Parker, 6 Oct. 1965; Yarchin to Parker, 11 Oct. 1965.

44. O'Connor to von Braun, "Background Data for Dr. von Braun- Mr. Atwood Meeting," 14 Oct. 1965. Housed in MSFC History Off. in file drawer marked Eberhard Rees, "NAR Organization, S-II Stage." Cited hereafter as Rees files.

45. Rees to O'Connor, "Meeting on NAA/S&ID Situation," 16 Oct. 1965. Rees files.

46. Edmund F. O'Connor to Harrison A. Storms, 18 Oct. 1965.

47. NASA, Hq., Off of Programs and Special Reports, Program Review: Apollo, 16 Nov. 1966, transcription of remarks by General Edmund O'Connor, pp. 81-83.

48. Dale Myers interview, 17 Mar. 1970

49. Rees to O'Connor, "Meeting on NAA. . ." 16 Oct. 1965, Rees Files.

50. George Mueller to J. L. Atwood, 27 Oct. 1965, Rees files.

51. "Phillips Report" 19 Dec. 1965. The letter to Atwood is included in the complete Phillips Report, housed in the SHP files.

52. Arthur Rudolph interview, MSFC, 26 Nov. 1968.

53. Eberhard Rees, "Personal Impressions, Views and Recommendations," memo, 8 Dec. 1965, Rees files.

54. Eberhard Rees memo, 9 Dec. 1965, attached to 8 Dec. memo cited above.

55. NAA, news release, 1961; NAA, news release, 25 Jan. 1966.

56. Robert E. Greer interview, NAR, 5 Mar. 1971. The story of "Black Saturdays" is from an interview with one of Greer's close associates at North American, W.E. Dean, 8 Mar. 1971. Dean and P. Wickham (interview cited above) both commented on enhanced morale.

57. George E. Mueller to Lee Atwood, 23 Feb. 1966; Harold G. Russell to Gen. Phillips, "S-II-T Program at MTF," 15 Apr. 1966; George F. Esenwein to Dir., Apollo Test/copy to Phillips, "May 25, Attempted S-II-T Full Duration Static Firing," 26 May 1966; transcribed log of phone call. Atwood to von Braun, von Braun daily journal, 27 May 1966 (housed in Alabama Space and Rocket Cr., Huntsvile, Ala., cited hereafter as von Braun daily journal); Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 141.

58. Log of phone ca11s, Storms to von Braun, 31 May 1966, and von Braun to Gilruth, 1 June 1966, in von Braun daily journal; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 142-143; NAR, S-II Chronology. See also, E. Mims interview, NAR, 12 Mar. 1971.

59. Gerald E. Meloy to Robert C. Seamans, "Saturn V S-II-T Stage Explosion," 31 May 1966; George E. Mueller, Congressional Inquiry (S-II-T)," memo and attached preliminary draft letter, Webb to Sen. Clinton Anderson, 21 Mar. 1967.

60. Samuel Yarchin to Gen. O'Connor, "Weekly Notes Dr. Rees, S-II Notes for Dr. Rees to Mr. Storms Telecom," 7 Oct. 1966.

61. Samuel Yarchin to Rees, "Weekly Notes to Storms Telecom," 11 Sept. 1966; O'Connor to Philllps and Rees, "S-II-1 Delays at MTF," 27 Sept. 1966; Frank Magliato to Webb, Seamans, and Shapley, "Static Test of S-II-1," 27 Oct. 1966.

62. NASA, Program Review, 15 Nov. 1966, transcription of remarks by Samuel Phillips, pp. 37-42.

63. Samuel Phillips to Associate Administrator, "S-II-T Failure Corrective Action," 9 Jan. 1967.

64. Alibrando to Phillips (memo dealt with MSFC's special technical force visit to Seal Beach), 5 Jan. 1967; Phillips to Associate Administrator, "Enclosures: S-II Stage Status," 27 Jan. 1967; NAR, Saturn S-II Chronology.

65. Dale Myers interview, NASA, 17 Mar. 1970.

66. See, for example, Courtney Brooks, James Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979); Charles D. Benson and William B. Faherty, Moonport: A History of Apollo's Launch Facilities and Operations, NASA SP-4204 (Washington, 1978).

67. "North American Tries to Advance Under Fire," Business Week, 3 June 1967, pp. 154-56, 158.

68. George E. Mueller to J. L. Atwood, Jan. or Feb. 1967 (date partially obscured).

69. Arthur Rudolph to John G. Shinkle, TWX, 24 May 1967; Phillips to Ctr. Directors (MSFC, KSC, MSC), TWX, 25 May 1967.

70. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 181, 192, 196, 199.

71. See, for example von Braun daily journal, for the year 1963.

72. Parker interview; Sneed and Godfrey interviews.

73. While much of this involves the personal judgment of the author, the conclusions are based on personal interviews with Matthew Urlaub, Roy Godfrey, Bill Sneed, cited above, and Robert Greer, 5 Mar. 1971. See also Rudolph interview, 26 Nov. 1968. For sympathetic accounts of North American personalities, see Beirne Lay, Jr., Earthbound Astronauts (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971),pp. 100-117.

 

 

CHAPTER 8

 

1. Sidney Sternberg, "Automatic Checkout Equipment-The Apollo Hippocrates," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 25 (September 1969): 84-87.

2. Paul Alelyunas, "Checkout: Man's Changing Role," Space/Aeronautics, Dec. 1965, p. 66.

3. Sternberg, "Automatic Checkout," pp. 84-87.

4. Alelyunas, "Checkout: Man's Changing Role," pp. 66-73.

5. Sternberg, "Automatic Checkout," p. 87. For additional general discussion of Saturn automatic equipment and operations, see, Robert L. Smith, Jr., "Practicalities in Automated Manufacturing Checkout," MSFC, Oct. 1963.

6. D. Morris Schmidt, "Automatic Checkout Systems for Stages of the Saturn V Manned Space Vehicle," a paper presented to IEEE International Conference, New York, Mar. 1965, and published in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference, 13, pt. 4 (1965): 85-86.

7. Ibid., 86; Sternberg, "Automatic Checkout," p. 85; D. Morris Schmidt, "Survey of Automatic Checkout Systems for Saturn V Stages," MSFC, 10 July 1968, p. 3. For procedures at KSC, see Benson and Faherty, Moonport.

8. Schmidt, "Automatic Checkout," p. 86; Schmidt, "Survey," p. 4.

9. Schmidt, "Automatic Checkout," p. 87.

10. Ibid., p. 91; Schmidt, "Survey," pp. 6,27. For discussion of the Saturn I experience, see, Robert L. Smith, Jr., "Automatic Checkout for Saturn Stages," Astronautics, February 1962, pp. 46-47, 60; Jack W. Dahnke, "Computer-Directed Checkout for NASA's Biggest Booster," Control Engineering, August 1962, pp. 84-87. For the Saturn IB vehicle, see William G. Bode, Techniques of Implementing Launch Automation Programs (Saturn IB Space Vehicle System), MSFC, NASA TMX-53274, 30 July 1975.

11. Schmidt, "Survey," pp. 7-8; Smith, "Practicalities," p. 3. For additional descriptions of the checkout operations and the equipment involved for each stage, see Schmidt, "Survey." The section on the S-II (pp. 12-17; 33-39) is the most detailed, containing several representative flow diagrams and descriptions of the test operations for all three stages and the IU. See also Frank R. Palm, "A Real Time Operating System for the Saturn V Launch Computer Complex" Huntsville, Ala./IBM, July 1966. MSFC, "Survey of Saturn Stage Test and Checkout Computer Plan Development," 1 June 1966, provides a technical overview of the systems for both the Saturn V and Saturn IB.

12. William Sheil, "Breadboards and D-Birds," Boeing Magazine, 35 (October 1965): 10-11; J. W. Moore, J. R. Mitchell, and H. H. Trauboth, "Aerospace Vehicle Simulation and Checkout." MSFC, Apr. 1966; J. R. Mitchell, J. W Moore, and H. H. Trauboth, "Digital Simulation of an Aerospace Vehicle," MSFC, 9 Mar. 1967.

13. George F. Meister, "The Role of Simulation in the Development of an Automatic Checkout system," Douglas Paper no. 4010, Aug. 1966, p. 19.

14. H. E. Bauer, "Operational Experiences on the Saturn S-IVB Stage," Douglas Paper no. 5268. Oct. 1968, pp. 11-12.

15. Charles Stark Draper, Walter Wrigley, and John Hovorka, Inertial Guidance (New York, 1960). pp. 1, 2, 4. Other means of guidance include (1) command guidance: data sent to the vehicle from an operator or computer; (2) homing: may home in on natural radiation or from infrared wavelengths emanating from the target; (3) beam riding: vehicle steers itself along the axis of radar or other system pointed at the target.

Draper was a leading researcher in the field of guidance and control, and his book is a basic treatise in the literature. For a survey of the state of the art during the period of the Saturn program, see Frederick I. Ordway III, James Patrick Gardner, and Mitchell R. Sharpe, Basic Astronautics (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962), pp. 366, passim.

16. Draper, Guidance, pp. 14-18. Important work on gyroscopes was done on both sides of the Atlantic. In the U.S., significant advances were accomplished by Elmer Sperry. See, for example, the exemplary biography by Thomas Parke Hughes, Elmer Sperry: Inventor and Engineer (Baltimore, 1971). Aspects of European progress are summarized in Durant and James, First Steps Toward Space. For the evolution of long-range aerial navigation in the prewar era, see Monte Wright, Most Probable Position: History of Aerial Navigation to 1941 (Lawrence, Kan., 1972).

17. F. K. Mueller, "A History of Inertial Guidance," ABMA, Redstone Arsenal, Ala., 1959, pp. 1, 4, 6, 7. One of the Peenemuende veterans, Mueller was one of the principals who developed the V-2 guidance and control systems.

18. James S. Farrior, "Inertial Guidance, Its Evolution and Future Potential," in Stuhlinger, et al., Astronautical Engineering pp. 150-52.

19. Ibid., pp. 153-54; Ernsst A. Steinhoff, "Early Developments in Rocket and Spacecraft Performance, Guidance, and Instrumentation," in Frederick C. Durant III, and George S. James, eds., First Steps Toward Space. Smithsonian Annals of Flight, no. 10 (Washington, 1974), pp. 227-85; Wernher von Braun, "Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," in Emme, ed., The History of Rocket Technology, p. 110.

20. Farrior, "Inertial Guidance," p. 154; von Braun, "Redstone," p. 120; IBM, "Instrument Unit Program Review," IBM, Huntsville, Ala., 26 July 1966, p. 3; Oswald H. Lange, "Saturn C-1 Vehicle: Project Development Plan," MSFC, 1 June 1962, p. 4.61.

21. Lange, "Saturn C-1 Vehicle," p. 3.6; von Braun, "Saturn the Giant," in Cortright, ed., Apollo Expeditions, p. 52.

22. Lange, "Saturn C-1," pp. 4.14-4.18, 4.57-4.63. In a memo to the author dated 22 June 1976. Walter Hauessermann, who directed MSFC's Astrionics Lab., said that ST-124 components were more like those of the ST-120, used in the Pershing missile.

23. MSFC, Saturn I Summary, MSFC, TMX 57401, 15 Feb. 1966 (unpaged).

24. IBM, "Saturn IB/V Instrument Unit System Description and Component Data (Technical Manual)," 1 June 1966, p. 2; IBM, "Program Review," p. 1; Missile/Space Daily, 8 Oct. 1965; George Alexander, "Saturn IB Proving Saturn V Control Unit," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 18 Apr. 1966, unpaged reprint in SHP files.

25. IBM, "Program Review," pp. 5-8, 10, 16; IBM, "Instrument Unit to Navigate Saturn IB's First Flight," news release, 17 Feb. 1966; Huntsville Times, 7 Oct. 1965.

26. IBM, "Program Review," passim; Ernst D. Geissler and Walter" Haeussermann, "Saturn Guidance and Control, Astronautics," February 1962, p. 44; Haeussermann, "Guidance and Control of Saturn Launch Vehicles," AIAA Paper 65-304, July 1965, passim; James T. Powell, "Saturn Instrumentation Systems," a paper presented at the Third International Symposium on Flight Test Instrumentation, Cranfield, England, June 1964, pp. 6-9.

For clarification of many details of the Instrument Unit, here and in the following pages, the author is indebted to interviews with Luther Powell, Sidney Sweat, Therman McKay, and others, at MSFC, 29 July 1975.

27. IBM, "Instrument Unit," news release; MSFC, Astrionics Lab, "Saturn IB/V Instrument Unit," 1965 (unpaged).

28. IBM, "Saturn IB/V...(Technical Manual)," pp. 4-5, 12; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 7.1-7.2.

29. IBM, "Saturn IB/V...(Technical Manual)," pp. 5-9, 15-16; Bendix Corp., "Saturn ST-124-M Inertial Guidance Platform," news release, 21 Feb. 1969, pp. 1-3; Herman E. Thomason, A General Description of the ST-124-M Inertial Program System, MSFC, NASA TN D-2983, Sept. 1965, pp. 41-51.

30. Bendix Corp., "Saturn ST-124-M," p. 2; B. J. O'Connor, "A Description of the ST-124-M Inertial Stabilized Platform and Its Application to the Saturn V Launch Vehicle," Bendix Corp., 26 May 1964. These documents, along with Thomason, General Description of the ST-124-M, include drawings, schematics, formulae, and operations of the ST-124. For the theory, equations, and methodology of computation and handling of error signals, see B. J. O'Connor, "An ST-124 Instrument Error Analysis for Saturn S-1 Vehicle," Bendix Corp., Engineering file MT-8094 Issue A (no date).

31. Charles D. LaFond, "First Saturn V Guidance Computer, Data Adapter Prototypes Due at Marshall," Missiles and Rockets, 2 Nov. 1964, unpaged copy in SHP files.

32. Ibid., "IBM Computer Will Direct Saturn Orbital Test Flight," June 1966, pp. 3-4.

33. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 7.5; IBM, "IBM Apollo/Saturn Press Information," 1968, unpaged; IBM, "IBM Computer," pp. 5-7; La Fond, "First Saturn V Guidance Computer." For further details of IU theory, formulae, and schematics, see MSFC, Astrionics Lab, "Astrionics System Handbook," 1 Aug. 1965, and change sheets, 15 Aug. 1966; Walter Haeussermann and Robert Clifton Duncan, "Status of Guidance and Control Methods, Instrnmentation, and Techniques As Applied in the Apollo Project," a lecture to the Advisory Group for Aeronautical R&D, NATO, Dusseldorf, Germany, 21-22 Oct. 1964. For photos and description of all components, see IBM, "Saturn IB/V Instrument Unit System Description and Component Replacement Data," IBM no. 66-966-0006, Huntsville, Ala., 1 Mar. 1966.

34. IBM, "IBM Apollo/Saturn Press Information," 1968; IBM, "IBM Computer Will Direct," p. 7; La Fond, "First Saturn V Computer"; MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 7.4.

35. IBM, "Saturn IB/V....(Technical Manual)," pp. 10-11; MSFC, Astrionics Lab, "Saturn IB/V Instrument Unit"; Alexander, "Saturn IB Control Unit." MSFC telemetry rested heavily on experience from the Redstone, Jupiter, and Pershing rocket programs. See, for example, Walter O. Frost and Charles D. Smith, "Saturn Telemetry," MSFC, 1962. For a technical overview of rocket telemetry from the V-2 era through Saturn I, see Otto A. Hoberg and James E. Rorex, "Telemetry Development....," in Ernst Stuhlinger, Frederick I. Ordway III, Jerry C. McCall, and George C. Bucker, eds., From Peenemuende to Outer Space: Commemorating the Fiftieth Birthday of Wernher von Braun, March 23, 1962 (MSFC, 1962), pp. 487-516.

36. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, p. 7.2-7.7; MSFC, Astrionics Lab, "Saturn IB/V Instrument Unit"; Alexander, "Saturn IB Control Unit"; IBM, "Saturn IB/V...(Technical Manual)," pp. 5-6.

37. Harvey Heuring and E. Wayne Davis, "The IBM Clean Room Comes of Age," IBM/Huntsville, IBM no. 68-U60-0036, Dec. 1968, pp. 1-3, 5, 12; Heuring, "IBM Mobile Room Lends Flexibility to Apollo Saturn Unit Fabrication," IBM/Huntsville, IBM no. 67-U60-0026, 28 July 1967, pp. 2-5; Heuring, "Methods for Cleaning Electronic Components and Subassemblies," IBM/Huntsville, IBM no. 67-U60-0009, 1967.

38. IBM, "Saturn IB/V...(Technical Manual)," pp. 2, 12, 14-15; IBM, "Program Review," p. 12; Alexander, "Saturn IB Control Unit."

39. Sidney Sweat interview, MSFC, 29 July 1975.

40. IBM, "Program Review," pp. 57-64.

41. See, for example, IBM, "Saturn Instrument Unit Mission Contract: Monthly Progress Report for February," 15 Mar. 1966; IBM, "Monthly Progress Report for March," 5 May 1966.

42. O'Connor to Phillips, telephone message transcription, 27 July 1967.

43. Judson A. Lovingood and Ernst D. Geissler, "Saturn Flight-Control Systems," Astronautics and Aeronautics, May 1966, p. 100; Helmut J. Horn, "The Iterative Guidance Law for Saturn" paper presented at conference on Aerospace and Navigational Electronics, Baltimore, 27-29 Oct. 1965, p. 9; Walter Haeussermann, "Guidance and Control of Saturn Launch Vehicles," AIAA Paper 65-304, July 1965, pp. 5-7; Walter Haeussermann, F. B. Moore, and G. G. Gassaway. "Guidance and Control Systems for Space Carrier Vehicles," in Stuhlinger, et al., Astronautical Engineering, p. 163 ff. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, 7.4-7.5.

44. MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual SA-506, 10 June 1969, pp. 4.19-4.24, 5.25-5.30, 6.31-6.32.

45. Ibid.; R. N. Eilerman, "Saturn Auxiliary Propulsion Applications" paper presented at AIAA Meeting, Boston, 29 Nov.-2 Dec. 1966, pp. 1-3, 12-13; R. N. Eilerman telephone interview, 10 Aug. 1972.

46. Eilerman, "Saturn Auxiliary Propulsion," pp. 1-2, 5-6.

47. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, pp. 7.4-7.5. Operations of the IU in the Saturn IB missions were quite similar. See, for example, IBM, "Instrument Unit to Navigate Saturn IB's First Flight," news release, 17 Feb. 1966; Alexander, "Saturn IB Control Unit."

 

 

CHAPTER 9

 

1. Wernher von Braun, Management in Rocket Research," a speech to the Sixteenth National Conference on the Management of Research, held at French Lick, Ind., 18 September 1972. Reprinted in Business Horizons, Winter 1962, unpaged copy in the SHP files.

2. See, for example, "Director's Weekly Notes," from lab directors and program office directors to von Braun, MSFC/Records Holding Area files; von Braun daily journal, a log of visits, conferences, phone calls, and so on, with memos frequently attached (housed in files of Alabama Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, Ala.).

3. Akens, Historical Origins of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC Historical Monograph no. 1 (Dec. 1960), pp. 71-73; von Braun, "Management"; D. Wyatt interview, NASA, 2 Dec. 1971.

4. See, "Director's Weekly Notes, 11-20-67, Brown," Box III, MSFC/Records Holding Area files. Cited hereafter as MSFC/RHA files.

5. See, "Director's Weekly Notes, 1961-68, MSFC/RHA files, boxes I-IV. The one-page rule is from "Notes, 1-22-62, Haeussermann," Box I; the broom remark is from "Notes, 11-13-61, Gorman," Box 1.

6. Quotation from interviews with Mat Urlaub, MSFC, 29 July 1975, and Konrad Dannenberg, MSFC, 30 July 1975. Various individuals from NASA Hq. and MSFC, and the contractors noted the visits by von Braun and their net positive effect. See, for example, interviews with Frank Williams, NASA, 3 Dec: 1971; Wyatt, NASA; Dannenberg, MSFC; Robert Pease, MSFC, 3 Sept. 1971; A. C. van Leuven NAR, 12 Mar. 1971.

7. Williams interview.

8. Dannenberg interview.

9. Williams interview.

10. Eberhard Rees, "Project and Systems Management," a speech to the XVI World Management Congress, held at Munich, Germany, 25 Oct. 1972, housed in the files of the Saturn V Program Off., cited hereafter as SPO files. For the early years of NASA's managerial development, see Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington 1966). Wernher von Braun left in 1970 to take a position at NASA Hq. Eberhard Rees had been one of the early members of the von Braun team in Germany and for many years, both at ABMA and MSFC, had served as deputy director for technical operations in von Braun's office. Rees headed MSFC from 1970 to 1973 and was succeeded by Rocco Petrone, who was followed by William Lucas.

11. Von Braun to Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander, 8 Jan. 1960; Abraham Hyatt to the Associate Administrator, NASA, 11 Jan. 1960; Hyatt to the Associate Administrator, 15 Jan. 1960, with attachments.

12. Wyatt, Williams, and Dannenberg interviews, William H. Sneed interview, MSFC, 28 July 1973; James W. Wiggins interview, MSFC, 31 July 1973; Normal L. Cropp, "Evolution of Marshall Space Flight Center Program Management Organization," pp. 8-9, SPO files. The Cropp piece is an unpublished document, prepared in 1972, as part of a management study series for the Program Management Directorate. The author was a veteran MSFC executive. See also Oswald H. Lange, "Saturn Systems Management," Astronautics, 7 (Feb. 1962): 31, 110.

13. Cropp, "Evolution," pp. 3-4; von Braun, "Management"; Krafft A. Ehricke, "The Peenemuende Rocket Center," Rocketscience, 4 (Sept. 1950): 60-61; Rocketscience, 4 (Dec. 1950): 81.

14. Von Braun, "Management."

15. Von Braun to Div. Directors and Off. Chiefs, "MSFC Management Policy #1," 16 Aug. 1962; Bill Sneed interview, MSFC, 26 July 1973.

16. Von Braun, "Management"; Rosholt, Administrative History, offers a detailed analysis of the reorganization, including organizational charts for both Hq. and center levels.

17. Herman Weidner interview, MSFC, 24 Aug. 1971; von Braun interview, MSFC, 17 Nov. 1971.

18. Dannenberg interview.

19. See, for example, von Braun daily journal, 5 July 1963; 12 July 1963; 31 July 1963; 13 Aug. 1963.

20. Dannenberg interview.

21. William J. Normyle, "A. F. Officers to Bolster Apollo Management," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 81 (24 Aug. 1964): 22; anon. memo to Gen. Phillips, NASA, "Press Inquiries Regarding Assignments of NASA Personnel to Air Force Programs," 1 Sept. 1964; anon. memo to Gen. Phillips, NASA, "Response to Senator Symington's Inquiry on Attached Article in Aviation Week," 4 Sept. 1964, with attached draft of letter, Webb to Sen. Symington.

22. See Saturn V Program Off., "Saturn V Program Element Plan for Financial and Manpower Management," Oct. 1967. Annex "C" of this document includes the basic guidelines for IO/R&DO relationships. SPO files.

23. Arthur Rudolph interview, MSFC, 26 Nov. 1968.

24. Apollo Program Off., NASA Hq., NASA-Apollo Program Management, 1 (Dec. 1967): 3.6-3.12. Up to 1967, no single document, or series of documents, had been issued to lay out the overall management picture in detail. In response to many requests for such information, the Apollo Program Off. authorized a special descriptive series, summarizing the various elements of management that had developed over the years and that were currently in effect. The project ran to 14 separate volumes, covering each of the centers involved in the Apollo-Saturn program, as well as each of the major contractors. Huntsville operations were covered in vol. 3, Apollo Program Management: MSFC, SPO files.

25. Cropp, "Evolution," pp. 36-37; George E. Mueller interview, NASA, 27 June 1967; Ray Godfrey interview, MSFC, 29 July 1975.

26. Rudolph interview.

27. Mack Shettles interview, MSFC, 27 July 1973; Rudolph interview.

28. Saturn V Program Control Off., "Saturn V Program Element Plan for Program Management," Aug. 1966, SPO files.

29. Arthur Rudolph, "Saturn V Program Directive #9: Saturn V Program Control System," memo, 1 Apr. 1965, passim, SPO files.

30. Saturn V Program Control Off., PEP, "Management," pp. 10, 26, 28, SPO files. There were seven inter-center panels: Flight Evaluation; Instrumentation & Communications; Flight Mechanics; Electrical; Crew Safety; Launch Operations; Flight Operations.

31. D. Brainerd Holmes, Dir. of Manned Space Flight, to Gilruth, von Braun, and Debus, 10 July 1953; Holmes, "Panel Review Board," memo 10 July 1963, copies in SHP files; Apollo Program Off., NASA. . .Management, 1: 3.13-3.14; Curt Hughes, "Saturn Management Concept," 20 Nov. 1970, SPO files. This last document is a transcript of a typical presentation made to delegations visiting the Saturn V Program Off. to study its operation.

32. Oswald Lange, "Working Groups within the Saturn Management Plan," memo, 8 Sept. 1960, SHP files; Hughes, "Saturn... Concept"; Saturn V Program Control Off., PEP, "Management" p. 12; Saturn V Program Off., "Saturn Management Concept," p. 27, SPO files; Shettles interview.

33. Von Braun interview; Saturn V Program Control Off., PEP, "Management," pp. 13-15; Cropp,. "Saturn," p. 8; Hughes, "Saturn...Concept"; Rees, "Project Management," p. 14. The anecdote of Rudolph's long meetings was repeated to the author by several staff members of the Saturn V Program Off.

34. Proceedings of the annual program reviews were published by NASA Hq., Off. of Programs & Special Reports. For example: Program Review: Apollo, 16 Nov. 1966, SPO files. The text consists of transcriptions of the complete remarks made by the participants, accompanied by the charts and slides used in their presentations. For the Apollo Executive Group, see Mueller interview, JSC files; NASA...Management, 1: 3.6, SPO files.

35. Saturn V Program Control Off., PEP, "Management," p. 10; Hughes, "Saturn...Concept"; Shettles interview. For technical managerial reasons, the RMO staffs at Kennedy Space Center and at North American reported directly to Rudolph's office.

36. Rees, "Project Management," pp. 10, 16-17.

37. Ibid.

38. Interview, privileged source. Many contractor personnel remarked on the very close management exercised by NASA, and Marshall in particular, in contrast to the Air Force.

39. Rees, "Project Management," pp. 16-17.

40. Transcription of remarks by Gen. Phillips, in NASA Hq., Off. of Programs & Special Reports, Program Review: Apollo, 23 Nov. 1964, p. 159.

41. Transcription of remarks by Lee James, Program Review, 23 Nov. 1964, pp. 56-57.

42. Ibid., pp. 55-57. The battleship test was an early phase in which thick, heavy-duty propellant tanks were used, hence the name. The All Systems Test, as the name implied, involved thorough testing of all related systems: electrical, mechanical, pneumatic, etc.

43. Ibid.

44. Rees, "Project Management," p. 17.

45. Hughes, "Saturn...Concept"; Rees, "Project Management," p. II; Sneed interview; Rudolph interview. Cost-plus-award-fee contracts are a type of incentive involving contractor performance monitored by project personnel and a board. The contractor is judged on various effectiveness factors whose criteria are subject to periodic revisions during the contract, whereas the criteria for the incentive-fee contract are totally spelled out as part of the basic contract.

46. MSFC, Saturn V Reliability and Quality Program Plan, MM 5300.2A, Aug. 1968, SPO files; Rees, "Project Management," pp. 8-9.

47. Ray Kline, "Memo for Record: Notes on Management Advisory Committee Meeting at Michoud on June 4, 1964," 26 June 1964, SPO files. For the Douglas operation, see L. C. Wilson et al., "Development of Separable Connectors for the Saturn S-IV Stage," Douglas Paper 3552, 1966, pp. 3-8; R. B. Wilson and H. L. Hug, "A Prime Contractor's Reliability Program for Components/Parts for the Douglas S-IVB Stage Project," Douglas Paper 3794, pp. 1-4, copies in SHP files.

48. Transcription of remarks by Lee James, Program Review, 23 Nov. 1964, pp. 58, 60; Rees, "Project Management," pp. 9-10; Rudolph interview.

49. Hughes, "Saturn Concept"; Rees, "Project Management," p. 11; Sneed interview; Rudolph interview.

50. Mitchell R. Sharpe interview, 6 Aug. 1973. It would be easy to dismiss such sloganeering, but it was very pervasive and seems to have been taken very seriously. During a tour of contractor facilities in the Los Angeles area in 1971, the author could not help but notice the prominentiy displayed stickers and placards in engineers' drafting rooms, shop areas, and offices, and the huge banners, proclaiming PRIDE, VIP, etc., hung across the walls of the cavernous buildings where the Saturn V stages were assembled. In cafeterias, and even in executive conference rooms, the coasters for coffee cups and water glasses carried appropriate slogans for "Manned Flight Awareness." For further details of the Manned Flight Awareness program, see Mitchell R. Sharpe, "Manned Flight Awareness-Zero Defects for Man-Rated Space Vehicles," Industrial Quality Control, 12 (June 1966): 658-661.

51. Hughes, "Saturn...Concepts."

52. James Baar and William Howard, Polaris! (New York, 1960), pp. 41-42, 49-51.

53. The Boeing Co., "Management Control Center System," D5-15710, 8 Nov. 1967, pp. 1.3-1.4, SPO files. While this document does not analyze and describe the PCC at MSFC, it was intended as a comprehensive guideline for control centers in general. It includes the philosophies involved, sample charts, and even detail drawings of sample hardware.

54. Saturn V Program Control Ctr., "Saturn V PCC: Program Control Center," n. d., unpaged, SPO files; Arthur Rudolph, The Program Manager's Problem," in NASA/MSFC, First Annual Logistics Management Symposium, September 13 & 14, 1966, NASA TMX-53566, 16 Jan. 1967, p. 59.

55. Saturn V Program, "Saturn V PCC"; Sidney Johnson interview, MSFC, 26 July 1973.

56. Rees, "Project Management," pp. 15-16; Arthur Rudolph, "Saturn V Management Instruction #14; Saturn V Program Control Ctr.," 15 Apr. 1966, pp. 1-2, SPO files.

57. Rudolph, "Saturn V Management Instruction #14," pp. 3-5, 8-9, 14, SPO files; Rudolph interview; Shettles interview.

58. Johnston interview; William Sheil, "Guidelines for Administrators," Boeing Magazine, 36 (January 1966): 6-7.

59. Norman Cropp, "Saturn," p. 8; Baar and Howard, Polaris, pp. 221-223. The former is a companion manuscript with Cropp, "Evolution."

60. Kline, memo for record, 1964; R. G. Smith to J. A. Bethay, 12 June 1975, SPO files; Shettles interview.

61. Interviews and demonstrations by Mack Shettles and Merrell Denoon, MSFC, 10 July 1973; Smith to Bethay, 1973; Shettles interview. Arthur Rudolph, Saturn V Management Instruction #19, "Saturn V Resource and Contract Management Reports," memo, 24 Sept. 1965, pp. 2-4; Saturn V Program Control Off., "Saturn V Program Element Plan for Schedule Control System," 1 Oct. 1965, pp. 4-8, SPO files.

62. Thomas E. Jenkins to R. F. Freitag, NASA Hq., "Parts Count Breakdown of the Apollo-Saturn V Space Vehicle," 25 Oct. 1968.

63. Gordon Milliken and Edward J. Morrison, "Management Methods from Aerospace," Harvard Business Review, Mar.-Apr. 1973, pp. 6 ff. Based on a NASA study done by the authors, this article summarizes 25 significant methods and includes a significant bibliography of key documents.

64. Tom Alexander, "The Unexpected Payoff of Project Apollo," Fortune, July 1969.

65. The significance of these various influences on Saturn management is largely drawn from observations and conversation with personnel of the Saturn V Program Ofiice during the summer of 1973, when the author was associated with the office as part of the NASA-American Society for Engineering Education, Faculty Fellowship Program. See also, Cropp, "Saturn," passim.

66. Lee James interview, MSFC, 21 May 1971.

67. Von Braun memo, 16 Aug. 1962.

68. Kline memo, 26 June 1964.

69. Von Braun to O'Connor (IO) and Weidner (R&DO), "R&D Operations and Industrial Operations: Charters and Guidelines for Cooperation," 19 Feb, 1965, SPO files. See also Saturn V Program Control Off., "Saturn V Program Element Plan for Financial and Manpower Management," Oct. 1967, SPO files.

70. Mack W. Shettles, "Exertion of Authority by Saturn V Staff Offices," Management Research Paper, Sch. of Industrial Management, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Dec. 1967, pp. 24-25, 31-43, SPO files.

71. Interviews with Mack Shettles, Herman Weidner, Sid Johnston, and Bill Sneed were particularly helpful to the author in understanding the basic features of the Saturn management system.

72. Saturn V Program Control Off., PEP, "Management," p. 9.

73. Sneed interview; Marshall Star, 3 Nov. 1965. Direct quote supplied by Bill Sneed, from notes taken at the time.

74. Shettles interview; Sneed interview. Copies of various presentations are housed in the files of the Saturn V Program Control Off. Direct quote supplied by Bill Sneed, from notes taken at the time.

75. This chapter is based on a revised version of Roger E. Bilstein, "The Saturn Management Concept," NASA CR-129029, 1 June 1974, prepared when the author participated in the 1973 NASA-American Society for Engineering Education, Faculty Fellowship Program. See also Konrad K. Dannenberg, "Management Philosophies as Applied to Major NASA Programs" Report by the University of Tennessee Space Institute, NGR 43-001-116, Oct. 1974; Lee B. James, "Management of NASA's Major Projects," July 1973.

 

 

CHAPTER 10

 

1. George Mueller, in NASA, First Annual Logistics Management Symposium, 13-14 September 1966, NASA, TMX-53566, 16 Jan. 1967, p. 9; Arthur Rudolph, in NASA, Logistics Management, p. 60.

2. Von Braun, in NASA, Logistics Management, p. 3; O'Connor in Logistics Management, p. 7; John C. Goodrum and S. M. Smolensky, "The Saturn Vehicle Logistics Support System," AIAA Paper 65-268, Apr. 1965, pp. 5-8 passim.

3. Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 2; Mueller, in NASA, Logistics Management, p. 8.

4. Rudolph, in Logistics Management, p. 59.

5. John C. Goodrum interview, MSFC, 31 Aug. 1971.

6. Rudolph, in NASA, Logistics Management, pp. 58-59.

7. O'Connor, in Logistics Management, pp. 6-7.

8. Rudolph, in Logistics Management, pp. 59-60.

9. Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 4; Goodrum interview; Carl D. DeNeen interview, MSFC, 23 Aug. 1971. Logistical considerations at KSC are further discussed in Kurt H. Debus, "Logistical Support for Launch Site Operations" in NASA, Logistics Management, pp. 12-17. See also the voluminous KSC logistics manual, Apollo/Saturn Logistics Support Requirements Plan, NASA, Kennedy Space Center, K-AM-02, 31 May 1966. This document includes guidelines for logistical interface and changeovers at the Cape.

10. Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," pp. 16-17, 19; Goodrum interview. For a discussion of some of the more technical considerations in transporting and handling cryogenic propellants, see also R. D. Walter and B. J. Herman, "Saturn Vehicle Cryogenic Programs," Cryogenic Engineering Conf., Rice Univ., Houston, 23-25 Aug. 1965.

11. Rudolph, in NASA, Logistics Management, pp. 58, 60.

12. Konrad Dannenberg interview, MSFC, 30 July 1975.

13. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 6; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," pp. 14-15; MSFC, Saturn Systems Off., "Saturn C-1, Project Development Plan," 10 Aug. 1961, p. 4.91, cited hereafter as MSFC, "Saturn C-1, PDP"; Georg von Tiesenhausen, "Ground Equipment to Support the Saturn Vehicle" a paper presented at a meeting of the American Rocket Society, Washington, D.C., 5-8 Dec. 1960, pp. 1-2; Georg von Tiesenhausen, "Saturn Ground Support and Operations," Astronautics, 5 (Dec. 1960): 33, 78.

14. Tiesenhausen, "Saturn Operations," p. 33; William A. Mrazek, "The Saturn Project," Astronautics, 5 (July 1960): 75; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 9; MSFC, "Saturn C-1 PDP," p. 4.90.

15. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 58; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 13; William B. Sheil, "Big Wheels Carry Big Bird," Boeing Magazine, 34 (Dec. 1964): 6-7. For details of the steering actuators for each modular pair of wheels, see also John Carlson, "Steering Mechanism for Saturn Transporter, Ground Support Equipment, Jan.-Feb. 1964, pp. 32-33.

16. Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 15; "Saturn S-IV Hints at Future Problems in Transport, Handling," Missiles and Rockets, 10 (16 Oct. 1961); 32-33; R. W. Prentice, "Transportation of Douglas Saturn S-IVB Stages," Douglas Paper no. 3688, p. 6.

17. Prentice, "Transportation of S-IVB," pp. 3, 5, 19-20; H.E. Bauer, "Operational Experiences on the Saturn S-IVB Stage," Douglas Paper no. 5268, Oct. 1968, p. 10.

18. Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," pp. 11-13; briefing and tour of contractor facilities, North Americau Rockwell, Mar. 1971.

19. Franklin L. Thistle, "Rocketdyne: The First 25 Years," Rocketdyne, 1970, unpaged; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 189, 212; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 14. For illustrations and descriptions of the vast array of handling and auxiliary equipment for servicing and checkout of the Saturn V, see NASA-MSFC, Saturn V Launch Vehicle Ground Support Equipment Fact Booklet, NASA Technical Manual, MSFC-MAN-100, 25 Aug. 1967.

20. MSFC, "Saturn C-1, PDP," p. 4.93; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 14, 16; Carl D. DeNeen interview; briefing and tour of MSFC barges and facilities with Carl L. Pool, MSFC, 26 Aug. 1971.

21. MSFC Historical Off., "History of the George C. Marshall Space Center From January 1 to June 30, 1961," vol. 1, MHM-3, Nov. 1961, pp. 51-52; "...July 1 to December 31, 1961," vol. 2, MHM-4, Mar. 1962, 24-25; Carl L. Pool, briefing.

22. Akens, Saturn Chronology, passim; Pool, briefing; Carl D. DeNeen interview; MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, Sept. 1968, pp. 8.2 passim; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," pp. 15-16, fig. 12.

23. William A. Mrazek, "The Saturn Launch Vehicle Family," lecture at Univ. of Hawaii, June 1966, p. 7.

24. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," p. 10; "Saturn S-IV Hints at Future Problems," p. 32; John Goodrum interview.

25. William B. Sheil, "Up the River to the Moon," Boeing Magazine, 34 (Sept. 1964): 6-7; Pool briefing; De Neen and Goodrum interviews.

26. MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, p. 8.13.

27. Robert W. Prentice interview, MDAC, 11 Mar. 1971; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," passim.

28. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 17-18; H. L. Lambert, "Can Saturn S-IV be Piggy-backed by C-133 from Santa Monica to Canaveral," Society of Automative Engineers Journal, 69 (Dec. 1961): 70-71; Frank G. McGuire; "Airship Studied as Booster Carrier," Missiles and Rockets, 12 (4 March 1963): 16; "Saturn S-IV Hints at Future Problems," pp. 32-33.

29. H. E. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," pp. 10-11; Julian Hartt, Mighty Thor (New York, 1961), passim.

30. Donald L. Stewart interview, MSFC, 1 Aug. 1972. Formerly an engineer at Boeing, Stewart came to MSFC in 1961 and became associated with logistics management, particularly the Guppy operations. Conroy's final acquisition of the Stratocruisers evidently came from Transocean Airlines, an active nonscheduled airline from 1946 to 1960, when it went bankrupt. See, for example, Bill Eaton, "Transocean's Stratocruisers Languish," Journal of the American Aviation Historical Society, 9 (Fall 1964): 229-230.

31. Goodrum interview; Prentice interview; Stewart interview.

32. Jane's All the World's Aircraft (London, 1909-), for 1955/56 and 1971/72, respectively. Details of the conversion job are given in Harold D. Watkins, "Boeing 377 Undergoes Flight Test," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 78 (24 June 1963): 80-81,84.

33. Bauer, "Operational Experiences," p. 11; R. W. Prentice, "Transportation of Douglas Saturn S-IVB Stages," Douglas Paper no. 3688, Nov. 1965, pp. 14-15.

34. John M. Conroy to von Braun, Enclosure A, 29 Oct. 1962; Stewart interview; Goodrum interview.

35. John M. Conroy to von Braun, 29 Oct. 1962.

36. D. Brainerd Holmes to Robert Seamans, 25 Apr. 1963.

37. MSFC Historical Off., History of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center-January 1-June 30, 1983, Nov. 1963, pp. 1, 4, 57-58; July 1-December 31, 1963, vol. 2, July 1964, 47. The contracts included a complicated pay schedule, formulated as to mileage and time, ranging from $5.80 to $3.95 per kilometer (Conroy to von Braun, 29 Oct. 1962). By Nov. 1968, NASA had paid Aero Spacelines a total of $11 591 633 in contracts. (Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 203); additional Guppy flights noted in Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 65, 71-73.

38. Prentice, "Transportation of S-IVB," p. 15; Goodrum and Smolensky, "Saturn Logistics," p. 10.

39. Conroy to von Braun, 29 Oct. 1962; Robert Freitag to von Braun, 3 Feb. 1964.

40. D. L. Stewart personal files, notes and memoranda, 2 Feb. 1964; "B-36 May Tote Saturn Stage," Huntsville Times, 1 Dec. 1963; J. H. Overholser, Aero Spacelines, to Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Deputy Dir. Apollo Program, NASA, Washington, D.C., 9 May 1964. See also, "Aero Spacelines Seeking Options to Buy Saunders-Roe Flying Boats," Aviation Week and Space Technology (20 Jan. 1964), 34.

41. Telephone interview with Donald L. Stewart, 11 Aug. 1972.

42. Harold D. Watkins, "Larger Guppy Aimed at S-IVB Transport," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 82 (19 Apr. 1965): 43, 45; Harold D. Watkins, "Super Guppy to Make First Flight August 25," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 83 (23 Aug. 1965): 42-43; Stewart interview; Earl D. Hilburn, Deputy Assoc. Administrator, NASA Hq., to Robert H. Charles, Asst. Secretary of the Air Force, 20 May 1965. For details on the C-97J, see Jane's for 1955/56.

43. John C. Goodrum to Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, TWX, 4 Mar. 1966; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 135-136.

44. Prentice, "Transportation of S-IVB," pp. 15-19; Richard W. Trudell and Keith E. Elliott, "The Dynamic Environment of the S-IV Stage During Transportation," Douglas Paper no. 1780, 4 Dec. 1963, pp. 28, 30, 34, 43.

45. Stewart interview.

46. De Neen interview; Stewart interview; Stewart personal file, notes and photos. See also "Super Guppy," Product Engineering, 8 Nov. 1965, p. 75; Harold E. Felix interview, MDAC, 9 Mar. 1971: Ruth Jarrel, comp., A Chronology of the Marshall Space Flight Center, January 1-December 31, 1967, MSFC, Apr. 1970. p. 108; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 162, 170, 226.

47. Leo L. Jones, comp., A Chronology of the Marshall Space Flight Center January 1-December 31, 1968. MSFC, Feb. 1971, pp. 21, 83, 102-104; MSFC photo archives and Marshall Star, 1970-1972.

48. New York Times, 31 July 1965; Watkins, "Super Guppy," p. 43; "Johnston to Head Aero Spacelines," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 83 (20 Nov. 1967): 30. Conroy left the company in 1967 to engage in other aircraft conversion operations. The original firm built three more Guppies. For details, see Roger E. Bilstein, "Aircraft for the Space Age: The Guppy Series of Transports," Aerospace Historian, 21 (Summer 1974): 85-86.

 

 

CHAPTER 11

 

1. F. A. Speer, "Saturn I Flight Test Evaluation," AIAA Paper 64-322, July 1964, pp. 1, 8.

2. MSFC, Saturn I Summary, MSFC, TMX-57401, 15 Feb. 1966 (unpaged).

3. For comments on Highwater, see interviews with von Braun, MSFC, 30 Nov. 1971; Stuhlinger. MSFC, 25 Aug. 1971; Bucher, MSFC, 30 Aug. 1971.

Each Saturn I flight, SA-1 through SA-10, was preceded by a technical summary including miscellaneous diagrams, mission profile details, and operational highlights. See, for example, MSFC, Technical Information Summary, SA-1, and subsequent. In addition, each of the Saturn I missions received an exhaustive postmission analysis, best summarized by the "Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group," which operated out of the Flight Evaluation and Operational Studies Div., Aero-Astrodynamics Lab. See, for example, MSFC, Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, Saturn AS-1 Flight Evaluation, a generic titie, respectively, for the SA-1, SA-2, and SA-3 missions. For missions SA-4 through SA-10, see MSFC, Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, Results of the Fourth Saturn I Launch Vehicle Test Flight, SA-4, and subsequent. All of these documents may be consulted in the files of the MSFC Historical Off. All launches made from Cape Kennedy (or Cape Canaveral, as it was known prior to 1963) are conveniently tabulated and summarized in William A. Lockyer, Jr., ed., A Summary of Major NASA Launchings, Eastern Test Range and Western Test Range: October 1, 1958 to September 30, 1970, rev. ed., Historical Report no. 1 (Kennedy Space Center, Fla., 1970). Files of the Saturn History Project include general as well as specific information on the Saturn I series. Mission highlights of each Saturn I launch are recapitulated in MSFC, Saturn I Summary, 15 Feb. 1966. See also B. E. Duran, "Saturn I/IB Launch Vehicle Operational Status and Experience," Society of Automotive Engineers. Paper no. 680739, 1968. James P. Lindberg, "Saturn I Flight Test Evaluation," MSFC, 1966, includes mission summaries and technical diagrams. Propulsion aspects are treated more specifically in B. K. Heusinger, "Saturn Propulsion Improvements," Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2 (Aug. 1964): 20-25. For information more specifically related to the Block I vehicles, see O. Hoberg, "Saturn SA-1 Flight and Its Instrumentation," MSFC, Apr. 1966; F. A. Speer, "Saturn I Flight Test Evaluation," AIAA Paper 64-322, July 1964; Fernando S. Garcia, An Aerodynamic Analysis of Saturn I Block I Flight Test Vehicles, MSFC: NASA TND-20002, Feb. 1964. Unless otherwise noted, information for the composite summaries of the Saturn missions was abstracted from the documents noted above.

4. For description and discussion of the Block II series, see MSFC, Saturn I Summary; Heusinger. "Saturn Propulsion Improvements"; Lindberg, "Saturn I...Evaluation"; Duran, "Saturn I/IB Experience.

5. Carl T. Huggins, "Saturn Television System for SA-6," MSFC, Internal Note, M-ASTR-IN-63-6, 25 Feb. 1963,pp. 1-13.

6. Lindberg, "Saturn I...Evaluation," pp. 4-6; A. J. Davis and P. L. Hassler, "Saturn IB Inflight Photographic Instrumentation System," MSFC, Sept. 1966.

7. Lindberg, "Saturn I... Evaluation," p. 9.

8. Duran, "Saturn I/IB ... Experience"; MSFC, Saturn I Summary.

9. MSFC, Saturn I Summary. For discussion of the IU, see Chap. 8.

10. Arthur C. Clarke, The Promise of Space (New York, 1968), pp. 83-84.

11. Ibid.; Fred L. Whipple, Earih, Moon, and Planets (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 71, 74; Wernher von Braun, Space Frontier (New York, 1967), pp. 90-91, 184-185.

12. Ernst Stuhlinger, "Meteoroid Measurements with Project Pegasus," paper presented at Northeast Electronics Research and Engineering Meeting, Boston, 4 Nov. 1965, pp. 1-2; NASA, The Meteoroid Satellite Project Pegasus, First Summary Report, NASA TND-3505, Nov. 1966, pp. 1-2; von Braun, Space Frontier, p. 91. The problem of meteoroid penetration of booster tank walls, as well as spacecraft, was also noted in interviews with von Braun, NASA, 30 Nov. 1971; Stuhlinger, MSFC, 25 Aug. 1971; Bucher, MSFC, 30 Aug. 1971. Stuhlinger had been chief of MSFC's Space Science Lab; Bucher was a top aide during the Pegasus project. For discussion of meteoroid research, see also "Satellites: Manned and Unmanned, Report of Conference at Virginia Polytechnic Institute," Science, 22 Nov. 1963, p. 1091; Joseph H. Wujek, "Experiments in Space," Electronics World, July 1965, p. 48. Although many scientific books and journals refer to "micrometeoroids," NASA consistently used the term "meteoroid," with diminutive size inherentiy implied. The author has followed NASA's style in this case.

13. NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, pp. ix, 2-3; M. Getler, "Hope Grows for Follow-on Pegasus," Missiles and Rockets, 22 Feb. 1965, p. 15; C. D. La Fond, "Meteoroid Detection Satellite Mock-up Shown," Missiles and Rockets, 24 June 1963, p. 32; William G. Johnson interview, MSFC, 23 Aug. 1971. Johnson was the Project Manager for Pegasus.

14. NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, pp. 4, 29-31; Stuhlinger, "Meteoroid Measurements," p. 7; "Measuring Meteoroids: Orbiting Pegasus Launched," Time, 26 Feb. 1965, p. 58.

15. NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, pp. 10, 27, 35-37; Getler, "Hope Grows," p. 15; Stuhlinger, "Meteoroid Measurement," pp. 4-9; La Fond, "Meteoroid Detection," p. 32.

16. La Fond, "Meteoroid Detection," pp. 32-33; Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 92.

17. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 89, 97, 104.

18. Getler, "Hope Grows," pp. 14-15; NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, pp. 59-60; Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 100, 103-104; "First Ten Lives of Saturn I," film, MSFC, Serial no. M&endash;206.

19. Raymond M. Watts, Jr., "Pegasus Satellite Flies," Sky & Telescope, 29 (Apr. 1965): 210; Raymond M. Watts, Jr., "Pegasus 3," Sky & Telescope, 30 (Oct. 1965): 215.

20. Getler, "Hope Grows," pp. 14-15; Watts, "Pegasus Satellite," p. 210; NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, pp. 60-62; Stuhlinger, "Meteoroid Measurements," pp. 9-10; "First Industry-Built Saturn I Puts Pegasus-2 in Precise Orbit," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 80 (31 May 1965): 2; "S-I Readied for Pegasus 2 Launch," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 80 (24 May 1965): 25.

21. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 108, 110; "Meteoroid Program May Be Expanded," Missiles and Rockets, 31 May 1965, p. 17.

22. "Measuring Meteoroids," Time, 26 Feb. 1965, p. 58; comments by von Braun and Mueller in "Meteoroid Program," Missiles and Rockets, p. 17.

23. "First Industry-Built Saturn I," Aviation Week, p. 21; NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, p. 63.

24. Akens, Saturn Chronology, pp. 112-114, 126.

25. NASA, Scientific Results of Project Pegasus: Interim Report, NASA, TMX-53629, 3 July 1967, pp. vii, 25, 27-31.

26. Phillips to von Braun, telegram, "Subject: Gemini Rendezvous with Pegasus," 28 May 1965; NASA, Meteoroid Satellite, p. 64; Watts, "Pegasus 3," p. 215; Lackyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, p. 121.

27. The quotation is from Frank W. Anderson, Jr., Orders of Magnitude: A History of NACA and NASA, 1915-1976, NASA SP-4403 (Washington, 1976), p. 55. Skepticism about the Saturn I launches, and Highwater in particular, was expressed to me by NASA employees at Huntsville and elsewhere. The persistence of such allegations prompted me to question several Saturn I project managers; they tended to reaffirm the presumed value of Highwater and later Block II launches in particular. Von Braun's response seemed to be the most candid. See von Braun interview, NASA, 30 Nov. 1971.

28. This was the consensus expressed in interviews with William Johnson, head of the project; Ernst Stuhlinger, former Dir. of the Space Sciences Lab.; and Stuhlinger's deputy, George Bucher.

29. Gerhard Heller interview, MSFC, 3 Sept. 1971; von Braun interview, MSFC, 30 Nov. 1971.

30. Information concerning Saturn IB missions AS-201 through AS-205 can be found in the continuing series of reports, such as: MSFC, Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, Results of the First Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Test Flight, AS-201, and subsequent, housed in the files of the MSFC Historical Off. In addition, see Lockyer, A Summary of Major NASA Launchings (cited for the Saturn I mission narratives); NASA-MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, Sept. 1968; and Duran. "Saturn I/IB...Experience." Unless otherwise noted, information for the composite summaries of the Saturn IB launches was compiled from the assorted documents noted above.

31. Savage to Dir., Apollo Program, 3 Mar. 1966; Kurt Debus to Gen. Phillips, 8 June 1966.

32. Davis and Hassler, "Saturn IB Photo System," pp. 90-96; MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, passim.

33. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 138; Duran, "Saturn IB...Experience"; Eberhard Rees to Gen. Phillips, 6 June 1966.

34. MSFC, Saturn IB News Rference, pp. 12.3-12.4; MSFC, "AS-203 Technical Information Summary," 14 June 1966.

35. For extended discussion of the fire and its aftermath, see Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson. Chariots for Apollo.

36. Akens, Saturn Chronology, p. 163; Lockyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, p. 117.

37. MSFC, Saturn IB News Reference, pp. 12.5-12.6; Lockyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, p. 123; KSC, "Apollo/Saturn Consolidated Instrumentation Plan for AS-204/LM-1," K-IB-029/4. 16 Oct. 1967; NASA, "Press Kit: Apollo 5," 11 Jan. 1968, pp. 20-21; NASA, "Apollo 5 Pre-Launch Press Conference," 21 Jan. 1968, pp. 8-9; NASA, "Apollo 5 Post-Launch Press Conference," 21 Jan. 1968, pp. 8-9; NASA, "Apollo 5 Post-Launch Press Conference," 22 Jan. 1968.

38. Apollo News Ctr., "Apollo 7 Mission Commentary," 11 Oct. 1968, pp. 12.1-12.4, 22.1, JSC files.

39. Lockyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, p. 126; Leo C. Jones, comp., A Chronology of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center January 1-December 31, 1968, MSFC, MHR-8, Feb. 1971, pp. 109-13; NASA, "Press Kit: Apollo 7," 6 Oct. 1968, pp. 8, 29, 33-34.

 

 

CHAPTER 12

 

1. Quoted in James J. Haggerty, "Apollo 4: Proof Positive," Aerospace, 5 (Winter 1967): 4.

2. Haggerty, "Apollo 4," p. 3; NASA, "Apollo 4 Pre-Launch Press Conference," 8 Nov. 1967, pp. 3-4, 9-10.

3. Webb to R. Cargill Hall, 20 Dec. 1974.

4. Sharpe, "Saturn and All-up Flight Testing: Historical Note, Saturn History Project," Jan. 1974, p. 2.

5. NASA, Off. of Manned Space Flight, "Apollo Flight Mission Assignments," 9 Apr. 1963, pp. 5-7, cited in Sharpe, "Saturn." Mueller interview, NASA, 21 Apr. 1971, copy in JSC files.

6. Mueller to Directors, MSC, LOC, MSFC, teletype, 1 Nov. 1963.

7. R. B. Young to Mitchell R. Sharpe, 11 Jan. 1974; Walter Haeussermann interview, 14 Dec. 1973; Frank Williams to M. R. Sharpe, 20 Feb. 1974; Eberhard Rees to Robert Sherrod, 4 Mar. 1970; Dieter Grau to M. R. Sharpe, 12 Dec, 1973. The conservative approach to launch vehicle testing is inherent in all of the sources noted above. The decision of von Braun and Rees to back Mueller, as the boss, was noted by Bob Young, who also remembered continuing reluctance by some MSFC chieftains. The decision by von Braun to back up Mueller, forcefully overriding his staff, was also remembered by another individual from the senior management level (privileged source).

8. Von Braun to Mueller, 8 Nov. 1969.

9. Transcribed telephone conversation appended to von Braun daily journal, 8 Nov. 1963, ASRC files.

10. Arthur Rudolph interview, MSFC, 14 Dec. 1979.

11. Harvey Hall to Gen. Phillips, 10 Apr. 1964.

12. NASA, "Roll-out Ceremony: Saturn V Facility Vehicle (500-F)," 25 May 1966; Arthur Rudolph, "Operational Experience with the Saturn V," AIAA Paper 68-1003, Oct. 1968, p. 3.

13. Phillips to Ctr. Directors (MSC, MSFC, KSC, GSFC), teletype, 25 July 1967.

14. Phillips to Mueller, "AS-501 as Apollo 4," 4 May 1967; L. E. Day to Gen. Phillips, "Brief Summary of Status for Items on Agenda for AS-501 Meeting at KSC Friday, March 10, 1967"; anon., "Minutes of March 10, 1967 Meeting at KSC to discuss AS-501"; Gen. O'Connor to Gen. Phillips, "KSC-501 meeting," memo of call, l6 Mar. 1967.

15. J. J. O'Connor, "SA-501 Program Managers Pre-Flight Review-case 330," 2 June 1967; J. J. O'Connor to Gen. Phillips, "Working Note--S-IC-8 Weld Cracks," 15 June 1967; Gen. Phillips, to Directors, MSFC, MSC, KSC, "Changes Relating to Apollo 4," 16 June 1967.

16. NASA, "Press Conference: Roll-out of Apollo 4 (Apollo/Saturn 501)," KSC, 26 Aug. 1967.

17. See, for example, Schneider and Wagner, "Memorandum to Maj. Gen. S.C. Phillips on Purging of the S-II LOX Fill and Drain Line," 1 Sept. 1967.

18. Bill Schneider to Gen. Phillips, "Helium Pressure Regulator in the Pneumatic Console," memo of call, 10 Oct. 1967; Rudolph, "Operational Experience," p. 4.

19. Bart J. Slattery, Jr., to von Braun, 25 Oct. 1967.

20. Gen. Phillips to the Deputy Administrator, "Apollo 4 Launch Schedule," 2 Nov. 1967.

21. Rudolph, "Operational Experience," p. 4.

22. Miscellaneous data and comparisons were culled from the following sources: MSFC, Public Affairs Off., Release 67-217, 30 Oct. 1967; NASA, Off. of Public Information, "Current News," 7 Nov. 1967; NAR, "This is the First of the Big Shots," 1967; Houston Post, 17 Sept. 1967; James J. Haggerty, "Apollo 4: Proof Positive," Aerospace, 5 (Winter 1967): 3-7; Gene Bylinsky, "Dr. von Braun's All-Purpose Space Machine," Fortune, 75 (May 1967): 142-149.

23. Von Braun daily journal, von Braun itinerary, Cape Kennedy, Fla., 6-9 Nov. 1967; W. C. "Schneider, NASA Hq. to multiple addressees, 9 Nov. 1967; NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1967, p. 341. Cronkite's troubles were noted in Hugo Young et al., Journey to Tranquility (New York, 1970), pp. 220-221.

24. Arthur Rudolph interview, 14 Dec. 1973. See also Sharpe, "Saturn," von Braun copy with marginal notes, p. 13.

25. Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1967, p. 341.

26. Schneider, teletype, 9 Nov. 1967; remark to reporters, "Apollo 4," p. 7.

27. MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, 12.1-12.2. Each Saturn V flight was preceded by a technical summary including miscellaneous diagrams, mission profile details, and operational highlights. See, for example, MSFC, Technical Information Summary, Apollo 4 (AS-501), and subsequent. A more comprehensive prelaunch publication, including details of the spacecraft and the launch facilities at KSC as well as the Saturn V launch vehicles, was issued as MSFC, Saturn V Flight Manual, SA-501, and subsequent. For a postmission analysis, see the continuing (and more voluminous) series of reports, such as MSFC, Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report AS-501, Apollo 4 Mission, and subsequent. All of these doruments may be consulted in the files of the MSFC Historical Off. In addition, see Lockyer, A Summary of Major NASA Launchings (cited for Saturn I and IB mission narratives), and MSFC, Saturn V News Reference, Dec. 1968. The annual issues of NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics include pertinent summary information on the successive Apollo-Saturn launches and missions. An excellent survey of Apollo-Saturn vehicies and operations, covering AS-501/508, is David Baker, "Saturn V," Spaceflight, Jan., Feb., and Mar., 1971, pp. 16-22, 61-65, 100-107. Unless otherwise noted, information for the composite summaries of the Saturn V launches was compiled from the assorted documents noted above.

28. For a clear and concise summary of vehicle AS-501 mission operations, see Haggerty, "Apollo 4," pp. 5-7; Baker, "Saturn V," Spaceflight, Mar. 1971, p. 100.

29. Von Braun daily journal, transcript of telephone call 15 Nov. 1967, ASRC files.

30. George Mueller to William M. Allen, 21 Nov, 1967.

31. Gen. Phillips to NASA centers, teletype, 15 Nov. 1967.

32. For the most concise assessment of the POGO investigation and ASI line analysis, see von Braun, "The Detective Story Behind Our First Manned Saturn V Shot," Popular Science, 193 (Nov. 1968): 98-100, 209. The quotations by von Braun have been taken from this source. On the background of the POGO problem and detailed study of the phenomenon, see L. L. Bickford and S. G. Meisenholder, POGO Analysis of the Saturn Propulsion System (Final Report), NASA CR-86432, 3 Apr. 1967; George L. von Pragenau, "Stability Analysis of Apollo-Saturn V Propulsion and Structure Feedback Loop," AIAA Paper 69-877, Aug. 1969. See also interviews with von Braun, MSFC, 30 Nov. 1971; Roy Godfrey, MSFC, 29 July 1975; and Robert Pease, MSFC, 3 Sept, 1971. The ASI line failure in particular is analyzed in Beirne Lay, Jr., Earthbound Astronauts (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970), pp. 142-146.

33. Anon., "Manned Space Flight Program Progress," draft, 8 June 1967.

34. Robert O. Aller to Dir., Apollo Program, 9 June 1967.

35. Gilruth to George E. Mueller, 19 Sept. 1967.

36. Von Braun daily journal, von Braun and Mueller teleconference, 11 Apr. 1968, ASRC files.

37. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1968, pp. 92-93; Arthur Rudolph to Gen. Phillips, telegram, 29 Apr. 1968.

38. Arthur Rudolph to Gen. Phillips, "Replacement of F-1 engine on AS-503," 14 May 1968, and attachment, William D. Brown, Mgr., Engine Program Off. to Arthur Rudolph," "Leaking F-1 Primary Fuel Pump Seal on Engine F-4023, AS-503," 13 May 1968.

39. Phillips' recollections are recounted in his essay, "The Shakedown Cruises," in Edgar M. Cortright, ed., Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, NASA SP-350 (Washington, 1973), pp. 171-175. All quotations are from this source. See also Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, chap. 12; Frank W. Anderson,Jr., Orders of Magnitude: A History of NACA and NASA, 1915-1976. NASA SP-4403 (Washington, 1976), p. 69.

40. Mueller to Acting Administrator, "Request for Approval to Man the Apollo/Saturn V Launch Vehicle," 5 Nov. 1968: Mueller to Dr. Thomas O. Paine, 11 Nov. 1968, with attachments: Phillips to Mueller, "Apollo 8 Mission Selection," 11 Nov. 1968; Paine to Mueller, 18 Nov. 1968.

41. Dieter Grau interview, MSFC, 24 Aug. 1971.

42. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1968, pp. 318-320; Lockyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, p. 128. Copy of Apollo 8 invitation housed in JSC files.

43. Lockyer, Summary of Major NASA Launchings, pp. 127, 129; NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1969, pp. 62-65, 142-145.

44. Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys (New York, 1974), pp. 358-359.

45. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1969, pp. 209-210.

46. Michael Collins interview, 17 Oct. 1975; Collins, Carrying the Fire, pp. 364-365.

47. Collins interview; Collins, Carrying the Fire, pp. 371-373.

48. Collins, Carrying the Fire, pp. 371-373.

49. The most convenient summary of the AS-506 mission is contained in NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1969, pp. 212 ff. It includes a wide range of editorial and public comment on the flight of Apollo 11, its significance and results. For published accounts see, for example, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin, First on the Moon (New York, 1970); Young, and others, Journey to Tranquility; Collins, Carrying the Fire; Norman Mailer, Of a Fire on the Moon (Boston, Massachusetts, 1969). See also Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo.

50. See, for example, Boeing Co., "Saturn V Flight Evaluation Trend Report: AS-501 Through AS-506," 30 Sept. 1969,

51. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1969, pp. 372-374; "Towards the Ocean of Storms," Time, 21 Nov. 1969, p. 8.

52. Von Braun interview, MSFC, 17 Nov. 1976; Roy Godfrey interview, MSFC, 29 July 1975; Walter Haeussermann, MSFC, to author, "History of Saturn Launch Vehicles," 22 June 1976.

53. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1970, pp. 119 ff., 201 ff. See also, Edgar M. Cortright, "Report of the Apollo 13 Review Board," 15 June 1970. The report includes a one-volume narrative summary, and three volumes of appendices. Copies in JSC files. See also Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo.

54. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1971, pp. 25 ff.; MSFC, Public Affairs Off., news release, 5 Feb. 1971.

55. Commentary on the LRV can be found in David S. Akens, An Illustrated Chronology of the NASA Marshall Center and MSFC Programs, 1960-1973, MSFC, MHR-10, May 1974. On manned exploration of the lunar surface, including use of the LRV, see Richard S. Lewis, The Voyages of Apollo: The Exploration of the Moon (New York, 1974).

56. Interviews with von Braun, MSFC, 30 Nov. 1971; Richard N. Rodgers, MSFC, 24 Aug. 1971; Leonard Bostwick and Milan Burns, MSFC, 31 July 1975. See also Jonathan Eberhart, "Saturn V Only a Beginning," Science News, 11 Nov. 1967, pp. 472-473.

57. For a review of the scientific gear, experiments, and results, see Richard S. Lewis, The Voyages of Apollo: The Exploration of The Moon (New York, 1974).

 

CHAPTER 13

 

1. David S. Akens, Skylab Illustrated Chronology, 1962-1973, MSFC, 1 May 1973, pp. 1-7; James T. Murphy to Robert G. Sheppard, "Comment Edition of History of Saturn Launch Vehicles," with enclosures, 15 June 1976.

2. Akens, Skylab, pp. 32-34.

3. Akens, Srylab, pp. 41-43; David S. Akens, An Illustrated Chronology of the NASA Marshall Center and MSFC Programs, 1960-1973, MSFC, MHR-10, May 1974, pp. 328, 332.

4. Akens, Skylab, pp. 55, 70-71.

5. Akens, Chronology of MSFC, pp. 333-341. For the full story of Skylab, see Charles D. Benson and W. David Compton, Skylab: A History, the forthcoming official NASA history.

6. For details of the ASTP launch and background, see NASA, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: Press Kit (1975). Copy in JSC files.

7. The most authoritative single volume on Soviet launch vehicles and other Soviet space technology is Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Soviet Space Programs, 1966-1970, staff report, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 9 Dec. 1971. This document includes a general discussion of the standard launch vehicle series, known as the A version, p. 135 ff. The discussion is preceded by a highly useful table of the characteristics of Soviet launch vehicles, on pp. 133-134. Illustrations are included on pp. 560-561, 563, 572-573. See also, Peter L. Smolders, Soviets in Space (New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1974). This book is translated from the Dutch edition which appeared in 1971. The author used no footnotes, but apparently he had access to an unusually large amount of unpublished information, and had opportunities for interviews with a number of leading Russian cosmonauts and scientists. A good, brief discussion of Soviet rockets appears on pp. 59-69, a useful illustration on p. 64, and a numbered, cut-away diagram of the Salyut vehicle on pp. 70-71. A recent survey of rocket technology, including the Russian vehicles, is Kenneth Gatland, Missiles and Rockets (New York: Macmillan Co., 1975), pp. 184-199 especially. This discussion includes comments on some of the later engines and on the range of Soviet rockets, as well as photographs of the engines themselves. Useful and detailed illustrations, done by a professional illustrator team, appear on pp. 76-82. These include a very useful illustration of the RD-107 engine (p. 77) as well as a launch profile of a Soyuz mission (p. 81). A noted expert and writer on space technology, Gatland is editor of the authoritative British magazine, Spaceflight. See also Nicholas Daniloff, The Kremlin and the Cosmos (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972); and Laonid Vladimirov, The Russian Space Bluff (New York: Dial Press, 1973). The latter was written by a former mechanical engineer and scientific editor from the Soviet Union, who decided to defect in 1966. His intriguing thesis is that the Russians remained one step ahead of the U.S. during the 1960s because they felt that American space programs were further ahead than they actually were, and the Russians undertook a series of very risky space shots to maintain their propaganda advantage. The publisher included a comment by von Braun that the book was "fascinating, informative and worthy of a wide readership in the United States" (cited opposite the book's title page).

8. See Vladimirov, Russian Space Bluff, pp. 79-80. The comment on the heavy gauge of Soviet tankage is from U.S. Senate, Soviet Space Programs, p. 136.

9. Gatland, Missiles and Rockets, pp. 192-199. For a brief discussion of Russian propellant development, see John D. Clark, Ignition! An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants (New Brunswick, N.J., 1972), pp. 115-119.

10. MSFC, press release, 5 Aug. 1975. For the full story of ASTP, see Edward and Linda Ezell, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209 (Washington, 1978).

11. See, for example, Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., "The Fertile Crescent: The South's Role in the National Space Program," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 71 (Jan. 1968): 377-392. Obviously, the impact of NASA's presence varied. MSC was sited near an existing metropolis (Houston) of considerable size. KSC, in Brevard County, Fla., was located in an area of several smaller communities. MSFC, near Huntsville, was established near a medium-sized, though well-established, city. MAF occupied existing facilities within the New Orleans metropolitan area, whereas MTF was largely a huge buffer zone for testing, different in concept from all of the above, employing a smaller number of permanent civil service and contractor personnel. Thus, the subtleties of NASA impact were different in each case, despite general patterns in terms of jobs, construction, and so on. See also Raymond A. Bauer, Second-Order Consequences: A Methodological Essay on the Impact of Technology (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969). Huntsville and Brevard County are specifically contrasted on pp. 92-101.

12. John S. Beltz, "Huntsville and the Aerospace Age," paper presented at the annual, meeting of the Southern Historical Assn., Houston, 1971. Copy in SHP files. The Huntsville Times, "25 Years Since," 3 Nov. 1974. This was a special 16-page supplement to the Times, commemorating the 25th anniversary of the decision to locate the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville in 1949. The supplement included numerous signed articles on various phases of the impact on Huntsville in the ensuing two and one-half decades. Cited hereafter as Times, Supplement.

13. Bob Ward, "Famed von Braun Remembers Huntsville His Personal Choice," Times, Supplement, p. 4.

14. Bauer, Second Order Consequences, p. 93; Beltz, "Huntsville," pp. 18-21.

15. Beltz, "Huntsville," 21-22. Don Eddins, "City Schools," p. 11, John Park, "Medical Help Boomed," p. 15, in Times, Supplement.

16. Don Eddins, "Universitv of Alabama Spreads Wings," Times, Supplement, p. 13. The prior existence of a primarily Black state college, Alabama A&M, founded in 1873, seemed to underscore lingering racial divergences. Nevertheless, Huntsville's civil rights issues remained less volatile than elsewhere in the South during the turbulent 1960s. See Bauer, Second-Order Consequences, p. 98.

17. Bob Ward, "Small Error Turned Out to Be More Fact Than Fiction," Times, Supplement, p. 2.

18. Times, Supplement, passim.

19. Alan Moore, "Von Braun Civic Center Heralds Future," Times, Supplement, p. 14; information supplied by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center.

20. Bauer, Second Order Consequences, pp. 171-172, 174.

21. For a popular account of these and other aspects of the national space program in general, see, Frederick I. Ordway III, Carsbie C. Adams, and Mitchell R. Sharpe, Dividends from Space (New York, 1971).

22. Bauer, Second Order Consequences, p. 174.

23. William R. Lucas, "The Past, Present, and Future of Metals for Liquid Rockets," Metals Engineering Quarterly, Feb. 1966, p. 59.

24. R. V. Hoppes, "The Saturn V Space Program and Aluminum Welding Technology," MSFC, 1967, p. 10.

25. Hoppes, "Saturn Welding Technology" p. 3, passim.

26. Ibid., pp. 5, 24-25.

27. See, for example: "Listing of Special Publications Published by the NASA Technology Utilization Division," 1968; NASA, Transferable Technology: Publications Reporting Innovations Suitable for Many Purposes, NASA Off. of Technology Utilization, Fall 1968; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, "For the Benefit of All Mankind; a Survey of the Practical Returns from Space Investment," House report, 91st Cong., 2nd sess., 7 Dec. 1970; JSC, "Space Benefits: Today and Tomorrow," pamphlet, Nov. 1971.

28. This became a standard interview question, even though it invariably elicited the same answer.

29. Statements to this effect were made to the author by numerous contractors as well as MSFC managers and engineers, and printed in various press releases. See, for example, MSFC, Press Release 75-174, 1975.


previousindexnext