SP-4208 LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE: A HISTORY OF SKYLAB

 

[397-442] Source Notes

 

In preparing this history the authors were granted access to NASA documents at several sites. A large collection (occupying some 15 linear meters of shelf space) had already been compiled by Roland Newkirk and Ivan Ertel for the preparation of Skylab: A Chronology (NASA SP-4011, Washington, 1977). To this collection, which was housed in the History Office at Johnson Space Center, we added documents from several other sources: the archives at Kennedy Space Center (now a part of that center's technical library), the History Office at NASA Headquarters, the reading files from the Skylab offices at JSC, and the records of the various project offices at Marshall Space Flight Center. Most of the Marshall documentation has been retired to the Federal Records Center at East Point, Gal; it can be recalled through the Management Operations Office at Marshall.

One valuable source at Marshall was the collection of Leland F. Belew, some 50 cartons of documents accumulated during his eight years as Skylab program manager. We were also allowed to screen and copy the weekly notes submitted to Marshall's director by each laboratory director and major project manager; these, though brief, document important milestones and the general progress of the program, and often contain handwritten notations by the director-queries, suggestions, or comments that are of value. Similarly we screened and copied the minutes of Marshall's staff and board meetings.

The volume of available documentation on Skylab is staggering. For example, the authors screened 57 cartons (about 2.5 cubic meters) of files from the orbital workshop project manager at Marshall-which was only a selected part of the total files. Each of the other Skylab modules produced comparable quantities of paper. The files at the other centers, though somewhat less voluminous, are equally detailed. The researcher who digs into this midden will find material on the most minute engineering and management details, as well as higher-level technical and management decisions. From this mass of paper we selected and copied the documents used in writing this history.

The Skylab archives now comprise copies of official correspondence, technical manuals, flight plans, technical debriefings of crews, and transcripts of all communications during flight; news reference material and press conferences; and transcripts of interviews we conducted with more than 60 program participants. The collection occupies 88 cartons.

In January 1982 these documents, along with those from the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project programs, were transferred from the JSC History Office to the custody of the Fondren Library at William Marsh Rice University in Houston. A custodial agreement between Rice and JSC provides for these documents to be stored, archived, and indexed at the Fondren Library and made available to researchers interested in the development of manned spaceflight. JSC retains title to the documents.

 

Chapter 1

 

1. Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1977).

2. Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966).

3. Shirley Thomas, Men of Space, 4: 38-73 (Philadelphia and New York: Chilton Co., 1962); Robert R. Gilruth, "From Wallops Island to Project Mercury, 1945-1958: A Memoir," Essays on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Third through the Sixth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics, NASA CP-2014 (Washington, 1977), 2: 445-76.

4. Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, chap. 6; Hacker and Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans, chap. 2.

5. NASA release 65-228, 10 Sept. 1965.

6. Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979).

7. Wernher von Braun, "Management in Rocket Research," Business Horizons 5 (Dec. 1962): 41-48.

8. Ibid.

9. Robert Gilruth interview, 6 Aug. 1975; W. A. Ferguson interview, 6 Oct. 1975; and Robert F. Thompson interview, 18 Dec. 1975.

10. MSFC releases 65-197, 5 Aug., and 65-267, 9 Aug. 1965; Marshall Star, 25 Aug. 1965.

11. Von Braun to MSFC employees, "Marshall's Changing Role in the Space Program," 13 Aug. 1965; William Taylor interview, 18 July 1975.

12. Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty, Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations, NASA SP-4204 (Washington, 1978), chaps. 1, 10, 15.

13. Ibid., chaps. 15, 19.

14. Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, pp. 128-29.

15. Ibid., pp. 129-31.

16. A. A. Blagonravov, ed., Collected Works of K. E. Tsiolkovskiy, vol. 2, Reactive Flying Machines, NASA Technical Translation TTF-237 (Washington, 1965), pp. 118-67; Hermann Oberth, Ways to Spaceflight, NASA TTF-622, pp. 478-91; Wernher von Braun, "Crossing the Space Frontier," Collier's, 22 Mar. 1952, pp. 24-29, 72-74.

17. A summary of space station and orbital operations concepts is found in Barton C. Hacker, "The Idea of Rendezvous: From Space Stations to Orbital Operations in Space-Travel Thought, 1895-1951," Technology and Culture 15 (1974): 373-88.

18. House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, The Next Ten Years in Space, 1959-1969, House documents,86th Cong.,1st Sess.(henceforth 86/1), 3 Feb. 1959, pp. iv, 1-9; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Subcommittee, Hearings, NASA Supplemental Authorization for Fiscal Year 1959, 86/1, pp. 46, 79-83; U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency, "ABMA Presentation to NASA," report D-TN-I -59,20 Jan. 1959.

19. Harry Goett to Ira H. Abbott, NASA dir. of aeronautical and space research, "Interim Report on Operation of Research Committee on Manned Space Flight," 17 July 1959, NASA, "Minutes of Meeting of Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight," 25-26 May 1959, Ames Research Ctr., "Minutes of Meeting of Research Steering Committee of Manned Space Flight," 25-26 June 1959; Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, p. 15.

20. Institute of the Aeronautic Sciences, Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, Los Angeles, 22 Apr. 1960, pp. 8, 24-32.

21. NASA, "The Long Range Plan," 12 Jan. 1961, p. 19; Robert Gilruth to William Mead, Ames Research Ctr., "Scientific Experiments to Be Conducted in an Orbiting Laboratory," 18 May 1961; Manned Spacecraft Ctr., "Project Apollo Spacecraft Development Statement of Work," 18 Dec. 1961, pt. 1, p. 2; pt. 3, pp. 35, 167, 176.

22. George Alexander, "Marshall Intensifies Rendezvous Studies," Aviation Week, 19 Mar. 1962, pp. 78-85; Aviation Week, 28 Jan. 1963, p. 27; George von Tiesenhausen, "An Orbital Launch Facility," IAS paper 63-64, presented at 31st Annual Meeting, 21-23 Jan. 1963; von Tiesenhausen, "Toward the Orbital Launch Facility," Astronautics and Aerospace Engineering, Mar. 1963, pp. 52-55; Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, chap. 3.

23. House Committee on Science and Astronautics 1965 NASA Authorization, hearings before the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, 88/2, pt. 2, p. 589; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Hearings on National Space Goals for the Post-Apollo Period, 89/1, pp. 344-49; Maxime Faget interview, 12 Nov. 1975.

24. Langley Research Ctr., A Report on the Research and Technological Problems of Manned Rotating Spacecraft, NASA TN D-1504 (Washington, Aug. 1962), pp. 1-20.

25. Aviation Week and Space Technology, 16 Apr., p. 75; 2 July, pp. 78-80; 20 Aug., p. 99; 10 Sept. 1962, pp. 33-34; Emanuel Schnitzer, memo for Langley Research Ctr. assoc. dir., "Results of Space Station Conference between NASA Headquarters and Goodyear Aircraft Corporation," 21 Apr. 1961.

26. Langley Research Ctr., Manned Rotating Spacecraft.

27. Max Faget and Edward Olling, "A Historical Sketch of NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Advanced Earth Orbital Missions Space Station Activity from 1962 to 1969," in Space Station Technology Symposium (Langley Research Ctr., Va., Feb. 1969); MSC Space Station Prog. Off., "Project Olympus, Space Station Program," 13 Aug. 1962.

28. William E. Stoney to R. L. Bisplinghoff, "OART-OMSF and Center Meeting on Space Station Studies," 5 Oct. 1962.

29. Joseph F. Shea, "Definition of Potential Applications for Manned Space Station," 17 Oct. 1962.

30. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1964 NASA Authorization, hearings, 88/1, pt. I, p. 20; Seamans to NASA prog. offs. and ctrs., "Special Task Team for Manned Earth Orbiting Laboratory Study " 28 Mar. 1963.

31. Joseph F. Shea and Michael 1. Yarymovych, "The Manned Orbital Laboratory," Conference on Artificial Satellites, VPI, Blacksburg, Va., 12-16 Aug. 1963, pp. 2-3.

32. Dir. of Special Manned Space Flight Studies, OMSF, "Apollo Extension Systems (AES) Capabilities for Experiments in Earth Orbit," Jun. 1965.

33. Owen Maynard to chief, Spacecraft Technology Div., MSFC, "Systems Investigation of 100 Day Earth Orbital Operation for Apollo," 12 Dec. 1962; Faget, "100-Day Apollo, Study Support," 30 July 1963.

34. North American Aviation, Inc., "Extended-Mission Apollo Study," 24 Nov. 1963, pp. 2-4,7.

35. Ibid., pp. 5, 10-11, 13-14.

36. Ibid., pp. 9, 16-19.

37. Shea and Yarymovych, "Manned Orbital Laboratory," pp. 27-31; "NASA Building Space Station Technology," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 22 July 1963, p. 78.

38. Shea and Yarymovych, "Manned Orbital Laboratory," pp. 26, 31-32.

39. Douglas Aircraft Co., "Zero-G Space Station Final Briefing," Houston, 5 Feb. 1964, pp. 7, 11-15; MSC, "Advanced Manned Missions Study Program," July 1967.

40. William Stoney, "Report on Studies for Future Manned Space Flight Missions," Industry Information Procedures Conference, Houston, 22-23 Apr. 1964, p. 4; Maxime Faget interview, 12 Nov. 1975.

41. Koelle, "Notes," 27 Aug. 1963, 13 Apr. 1964. The Marshall "Notes" are summaries of conversations, thoughts, early results in the laboratories-virtually anything a manager wished to report to the center director in an informal way. Von Braun often annotated and circulated them for other staff members to read.

42. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1965 NASA Authorization, hearings before the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, 88/2, pt. 2, pp. 587-609; Michael Yarymovych, "Laboratory in Space," read at First Space Congress, Cocoa Beach, Fla., 20-22 Apr. 1964; E. Z. Gray, "Advanced Manned Earth Orbital Missions Program Office," 15 May 1964.

43. Public Law 85-568, "National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958," 85/2, H.R. 12575, 29 July 1958, p. 1.

44. Larry Booda, "Air Force Outlines Broad Space Plans," Aviation Week, 5 Dec. 1960, p. 26; E. S. Redford and O. F. White, "What Manned Space Flight Program after Reaching the Moon? Government Attempts to Decide: 1962-1968" (an unpublished report that resulted from a NASA contract with Syracuse University), Dec.1971, pp. l 10-11; "A.F. Studies U.S.Soviet Space Potential," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 5 Mar. 1962, p. 91.

45. George C. Wilson, "Defense Denies Bids for NASA Programs," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 25 June 1962, p. 34; "Thinking Matures on Military's Space Role," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 22 July 1963, p. 209.

46. W. Fred Boone, NASA Office of Defense Affairs: The First Five Years, NASA HHR-32 (Washington, Dec.1970), pp. 6-9,83-84; Hacker and Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans, chap. 6.

47. Boone, NASA Office of Defense Affairs, pp. 88-93; Hacker and Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans, chap. 6.

48. D. Brainerd Holmes, "NASA-DoD Coordination on Space Station Problems," 10 July 1963; NASA release 63-231, "NASA-DoD Agree on Common Approach to a Manned Orbital Research and Development Project," 17 Oct. 1963.

49. New York Times, 11 Dec. 1963, pp. 1, 22.

50. Ibid., Brig. Gen. Joseph S. Bleymaier, "Manned Orbiting Laboratory: Operational Aspects," 3d International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, San Antonio, 18 Nov.1964.

51. NASA Hq. to ctrs., "NASA's Position on DoD Manned Orbital Laboratory," TWX, 19 Dec. 1963; Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1964: Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy, NASA SP-4005 (Washington, 1965) p. 90; Space Business Daily, 16 Dec. 1963, p. 401, Hal Taylor, "Post Apollo Programs Detailed," Missiles and Rockets, 26 Oct.1964, p 14; Edward Kolcum, "Flexible Space Stations Evolving at Langley," Aviation Week and Space Technology, 19 Oct. 1964, p. 74; Faget interview, 12 Nov. 1975.

52. Air Force Space Systems Div., "Historical Report, Program 632A(MOL), Jan.-Jun. 1964" Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1964, p. 192; Maj. Gen. Ben 1. Funk to Gen. Bernard A. Schriever, TWX, 7 Aug. 1964.

53. Kermit Gordon, dir., Burl of the Budget, "Manned Orbiting Laboratory and Related Matters," memo for record, 25 Jan. 1965.

54. Mueller to Debus, 15 Feb. 1965; Harold Brown to Robert Seamans, 29 Jan. 1965; Seamans to Robert F. Garbarini, "Manned Orbiting Laboratory Study: Instructions for Ad Hoc Committee," 2 Feb. 1965.

55. House Committee on Government Operations, Government Operations in Space (Analysis of Civil-Military Roles and Relationships), H. rpt. 445, 89/1, pp. 4-5, 17-18; Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965, pp. 290-91, 396.

56. DoD, "Manned Orbiting Laboratory Background Briefing; Attributable to Defense Officials," transcript, 25 Aug. 1965.

57. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1966, hearings, 89/1, pt. 3, "Post Apollo Planning Documents," pp. 1016-17.

58. Ibid., pp. 1027-33.

59. Koelle, "Notes," 9 Nov. 1964, Williams to von Braun, 26 July 1965, Redford and White "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 151-57.

60. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Future National Space Objectives, 89/2, pp. 59-60; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Goals for the Post-Apollo Period, 89/1,23 Aug.1965, pp. 5-6, Willis Shapley interview, 27 Jan. 1976.

61. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Goals, p. 17; Koelle, "Notes," 13 Jan., 17 Feb., 23 Mar., 15 June, 30 Nov. 1964.

62. Mueller to MSF ctr. dirs., "Saturn/Apollo Applications Program," 10 Aug. 1965; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" p. 124.

 

Chapter 2

 

1. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Goals for the Post Apollo Period, 89/1, 23 Aug. 1965, pp. 3-26; William B. Taylor interview, July 1975.

2. Wernher von Braun to W. D. Compton,6 Mar.1975, U.S. Army Ordnance Missile Command "Project Horizon, Phase I Report, A U.S. Army Study for the Establishment of a Lunar Military Outpost," 8 June 1959, 1: 17, 26.

3. "Project Horizon Report," 3: 124, 127 129-30.

4. Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), p. 121; Ivan D. Ertel and Mary Louise Morse, The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology, NASA SP-4009 (Washington, 1969), 1: 114, 186; Walt Cleveland, telephone interview, 1 May 1975, Douglas Aircraft Co. "Douglas Space Cabin Simulator Developing Space Station Technology," May 1968, idem, "Douglas Orbital Laboratory Studies," report SM-45878, Jan. 1964.

5. Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway III, History of Rocketry and Space Travel, 3d ed. (New York: Crowell, 1972), p. 277; Ted J. Gordon, telephone interview, 22 May 1975; Heinz H. Koelle to W. D. Compton, 2 July 1975.

6. Douglas Aircraft Co., " 1965 Manned Space Laboratory Briefing Manual," report SM-42587, Nov. 1962; idem, "S-IV/S-IVB as Manned Space Laboratory," report SM-43257, Feb. 1963.

7. Douglas report SM-43257.

8. Ted J. Gordon and W. H. Siegried, "Keys to Economical Space Flight: Saturn Hardware and Reusable Boosters," Space/Aeronautics, Mar.1963, pp.93-95; Carl M. Hanson and C. Allen Gilbert, "Utilization of Expended Booster Stages for Manned Space Laboratories," Aviation and Space, Hydraulic, and Gas Turbine Conference of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Los Angeles, 3-7 Mar.1963; M. W. Root, "Application of Saturn/S-IVB/Apollo Systems to Planetary Exploration," Douglas engineering paper 3645, Symposium on Post Apollo Exploration, American Astronautical Society, Chicago, 4-6 May 1965; Douglas Aircraft Co. professional paper 148, "A Low-Cost Technique for Land Recovery of an S-IVB Stage from Orbit," Feb. 1966; Douglas Aircraft Co. presentation at MSFC, "S-IVB Spent Stage Applications," 11 Mar.1966, Douglas Aircraft Co., "Saturn S-IVB Stage Applications (Part b, Block I Study, Volume I, Summary Report," report SM-53131, 6 Apr. 1966; idem, "Lunar Applications of a Spent S-IVB/IU Stage (LASS)," report DAC-56365P, Sept. 1966; Douglas Aircraft Co. and IBM Co., "Lunar Applications of a Spent S-IVB/IU Stage in Orbit (LASSO)," study PP-161, Nov. 1966; Douglas Aircraft Co., "Feasibility of Modifying the S-IVB Stage as an Injection Stage for Manned Planetary Flyby Missions," report DAC57996, May 1967.

9. Gordon interview; Joe Tschirgi to Walt Cleveland, 4 Apr. 1973.

10. Douglas Aircraft Co., "London Daily Mail Astronomical Observatory," report SM-36173, Nov. 1959; Tschirgi to Cleveland, 4 Apr. 1973.

11. Koelle, "Notes," 1O June 1963 (see chap.1, n.41);von Braun, annotation on Koelle's"Notes" of 27 Aug. and 9 Sept. 1963, Douglas Aircraft Co. report SM-45878.

12. George E. Mueller interview, 26 Aug. 1975; Taylor interview.

13. Koelle, "Notes," 13 Jan., 3, 17 Feb., 6 Apr., 15 June, 21 Sept. 1964; MSFC Future Projects Office, bulletin 9, Oct. 1964, p. 23.

14. North American Aviation, "Utilization of Spent Launch Vehicle Stages in Support of Earth Orbital Missions," final report under contract NAS8-11379, 3: 59-60, 31 May 1965.

15. Koelle, "Notes," 11 June 1962, 6 May 1963.

16. Von Braun, "Personnel and Organizational Changes," 24 June 1965.

17. E. Z. Gray to Maxime A. Faget, 16 Aug. 1965, with enclosure, "Proposed MSF Advanced Study Program, FY 1966"; J. H. Laue, "Minutes of August 25, 1965, S-IVB Orbital Workshop Conceptual Design Study Meeting," 30 Aug. 1965; F. L. Williams, "S-IVB Orbital Workshop Conceptual Design Study," 20 Aug. 1965.

18. Laue, "Minutes of August 25, 1965 . . . Meeting."

19. Douglas Aircraft Co. report SM-45878; NASA contract NAS1-3893,12 June 1964; Presidential press conference, 25 Aug. 1965; Douglas Aircraft Co., "Notebook on AES, Apollo, and AES Vehicles," Saturn Payload Applications Dept., cat June 1965; idem, "AES S-IVB Extravehicular Activity, EVA Experiment," Saturn Payload Applications Dept., cat Aug. 1965; L. O. Schulte interview, 28 Aug. 1975.

20. Williams, "Notes," 25 Oct. 1965; Maxime A. Faget interview, 12 Nov. 1975; James W. Carter, "Artificial Gravity Experiment for the S-IVB Workshop," 29 Oct. 1965.

21. Williams, "Notes," 18 Oct. 1965; William A. Ferguson interview, 6 Oct. 1975; Williams, "S-lVB Workshop Activities," 6 Dec.1965;J. T. Shepherd,"S-IVB Workshop," 1 Dec.1965.

22. Charles C. Wood, "Meeting-S-IVB Workshop-Dec. 2-Frank Williams," handwritten notes, 2 Dec. 1965.

23. James W. Carter, "Revised Objectives and Guidelines for the S-IVB Workshop Effort," enclosing copy of guidelines, 3 Dec. 1965.

24. Williams to multiple addressees, 6 Dec. 1965.

25. E. Z. Gray to Williams, TWX, 23 Dec. 1965.

26. Williams to Mathews, "Saturn Airlock Experiment Effort as Described in the December 1965 Management Council," 23 Dec. 1965; Williams, "Notes," 3, 10 Jan. 1966; Thompson, "S-IVB Workshop Meeting, January 21,1966," 25 Jan. 1966; Leroy Roberts to Col. James, "Workshop Presentation to Dr. Mueller on January 20," 25 Jan. 1966.

27. Faget interview.

28. Roberts to James, 25 Jan.1966; Williams, "Notes," 24 Jan.,7 Feb.1966; Ferguson interview; Robert J. Schwinghamer interview, 7 Oct. 1975; F. L. Williams to W. D. Compton, 14 Apr. 1976.

29. H. E. Pitcher, "Airlock Presentation to Geo. Mueller," memo for record, 11 Mar. 1966.

30. R. R. Gilruth to S. A. Cariski, "Procurement Plan, S-IVB Workshop Experiment Support Module," 11 Mar. 1966; Mathews to Gray, "Need for Decision to Proceed on S-IVB Spent Stage Experiment," 18 Mar.1966; Gilruth to Mueller, "Saturn IV B Spent Stage Experiment Support Module," 1 Apr. 1966.

31. W. E. Thompson, "S-IVB Workshop Meeting, April 11 1966," 13 Apr. 1966 Wilbur E. Thompson, telephone interview, 20 Feb. 1976; Gray to Ken Kleinknecht, TWX, 1 Apr. 1966 Gilruth to Cariski, "Procurement Plan, Saturn IV B Spent Stage Experiment Support Module," 2 Apr. 1966; Ferguson to Williams, "Trip Report Washington, D.C., March 21-22 1966," 24 Mar. 1966; Mueller to Kleinknecht, 20 May i966.

32. Mueller to dep. adm., "S-IVB Airlock Experiment," 2 Aug. 1966; Seamans to Webb, same subject, 2 Aug. 1966; Webb, handwritten annotation on Seaman's memo, 3 Aug. 1966 NASA release 66-223, 19 Aug. 1966; Kleinknecht to dep. dir., MSC, "Changes to Contract NAS9-6555, Airlock," 23 Sept. 1966; Thompson interview.

33. James C. McCulloch to Douglas Aircraft Co., "S-IVB Workshop," 15 Dec. 1965; Douglas Aircraft Co., "Quick Response Estimate 202," 17 Dec.1965, McCulloch to Douglas Aircraft Co., "S-IVB Workshop," 22 Dec. 1965; John E. Biby, Jr., to McCulloch, with enclosure "Statement of Work for S-IVB Stage Modifications," 14 Jan. 1966; Williams, "Spent Stage Airlock Presentation at Headquarters," 27 Jan. 1966.

34. Williams, "Notes," 3 Jan. 1966; Roberts to Williams, "S-IVB Workshop," 21 Feb. 1966.

35. Werner Kuers, "Notes," 26 July 1965; von Braun, annotation on Kuers's "Notes" of 28 June 1965; von Braun, annotation on Stanley Reinartz's "Notes" of I Nov. 1965, Lee B. James "Notes," 8 Nov. 1965; Douglas Aircraft Co., Saturn Payload Applications Off., "S-IVB Enlarged Hydrogen Tank Dome Access Opening Modification Program," professional paper 144, 12 Oct. 1965; Hans Heuter to von Braun, 4 Nov. 1965; Ted Smith, telephone interview, 1 May 1975.

36. Thompson, "S-IVB Workshop Meeting, February 15, 1966," 19 Feb. 1966; William B. Lucas, "Notes," 14 Mar. 1966; James, "Notes," 22 Aug. 1966.

37. John H. Disher to assoc. adm. for MSF, "Orbital Workshop LH2 Tank Internal Coatings," 22 Nov. 1966; Ferguson, "Minutes of Orbital Workshop Meeting at MSFC on Friday October 14, 1966," 26 Oct. 1966.

38. Mueller to Gilruth, 22 Dec. 1966, with enclosure, "Gas Atmospheres for Prolonged Manned Space Missions in the S-IVB Workshop", Structures Div., P&VE Laboratory, MSFC, "Meteoroid Penetration Probabilities for the S-IVB Workshop," 4 Jan. 1967; draft letter, von Braun to Mueller, cat 12 Jan. 1967, with enclosure, "Analysis of Requirement for Two-Gas Atmosphere in the Orbital Workshop."

39. Kleinknecht to Disher, "Recommendation for Reduction in Orbital Workshop Activation Workload," 21 Sept. 1966; Donald L. Jacobs to dep. mar., Gemini Program, "Mid-Term Report, Contract NAS9-6584," 19 Oct 1966, Leland F. Belew to Disher, "Reduction in Orbital Workshop EVA Workload," 16 Nov. 1966; Ferguson to Roberts, "Quick Opening Hatch for S-IVB Orbital Workshop," 16 Nov. 1966.

40. Homer E. Newell, "Solicitation of Experiment Study Proposals for Astronomical Instruments Requiring Precise Orientation," with enclosure, "Apollo Telescope Mount," 20 Dec. 1965.

41. Dixon L. Forsythe to acting dir., Phys. & Astron. Programs, "ATM Recommendations and Comments," 22 Mar. 1966; Belew, "Notes," 6, 13 June, 5 July 1966; Newell to dep. adm., "Establishment of Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Project," 17 Mar. 1966; Seamans to Newell, "ATM," 22 Apr.1966; Mueller to Seamans, "Apollo Telescope Mount Installation," 19 July 1966; Seamans to Mueller, "Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM)," 29 Aug. 1966, with attachment, "Project Approval Document, Research and Development," 25 Aug. 1966.

42. Gilruth to Mueller, 25 Mar. 1966; Low to Disher, 22 July 1966.

43. Disher, "Apollo Applications Flight Mission Planning," in "Apollo Applications Status Review for the Deputy Administrator," 11 Mar. 1966, p. 23, Robert R. Gilruth interview 6 Aug.1975; Belew, "Notes," 22 Aug.1966; Disherto MSFC, MSC, and KSC, TWX, 22 Sept. 1966; Disher to MSFC and MSC, TWX, 22 Sept. 1966; Disher to Robert F. Thompson, TWX, 29 Sept. 1966, Disher, "Note for MLA/William B. Taylor," 5 Oct. 1966.

44. Taylor, "SAA Review with Dr. Mueller, May 18, 1966," memo for record, 20 May 1966.

45. Mueller to von Braun and Gilruth, 2 Nov. 1966; Disher to MSFC, MSC, and KSC, TWX, 8 Nov. 1966.

46. Disher, "Action Items from Apollo Applications Meeting at KSC, November 9-10 1966," 5 Dec. 1966; Belew, "Notes on Meeting at MSC November 16, 1966, Apollo Applications Program," memo for record, 17 Nov. 1966; Belew, "Notes," 28 Nov., 19 Dec. 1966; OMSF, "AAP Program Review," 24 Jan. 1967.

47. OMSF, "Saturn/Apollo Applications Program Directive No. 3A," prog. dir. M-D ML3200.055, 30 Dec. 1966; Fred S. Roberts to Ralph I. LaRock, "Comments on Mission Directive for SAA 209 and 210," with enclosure, "Position Paper on Assignment of Responsibility of the Multiple Docking Adapter," 22 Nov. 1966.

 

Chapter 3

 

1. Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965: Chronology on Science, Technology, and Policy, NASA SP-4006 (Washington, 1966), pp. 132, 188, 265-66, 358.

2. Congressional Quarterly Service, Congress and the Nation, vol. 2, 1965-68 (Washington, 1969), pp. 28-29,53,345; MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 23 July 1965.

3. Mueller to MSF ctr. dirs., "Saturn Apollo Applications Program," 10 Aug. 1965.

4. Ibid.

5. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Goals, 89/1, 1965, pp. 1 -2; House Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Future National Space Objectives, 89/2, 1966, pp. IX-XIV.

6. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Goals, pp. 47-104.

7. Ibid., pp. 10, 18 37-38, 71; George Mueller interview, 26 Aug. 1975; J. Pemble Field,Jr., interview, 10 July 1975; Willis H. Shapley interview, 27 Jan. 1976.

8. House Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Future National Space Objectives, pp. 15, 64-66; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, National Space Coals, pp. 69-70; Homer E. Newell interview, 21 July 1975.

9. Mueller to Seamans, "Apollo Applications Fiscal Year 1967 Budget," undated draft; "Apollo Extension Systems (AES) Options to Mr. Webb," transcript, 22 Sept. 1965; Sam Ingram to Mueller, "AES Presentation to Mr. Webb, 21 Sept. 1965, Afternoon Session," 24 Sept.1965.

10. William A. Fleming, "Discussion Paper on AES Program Budget Material," 28 Sept. 1965; Aviation Week and Space Technology, 11 Oct., pp. 65-67; 8 Nov., p. 23; 6 Dec., pp. 26-27; 20 Dec.1965, p. 15, E.S. Redford and O.F. White, "What Manned Space Flight Program after Reaching the Moon? Government Attempts to Decide: 1962-1968," (Syracuse, Dec. 1971), pp. 181-88.

11. Clinton Anderson to Webb, 27 Jan. 1966.

12. Mueller to Robert Gilruth, "Summary of Comments of Apollo Executives," 28 Jan. 1966.

13. Henry Simmons, "AAP-Wednesday's Child," Astronautics and Aeronautics, Feb. 1966, pp. 5, 9.

14. Gilruth to Mueller, 25 Mar. 1966.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid

17. Air Force Systems Cmd. to subordinate units, "Statement of Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard Regarding Cancellation of MOL," TWX, 10 June 1969.

18. Hq, Space and Missile Systems Organization, Air Force Systems Cmd., "History of the Space Systems Division, July-December 1965," 1:25-26, 53; idem, "History of the Space Systems Division, January-June 1966," 1 :69-71.

19. William F. Moore, dir., OMSF Technical Staff, to Samuel Hubbard, "MSF/USAF MOL Agreement," 22 Oct. 1965, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965, p. 484; NASA mgt. instruction 1154.2, "Manned Space Flight Policy Committee," 14 Jan. 1966; NASA release 66-26, "Manned Space Flight Policy Committee Formed by NASA, DoD," 4 Feb. 1966.

20. Anderson to Webb, 27 Jan. 1966; House Committee on Government Operations, Hearings, Missile and Space Ground Support Operations, 89/2, 1966, pp. 46-47.

21. President's Science Advisory Committee, The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period (Washington, Feb. 1967), pp. 23-25.

22. Edward Z. Gray to Max Faget, TWX, 28 Dec. 1966; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, 1968 NASA Authorization, 90/1, 1967, pt. 2, pp. 563-65.

23. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, 1968 NASA Authorization, pt. 2 pp. 563-65; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Hearings, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, 90/1, 1967, pp. 86, 143, 981-83.

24. Robert F. Thompson interview, 18 Dec. 1975 William A. Ferguson interview 6 Oct. 1975.

25. J. Pemble Field interview, 10 July 1975; Harold Gould and James Wilson interview, 17 July 1975.

26. Mueller to MSF ctr. dirs., "Saturn Apollo Applications Program," 10 Aug. 1965, Mueller to MSF ctrs. "Saturn/Apollo Applications Program," TWX, 13 Sept. 1965.

27. Houston Post, 14 Oct. 1965, sec. 1, p. 22; Olin Teague to William Hobby, exec. ea., Houston Post,27 0ct. 1965 Gilruth to Teague, 19 Nov. 1965; MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 19 Nov. 1965.

28. Mueller to Webb through Seamans, "Recommendation for Apollo Applications Program Field Center Responsibilities," 18 Nov. 1965; Seamans to Mueller, "Apollo Applications Management," 19 Dec. 1965; NASA release 65-381, "NASA Assigns Management Work for Apollo Applications," 17 Dec. 1965.

29. MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 17 Dec. 1965, McCall to various MSFC offices, "AAP Status Report #1," 6 Jan. 1966; Mueller to von Braun, I July 1966 Leland Belew interview, 6 Nov. 1974; William Ferguson interview, 6 Oct. 1975.

30. Gray to MSC, MSFC, and KSC dirs., "AES Mission Planning and Payload Integration," 22 July 1965; Williams to von Braun, "MSFC Weekly Notes," I Nov. 1965, Belew to von Braun, "MSFC Weekly Notes," June-Dec. 1966 (see chap. 1, n. 41), McCall to various MSFC offices, "AAP Status Report #1," 6 Jan. 1966; NASA release 66-137, "Two Firms to Study Apollo Integration," 27 May 1966.

31. Low to John Disher, 31 Mar. 1966. After discussing the matter with James Elms, dep. assoc. admin. for manned spaceflight, Low noted that the "problem is nearly settled in our favor" and the letter was not sent. Low to Faget, 31 Mar. 1966; Robert F. Thompson interview, 18 Dec. 1975; Gilruth to Mueller, 15 Apr. 1966.

32. Gilruth to Mueller, 21 Apr. 1966; MSC announcement 66-92, "Establishment of the Apollo Applications Program Office and Designation of the Acting Manager and the Assistant Manager," 6 July 1966.

33. Harold Gartrell to various MSC offices, "MSC Mission Programs for the Apollo Applications Program," 2 Dec. 1965; Rees to Gilruth, 5 Apr. 1966, Kraft to Low, "Interface Responsibilities for AAP Operations Planning," 28 Nov. 1966; Christopher Kraft interview, 25 Feb. 1977.

34. Maurice Raffensperger to MSFC and MSC, "Saturn S-IVB Workshop Experiment," TWX 25 Feb. 1966; OMSF, "Manned Space Flight Management Council Action Items," 19 Aug 1966; Low to various MSC offices, "MSC/MSFC Roles and Missions," 25 Aug. 1966.

35. Low to various MSC offices, "MSC/MSFC Roles and Missions," 25 Aug. 1966.

36. Jim Maloney, "Marshall Gets Special Project," Houston Post, 17 Oct. 1966; Mueller to Teague, 19 Oct. 1966.

37. Congressional Quarterly Service, Congress and the Nation, vol. 2, 1965-1968, pp. 4-8, 531-33, 829, 831-34, 840-42.

38. Stanley Reinartz's notes on the AAP portion of the Administrator's review, 15 Nov. 1966.

39. MSFC, "Minutes of MSFC Center Staff and Board Meeting," 23 Dec. 1966. Mueller conveyed much the same message at a meeting of Gemini-Apollo Executives on 27-28 Jan. 1967: see minutes of the meeting. AAP Off., "History of the Apollo Applications Program, 1966 to September 1, 1968," pp. 1-3.

40. TheBudgetof the United States Government, 1968, p. 21, Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 189-94; Willis Shapley interview, 27 Jan. 1976.

41. Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program ?" p. 178, AAP Off., "AAP Schedule ML-SB," 5 Dec. 1966.

42. NASA, "Background Briefing, NASA FY 1968 Budget," 23 Jan. 1967, p. 32.

43. AAP Off., "History of the Apollo Applications Program, 1966 to September 1,1968 " pp. I -4.

44. NASA, "Apollo Applications Briefing," transcript, 26 Jan.1967, pp. 5,11-12,21-22,28-30.

45. Ibid., pp. 7-8.

46. Ibid., pp. 8-12.

47. Ibid., pp. 13, 15-17; AAP Off., "Schedule ML-5B," 5 Dec. 1966.

48. NASA release 67-11, 26 Jan. 1967, "Apollo Applications Program," p. 5; NASA, "Apollo Applications Briefing," transcript, pp. 8-12.

 

Chapter 4

 

1. Ernst Stuhlinger, "Notes," 13 Dec. 1965 (see chap. 1, n. 41).

2. Homer E. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211 (Washington, 1980); also his testimony before congressional committees for the FY 1968 budget, reprinted as NASA's Space Science and Applications Program, NASA EP-47 (Washington, 1967).

3. Eugene M. Emme, A History of Space Flight (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), pp.114-34; Jane van Nimmen and Leonard C. Bruno, with Robert L. Rosholt, NASA Historical Data Book, 1958-1968, vol. 1, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012 (Washington, 1976), p. 136.

4. Biographical data from House Committee on Science and Astronautics, NASA Authorization for FY 1965, pp. 164-65; responsibilities from organization charts in Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington,1966),pp.336ff.

5. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, Hearings on S. 1296, 90/1, pt. 1, p. 437.

6. Van Nimmen and Bruno, NASA Historical Data Book, p. 135; Homer E. Newell interview, 21 Apr. 1976.

7. Charles M. Atkins, "NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences," NASA Historical Note HHN-62 (typescript, 1966), p. 6, passim.

8. Newell interview.

9. Lewis R. Fisher, William O. Armstrong, and Carlos S. Warren, "Special Inflight Experiments," Mercury Project Summary Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight May 15 and 16, 1963, NASA SP-45 (Houston, 1963), pp.213-29; Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 414-15; MSC circular 19, "Establishment of the Mercury Scientific Experiments Panel," 18 Apr. 1962, MSC gen. mat. inst. 2-3-1, "Manned Spacecraft Center In-Flight Scientific Experiments Coordination Panel," 15 Oct. 1962; MSC tech. mat. inst. 37-1-1, "In-Flight Experimental Programs," 18 July 1963.

10. William O. Armstrong interview, 24 Jan. 1967; Newell interview; Edward P. Ney (Univ. of Minn.) to Jocelyn R. Gill, 27 Aug. 1962; Gill interview, 26 Dec. 1967.

11. J. Trombka, J. R. Gill, and L. Lewyn, "Scientific Experiments on Gemini and Apollo Earth Orbital Flights as Precursors to Apollo Extension and ORL Earth Orbital Missions, MS. Prepared for Technical Papers That Will Later Be Published in the Proceedings of the American Astronautical Society," Oct. 1965; OSSA, "Program Review, Manned Space Sciences," 27 Oct. 1964, pp.12-14; Homer Newell's testimony before the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, NASA Authorization for FY 1966, pp.856-59,22 Mar.1965; Willis B. Foster to dir., Program Rev. and Resources Mgt., "Submission for 1964 President's Annual Report," 30 Oct.1964, with enclosure, "Chronological List of Highlights, July 1963 through 1964."

12. Emmette S. Redford and Orion F. White, "What Manned Space Flight Program after Reaching the Moon? Government Attempts to Decide: 1962-1968," Syracuse Univ., Dec. 1971, pp. 53-54, Newell testimony cited in n. 11, Newell interview, "Memorandum of Agreement between Office of Manned Space Flight [and] Office of Space Sciences, Scientific Interfaces," signed by Joseph F. Shea 26 July and Edgar M. Cortright 25 July 1963; Richard J. Allenby to Mueller and Newell, "Minutes of Newell-Mueller Meeting of 23 February 1965," 19 Apr. 1965.

13. Newell to colleague, 20 Aug. 1963; enclosure to Foster memo cited in n. 11.

14. "Agreement between DoD and NASA concerning the Gemini Program," 21 Jan. 1963; "Minutes of the Sixth Meeting, Gemini Program Planning Board, June 28,1963;" Robert C. Seamans, Jr., and Brockway M. McMillan, "Acceptance of the Joint NASA/DoD Ad Hoc Study Group Final Report on Air Force Participation in Gemini," memo for record, 6 May and 5 Aug. 1963.

15. Willis B. Foster to chief, Lunar and Planetary Br., "Establishment of MSFEB," 9 Jan. 1964; NASA mat. inst. 9000.002, "Establishment of Manned Space Flight Experiments Board," 14 Jan. 1964.

16. NMI 9000.002.

17. MSC, TMI 37-1-1, 4 Mar. 1964.

18. MSC, Gemini Summary Conference, NASA SP-138 (Houston, 1967), pp. 224-26, 230, 305; Armstrong and Gill interviews; Jacob Trombka interview, 27 Dec. 1966; Russell Schweickart interview, I May 1967.

19. Armstrong, Trombka, and Schweickart interviews.

20. Mercury Project Summary, pp. 199, 200, 207.

21. Gemini Summary Conference, pp. 211 - 13.

22. John Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970), pp. 17-20.

23. Jerome B. Wiesner, "Report to the President-Elect of the Ad Hoc Committee on Space" (unclassified version), 12 Jan. 1961, pp. 11-12.

24. "Man's Role in the National Space Program: Report by the Space Science Board, March 1961," in Atkins, "NASA and the Space Science Board," pp. 134-36, and in National Space Goals for the Post-Apollo Period, hearings before the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 89/1, pp. 242-43; "Scientists Endorse Exploration of Space," Washington Post, 7 Aug. 1961.

25. Robert Colby Nelson, "Full Moon Debate " Christian Science Monitor, 14 June 1961.

26. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, A Review of Space Research, NAS-NRC pub. 1079 (Washington, 1962), pp. 1-21 and 1-22.

27. Ibid., p. 11-19; MSFC, "Combined Staff and Board Meeting Minutes," 10 Nov. 1969.

28. NAS-NRC, Review of Space Research, p. 1-23.

29. Ibid., p. 1-22.

30. Richard Hirsch and Joseph J. Trento, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973), pp.108-09; "Space Goals Put Strain on Budget," New York Times, 5 Nov. 1962; Jonathan Spivak, "Apollo Argument: Critics Seem Unlikely to Alter Moon-Shot Program," Wall Street Journal, 20 May 1963; James E. Webb to the president, 30 Oct. 1962.

31. P. H. A[belson], "Manned Lunar Landing," Science 140 (1963): 267.

32. See, for example: Frederick D. Hibben, "NASA, Scientists Divided on Space Goals," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 Apr. 1963, pp.24-25; Howard Simons's series in the Washington Post,"Scientists Divided on Apollo," 12-14 May 1963;William J. Perkinson ,"Engineers vs. Scientists," Baltimore Sun, 30 Apr. 1963; Albert Eisele, "Nobel Winners Criticize Moon Project," Washington Post, 6 May 1963; "U.S. Official Answers Critics of Manned Lunar Program," Baltimore Sun, 30 Apr. 1963; Robert Hotz, "Apollo and Its Critics," Aviation Week ~ Space Technology, 29 Apr. 1963; "Man-on-Moon Program Backed by 8 Scientists," Washington Evening Star, 27 May 1963.

33. Senate, Scientists' Testimony on Space Goals, hearings before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 88/1, 10-11 June 1963.

34. Evert Clark, "Scientist Decries Mars Life Search," New York Times, 13 Feb. 1965, D. S. G[reenberg], "Space: Administration Official Says Some Harsh Things about Scientists Opposing Moon Landing," Science 147 (1965): 381.

35. Newell interview.

36. "Statement of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences on National Goals in Space, 1971-1985," reprinted in Senate Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1966, Hearings on S. 927, 89/1, pt. 1, pp. 479-84, and in National Space Goals for the Post-Apollo Period, hearings before the same committee, 2325 Aug. 1965, pp. 244-48.

37. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Space Research: Directions for the Future, pub. 1403 (Washington, 1966), pp. iv, 6, 24-25, 186, 198-201 502-03, 511-12 623-29; Howard Simons, "6-to-8-Man Orbiting Laboratory Called For in Space Research Study," Washington Post, 15 Feb. 1966.

38. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1967, Hearings on S. 2909, 89/1, pt. 3, pp. 66, 145-46, 308.

39. House Subcommittee on Space Sciences and Applications of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1966 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 3730, 89/1, pt. 3, pp. 561-78; NASA release 65-234, 15 July 1965.

40. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1967 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 12718, 89/2, pt. 1, pp. 159-60.

41. Newell to Gordon J. F. McDonald (UCLA), 6 Jan. 1966.

42. House Subcommittee on Space Sciences and Applications of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1967 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 12718, 89/2, pt. 3, pp. 527-60, 505.

43. Jesse L. Mitchell to MSFC, LRC, GSFC, and MSC, TWX, 27 Jan. 1966; Newell to von Braun, "MSFC Apollo Telescope Mount Management Participation," 10 Mar.1966; Newell to dep. adm., "Establishment of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Project," 17 Mar.1966, with enclosure, "Project Approval Document, Research and Development."

44. Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 136-37; John H. Disher to Jerry McCall, 9 Apr.1966; Robert C. Seamans, Jr., "Memorandum for Dr. Newell, Subject: ATM," 22 Apr. 1966.

45. Walter Haeussermann, "Notes," 23 May 1966; Belew, "Notes," 6, 13 June 1966; Jesse L. Mitchell to dir., Manned Space Flight Experiments Off., "Mission Assignment for the Saturn/ Apollo Applications Program," 23 June 1966.

46. Seamans to assoc. adm. for MSF et al., "Apollo Applications Program," 30 Mar.1966; Newell to dep. adm., "Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM)," 10 June 1966; Belew, "Notes," 5, 11, 18 July l 966; Edward J. Brazill, "Meeting Held on Monday, July l 1,1966, by Dr. Seamans, Dr. Mueller,andDr.Newell,"memoforrecord,15Julyl966,Belew,"Julyl5ATMExperiment Management Discussion at NASA Headquarters," memo for record, 18 July 1966.

47. Disher, "Apollo Telescope Mount Installation," memo to files, 30 July 1966 (prepared 18 July); Low to Disher, 22 July 1966.

48. Low to Disher, 22 July 1966.

49. Gilruth interview, 6 Aug. 1975; Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979), chap. 8: Mueller quotation taken from Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" p. 134.

50. Disher to dir., Systems Engineering, "ATM LM vs. Rack Installation," 25 July 1966; Mueller to dep. adm., "Apollo Telescope Mount Project," 2 Aug. 1966; Edgar M. Cortright to assoc. adm., "Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Project Approval Document (PAD)," 25 Aug. 1966.

51. Seamans to assoc. adm. for MSF, "Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM)," 29 Aug. 1966, with enclosure, "Project Approval Document, Research and Development"; Richard Tousey interview, 20 Apr. 1976; Smith, "Solar Astronomy," pp. 20-23; OMSF, "AAP Status Review for the Deputy Administrator," 11 Mar. 1966, pp. iii, 17.

52. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5, 19 Sept. 1966; Richard Tousey, "The NRL Solar Experiments in the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: Historical, Operational, and Results," preprint of an article to be published in "Report of NRL Progress," p. 12; William B. Taylor, "SAA Review with Dr. Mueller, May 1S, 1966," memo for record, 20 May 1966; Belew, "Notes," 6 dune 1966.

53. A. R. Morse, "MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount," NASA TM X-64811, pp. 13-7, 14-10, 15-8, 16-9; MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5, 19 Sept. 1966.

54. Tousey, "NRL Solar Experiments," pp. 14- 16, 17-22; MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5.

55. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5, Belew interview, 6 Nov. 1974.

56. MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 21 May 1965.

57. Mueller to von Braun, "MSF Experiments," 20 Jan. 1966; MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 21 Jan. 1966, von Braun, "MSF Experiments," 31 Jan. 1966 William P. Horton to Mr. Weidner, "Status Report Regarding Development of S-IVB Workshop Experiments List," I Apr. 1966.

58. E. Z. Gray, "Experiment Status, Office of Manned Space Flight Experiments Program," in "Apollo Applications Review for the Deputy Administrator," 11 Mar.1966; Seamans to assoc. adm. for MSF et al., "Apollo Applications Program," 30 Mar. 1966.

59. Douglas R. Lord to Warren Gillespie and William G. Johnson, "S-IVB Workshop Experiments Program," 17 May 1966; E. Z. Gray to MSC and MSFC, TWX, 22 June 1966; Gray to MSC and MSFC, TWX, 28 June 1966.

60. Douglas Lord interview, 10 July 1975.

61. Lord, "Results of Workshop Engineering Experiment Review " with enclosure, "Summary Results of Workshop Engineering Experiments Review, August 17, 1966," 23 Aug. 1966; MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5.

62. Richard S. Johnston, "Life Support Systems", Charles A. Berry, "Medical Research and Operations"; S. P. Winograd, "Inflight Medical Experiments," in "Program Review, Life Sciences, June 22, 1966," 0ff. of Program and Special Reports, NASA Hq., 1966.

63. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5.

64. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-6, 21 Nov. 1966; Jack Waite interview, 7 Oct. 1975.

65. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 66-5.

66. MSFEB, minutes, meeting 67-1, 6 Feb. 1967.

67. The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period: A Report of the President's Science Advisory Committee (Washington, 1967), pp. 13, 14.

68. Ibid., pp. 15, 20, 37.

69. Ibid., pp. 37-41, 23-25.

70. Ibid., pp. 73_74

71. Ibid., p. 73.

72. Ibid., pp. 74-75.

73. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 1968 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 4450, H.R. 6470, 90/1, pt. 3, pp. 25-31, 53-55; Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, 1968 NASA Authorization, pt. 2, pp. 47-59, 577-79, Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, Hearings on S. 1296, 90/1, pt. 1, pp. 164-66, 169-71.

74. Brooks, Grimwood, and Swenson, Chariots for Apollo, pp. 215-17.

 

Chapter 5

 

1. Congressional Quarterly Service, Congress and the Nation, vol. 2, 1965-68, pp. 10-11.

2. AAP Office, "History of the Apollo Applications Program,1966 to September 1, 1968," pp.1-5 and 4-1; Martin Marietta Corp., "Skylab Chronology Summary"; Maxime A. Faget interview, 12 Nov. 1975, Charles W. Mathews interview, 14 July 1975.

3. George Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug. 1967; Mathews interview.

4. Mathews to ctr. AAP offs., "Minutes for Apollo Applications Program Mission Configuration Meeting," 8 Mar. 1968.

5. Mathews to ctr. AAP mars., TWX, 16 Mar. 1967; Mathews to ctr. AAP mars., "Integrated Systems Test and Schedules Meeting on March 30 and 31," TWX, 23 Mar. 1967; Mathews to ctr. AAP mars., "AAP Schedules Meeting Action Items," 6 Apr.1967; Mathews to Mueller, "Schedule Assessment of AAP 1-4," 11 Apr. 1967; Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug. 1967; Mueller to Seamans, "ATM Flight Schedule," 16 Feb. 1967; L. W. Vogel, "Summary Minutes of Meeting between Mr. Webb and Mr. Bergen on June 21,1967, " memo for record, 6 July 1967.

6. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Hearings, Apollo Accident, 90/1, pt. 6, pp. 493-95; Mathews interview; J. Pemble Field, Jr., interview, 10 July 1975.

7. Faget interview; Richard S. Johnston interview, 21 Oct. 1975. Details on the effects of the AS-204 accident on Apollo and AAP scheduling and costs are in House Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1968 NASA Authorization, 90/1 pt. 2, pp. 1415-25.

8. Mueller to Seamans, "Revised Apollo and AAP Integrated Program Plan," 5 May 1967; Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug. 1967.

9. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, 90/1, S. rpt. 353, p. 22; idem, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1968, 90/1, pt. 1, pp. 10-286; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" (Syracuse, Dec. 1971), pp.194-204; Rep. Donald Fuqua interview, 10 July 1975; Frank Bogart, "Note for Dr. Mueller," 23 May 1967, House Committee on Appropriations, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Appropriation Bill, 1968, 90/1, H. rpt. 569, p. 4; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 205-08.

10. Mathews to Mueller, "Status Report on Operations under the Continuing Resolution," 19 June 1967; L. W. Vogel, "Summary Minutes of Meeting between Mr. Webb and Mr. Bergen on June 21, 1967," memo for record, 6 July 1967; Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug. 1967; Mueller, unsigned memo for Seamans, 24 Aug. 1967.

11. Webb to Rep. F. Edward Hebert, 30 Sept. 1967; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Hearings, NASA's Proposed Operating Plan for Fiscal Year 1968, 90/1, pp. 4, 8-9, 19-20; AAP schedules ML-7, Oct., and ML-8, Dec. 1967.

12. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Hearings, Apollo Accident, p. 493; C. E. Andressen, MSFC resources mgmt. off., "February Management Council Meeting," 6 Feb. 1967, NASA Hq., action items included in Management Council Meeting folder for 23 May 67; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 142-44; Mathews to AAP ctr. offs., "Revised Flight Schedules for the LM&SS," 29 May 1967, Mathews to Mueller, "Lunar Mapping and Survey System (LM&SS)," 22 June 1967, with Mueller's unsigned endorsement to Seamans; Mathews to MSFEB, "AAP Experiment Status Report," 12 Sept. 1967.

13. Richard Haley to Morris Tepper, "Impressions on Briefing on Apollo Applications IA," 15 Aug. 1967; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 144-46. Redford and White mention two other considerations put forward by OMSF officials: the international implications of overflight with earth-resource sensors and the difficulty of achieving a 50° orbit from Cape Canaveral. Funding, however, was always a major concern.

14. MSC, "AAP Flight IA Configuration-System Summary," internal note 67-ET-15, 25 Aug.1967; Martin Marietta Corp., "Final Report, AAP Mission IA," 20 Sept. 1967.

15. Mathews, "Memorandum for the Administrator," 22 Sept. 1967.

16. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1969 NASA Authorization, 90/2, pt. l, p.159; Gilruth to assoc. adm., "OSSA Activities-Weekly Report," 30 Nov. 1967; AAP schedules ML-8, 5 Dec., and ML-13, 19 Dec. 1967; Mathews to ctr. AAP offs., "Mission IA Termination," 27 Dec. 1967; "Post-Apollo Flight Canceled by NASA," Washington Post, 16 Jan. 1968, p. A-5; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 144-46.

17. William R. Lucas, "Notes," 27 Dec. 1966; Belew, "Notes," 16 Jan. 1967.

18. Harle L. Vogel to mar., Orbital Workshop Prog., "Meeting in Huntsville to Review Meteoroid Penetration Problems Related to the S-IVB Orbital Workshop," 2 Mar. 1967; William Teir to Belew, "Orbital Workshop," 3 Mar. 1967; MSFC, change order 1178 to contract NAS7-101,13Mar.1967;BelewtoTeir,"OrbitalWorkshop,"2Mar.1967;Belew,"Supplementary Statement to Weekly Notes for Week Ending March 3, 1967, on Orbital Workshop Micrometeoroid Shield Meeting," n.d.

19. Belew, "Notes," 9, 23 Jan., 20, 27 Mar.1967; Haeussermann, "Notes," 13, 20,27 Feb.,5, 19 June 1967; Ernst Stuhlinger, "Notes," 13, 20, 27 Feb., 5, 19 June 1967; Lucas, "Notes," 12 June 1967, William A. Ferguson to L. Roberts, "S-IVB Stage Mods for Orbital Workshop and PDR," 6 Mar. 1967, Mathews to Belew and Thompson, "Cluster Electrical Power Supply," 13 Mar. 1967, Mathews to ctr. AAP mars., "Electrical Power Supply for S-IVB Workshop," 24 Mar. 1967, Carl R. Praktish to Seamans, "Report Covering Visits to KSC, MSFC, MTF, Michoud, and MSC, June 26-June 29, 1967," 24 July 1967.

20. MSFEB, "Minutes," meetings 66-6 (21 Nov. 1966), 67-1 (6 Feb.), and 67-2 (20 Mar.1967); Donald K. Slayton to Thompson, "Apollo Applications Mission 'A' Experiments," 17 Mar. 1967, Thompson to Slayton, same subj., 4 Apr. 1967; William O. Armstrong, "Report on Action by the Manned Space Flight Experiments Board on Material Submitted for Meeting 67-3," 26 June 1967 (no MSFEB meeting was held in May); MSFEB, "Minutes," meetings 67-4 (17 July) and 67-5 (18 Sept. 1967).

21. Mathews to Mueller, "Schedule Assessment of AAP 1-4," 11 Apr. 1967; Haeussermann, "Notes," 17 July 1967.

22. Mathews,"ApolloApplications,MSFProgramReviewofJulyl8,"18Julyl967;Haeussermann, "Notes," 31 July 1967; Belew, "Notes," 31 July 1967.

23. Stuhlinger, "Notes," 7 Aug. 1967, Richard Tousey, "The NRL Solar Experiments in the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab, Historical, Operational, and Results," preprint of a paper to be published in "Report of NRL Progress," I June 1975, p. 4; Mathews to Belew, TWX, 18 Aug. 1967, Mathews to ex. sec., MSFEB, "AAP Presentation to 67-5 MSFEB, AAP Experiment Status Report," 12 Sept. 1967; MSFC, "Combined Staff & Board Meeting Minutes," 21 July, 24 Aug. 1967, Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug.1967.

24. Mueller to Gilruth, 28 Apr. 1967, Gerard J. Pesman, "Information Pertinent to Headquarter[s] Request for Clarification of Lag in Commitment of Medical Experiment Funds," memo for record, 18 May 1967; Field interview; AAP Off., "History of the Apollo Applications Program, 1966 to September 1, 1968."

25. Mathews, Field interviews.

26. Ferguson interview.

27. Robert F. Thompson interview, 18 Dec. 1975; MSC, "Quarterly Report to the Administrator for the Period Ending October 31, 1967," p. 4.

28. Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" p. 210, MSFC, "Minutes of a Presentation to the President's Scientific Advisory Committee by MSFC on April 11 1967," pp. 18-20; Allan H. Brown, Univ. of Pa., to Harry H. Hess, chairman, SSB, 17 July 1967.

29. Praktish to Seamans, "Report Covering Visits," 24 July 1967; Mueller, "Memorandum for Dr. Seamans," 10 Aug. 1967.

30. Thompson to Mathews, "Apollo Applications Program Planning," 29 Aug. 1967. .

31. ibid.

32. John H. Disher interview, 9 July 1975; OMSF, "AAP Presentation to Mr. Webb on Dec. 6 1967"; Edgar M. Cortright to KSC, LaRC, MSC, and MSFC, TWX, 14 Nov. 1967.

33. Belew, handwritten notes on AAP review, 18 Nov. 1967, OMSF, "MSC AAP Earth Orbital Flight Review (SLA-Lab Presentation), Washington, D.C., Nov.18, 1967, Summary of Verbatim Tape Record," n.d.

34. OMSF, "MSC AAP Earth Orbital Flight Review."

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. John H. Disher, "AAP Program Discussions at MSFC, November 19, 1967," memo for record, 27 Nov. 1967; Belew, handwritten notes on 19 Nov. meeting.

39. Ibid.

40. Anon., typewritten notes on events of the week of 27 Nov. 1967, from L. F. Belew's file,28 Nov. 1967; OMSF, "AAP Presentation to Mr. Webb on December 6, 1967."

41. Mueller to Gilruth I Dec. 1967, with encl., draft of letter, Mueller to Gilruth.

42. Von Braun to Mueller (retracted version), 18 Dec.1967; von Braun to Mueller, 19 Dec.1967 with enclosures.

43. Gilruth to Mueller, 14 Dec. 1967.

44. Enclosures, "Comments on Minutes of AAP Discussions at MSFC, November 19, 1967" and "Comments on Pros and Cons of an Alternate Configuration Approach to Meeting AAP Objectives, Dated Nov. 27, 1967," to letter, Gilruth to Mueller, 14 Dec. 1967.

45. Webb to Floyd L. Thompson, 6 Jan. 1968.

46. James A. Long, "Notes of the Thompson Committee Meeting January 25, 1968," memo for record, 29 Jan. 1968; R. F. Thompson, "Rehearsal of Briefing for Post-Apollo Advisory Group," 12 Feb. 1968; Jeffrey T. Hamilton to L. F. Belew, "Notes on MSC Briefing for Post Apollo Advisory Group or 'Thompson Committee,"' 23 Feb. 1968, MSC internal note 68-ET-12, "Conceptual Designs for Earth Orbital SLA Laboratory," 25 Apr. 1968, MDAC "Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter Laboratory, Feasibility Analysis for MSC," 15 Feb.1968 "Post-Apollo Advisory Group, Summary of Proceedings," encl. to Floyd L. Thompson to admin., "Report of the Post-Apollo Advisory Group," 20 July 1968; J. T. Shepherd to Belew, "MSF Retreat," 13 Mar. 1968.

47. Floyd L. Thompson to Webb, "Report of the Post-Apollo Advisory Group," 20 July 1968, with encl., "Post-Apollo Advisory Group, Summary of Proceedings"; Webb to Thompson, "Acceptance of Report of the Post-Apollo Advisory Group," 25 July 1968; Floyd L. Thompson interview, 28 July 1975.

48. Mathews, "AAP Workshop Studies," 22 Dec. 1967; Mueller to Kurt Debus, 22 Dec. 1967.

49. Charles W. Mathews, "AAP Workshop Studies," 22 Dec.1967; OMSF, "Saturn V Workshop Study," vol. 1, "Summary," 15 May 1968; F. L. Williams, "Notes," 19 Feb. 1968, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1969 NASA Authorization, 90/2, pt. 2, pp. 90-94 also pt. 1, pp. 5, 148-70.

50. Ludie G. Richard, "Notes," 15 Jan. 1968; R. F. Thompson, "Lunar Module/Apollo Telescope Mount (LM/ATM) Study," 23 Jan. 1968, Mueller to Gilruth, 3 Apr. 1968, Mueller "Note for Chuck Mathews," 18 Mar. 1968; "LM/ATM Evaluation Board, Final Report," 25 May 1968.

51. NASA, "NASA FY 1969 Budget Briefing," 29 Jan. 1968, pp. 6, 13, 14, 41-46, 50; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1969 NASA Authorization, 90/2, pt. l, pp.5, 148-70; pt.2, pp. 90-94.

52. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1969 NASA Authorization, 90/2, pt. l, pp.9498; pt. 2, pp. 153-67.

53. Ibid., pt. 2, pp. 194, 247-49; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for FY 1969, pt. 1, pp. 2, 7-8; NASA, "Manned Space Flight Management Council Review, Apollo Applications," 2 Apr. 1968.

54. Congressional Quarterly Service, Congress and the Nation, 1965-1968, pp. 1-12; Time, 10 May, p. 29; 17 May 1968, p. 23; MSFC, "Center Staff and Board Meeting Minutes," 14 June 1968.

55. Mueller to Gilruth, 3 Apr.1968; Belew, "Revised Apollo Applications Program Plans," 3 Apr. 1968.

56. Mathews to ctr. AAP mars., "Planning for a Program Slowdown," 21 Mar. 1968; MSC, "MSC Holding Plan," 15 Apr. 1968, Swearingen to Field, "Marshall AAP Slowdown Plan FY-68-FY-69," n.d., Belew to Buckner, "AAP FY 68 Procurement Actions," 2 May 1968, Mathews to R. F. Thompson, "AAP Holding Plan," 3 May 1968.

57. House, Authorizing Appropriations to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 90/2, H. rpt. 1181, pp. 19-28; William F. Moore, "House Floor Action on FY 1969 NASA Authorization," memo for record, May 1968; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 215-19.

58. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1969, 90/2, S. rpt. 1136, pp. 14-17; Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" pp. 218-19.

59. Memo for record from John Disher files, "Recommended Apollo Applications Program with FY69 New Obligational Authority of S119M," 20 June 1968; Webb to Harold Finger,28 June 1968; Davidson to Belew, "Notes of Webb's Speech at Denver, Colo.," 15 July 1968.

60. Redford and White, "What Manned Space Flight Program?" p. 212; Mueller to ctr. dirs., 3 July 1968.

61. Harold T. Luskin to AAP officials, "Meeting of LM/ATM Task Team with Dr. Naugle, May 10,1968," 14 May 1968; Luskin to Leo Goldberg, Harvard College Observatory, TWX, 20 May 1968.

62. Luskin to Goldberg, 20 May 1968; Goldberg to Naugle, 21 May 1968; Luskin to Mueller, "Back-Up LM/ATM Hardware," 17 June 1968; Mueller to Naugle, same subj., 24 June 1968, OMSF "Minutes of Management Council Review," 2 July 1968; Luskin to Belew, "Harvard College Observatory (HCO) A & B Experiments for ATM," 1 July 1968.

63. Naugle to Newell, "Scientific Strategy for a Deferred ATM-A Mission," 12 July 1968; Thomas O. Paine to assoc. admins., "Key Issues of the FY 1969 Operating Budget," attachment to datafax transmission from Frank A. Bogart to von Braun, 26 July 1968; Rein Ise, "Notes from Mr. Webb's August 5, 1968, ATM Project Review at NASA Headquarters," memo for record, Edward Gibson to astronauts, "Headquarters Review of OMSF Budget and ATM Cancellation," 6 Aug.1968; Paine to assoc. admins., "Decisions on Key Issues of the FY 1969 Operating Budget," 16 Aug. 1968.

64. Presentation by Sidney J. Cariski to MSF Management Council Review, 9 Oct. 1968; Paine to Mueller, "Modification of S-IB Contract NAS 8-4106 for AAP," 30 Aug. 1968; Mueller to Gilruth, "Airlock Letter Amendment to Contract NAS 9-6555," TWX, 5 July 1968.

65. Telephone interview with John Disher, 1 July 1976; H. M. Kennedy to Philip Culbertson, "Critical Procurement Action Releases," 23 July 1968; MSFC, "Center Staff and Board Meeting Minutes," 14 June 1968.

66. Neil Sheehan, "Webb Quits as Head of Space Agency, Notes Soviet Lead," New York Times, 17 Sept.1968, John Lannan, "Acting NASA Head One of New Breed," Washington Evening Star, 17 Sept. 1968; Mueller to von Braun, 17 Oct. 1968; Disher to ctr. AAP mars., "Review of Major AAP Statements of Work," 18 Nov. 1968; personal notes of John Disher; telephone interview with Disher, I July 1976.

67. NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1968, pp. 250-53, 264, 318-22, 324; NASA, "FY 1970 Budget Briefing," 15 Jan. 1969, "FY 1970 Amended Budget Briefing," 15 Apr. 1969; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1970 NASA Authorization, 91/1, pts. I and 2.

68. Von Braun to Mueller, 20 Sept. 1968; Gilruth to Mueller, 19 Sept. 1968; J. P. Field, Jr., to AAP dir., "Program Replanning to Contain Expanding Spacecraft Costs and Schedules," 20 Sept. 1968, Luskin to R. F. Thompson, "Comments concerning CM and SM Development Plans," TWX, 11 July 1968; Howard Benedict (AP), "Racing to the Moon . . . and Beyond," New Hauen Register, 8 Sept. 1968.

69. John M. Logsdon, "The Space Program during the 1970's: An Analysis of Policymaking," draft, August 1974, pp. 5-6, 12.

70. AAP, "Consideration of Saturn V in Place of IB for Launch of AAP Orbital Workshop," presentation to OMSF Management Council, 4 Feb. 1969; MSFC, "Center Staff and Board Meeting Minutes," 7 Feb. 1969.

71. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1970, 91/1, pp. 193-211.

72. Ernst Geissler, "Notes," 17 Mar. 1969; von Braun, "Saturn V Workshop/BO Task Team," 10 Apr. 1969; Machel to AAP mar., "Weekly Activity Report," 11, 24 Apr. 1969; Manned Space Flight weekly report, I Apr. 1969; Schneider to center AAP mars. "Minutes of AAP Baseline Configuration Review Held March 4, 1969," 11 Mar. 1969, Faget to Gilruth, "A Study of Apollo Applications Program Using Saturn V Launch Vehicles," 23 Apr. 1969; Julian E. West to Gilruth, "Extended AAP Flight Program," 25 Apr. 1969; MSC, "Weekly Activity Report, November 23-November 29,1968, E&D Directorate," 29 Nov. 1968, Belew to von Braun, "Wet/Dry Workshop Discussions at the OMSF Hideaway Meeting," I May 1969.

73. Harold Becker, "Notes," 25 Apr. 1969.

74. Belew to von Braun, I May 1969.

75. Mueller interview, 26 Aug. 1975; Willis B. Mitchell, "Summary of Saturn V Workshop Meeting at NASA Headquarters, May 7 1969," 9 May 1969

76. Belew to Schneider, "Impact Assessment to AAP Core Program Due to OMSF Proposed Saturn V Dry Launched Self-Dependent Workshop with an Integrated ATM," 15 May 1969.

77. Ibid.

78. Belew, "Note to Dr. von Braun," 22 May 1969.

79. Von Braun to Mueller, 23 May 1969; Gilruth to Mueller, 26 May 1969.

80. AAP Office, "Apollo Applications Program Review," 27 May 1969.

81. Belew to Gen. O'Connor, "AAP Reorientation," 4 June 1969, Schneider to ctr. AAP mars. "Saturn V Workshop Study," 17 June 1969.

82. Schneider to ctr. AAP mars., "Saturn V Launched Workshop Planning Schedule and AAP Work Guidelines," 27 June 1969, Schneider to Mueller, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator," 26 June 1969; MSFC, "Saturn V Workshop Program Definition Study, Technical Considerations," 30 June 1969.

83. Schneider to Mueller, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator," 11 July 1969; AAP Briefing for the Administrator, 9 July 1969; Mueller to adm., "Saturn V Launched Workshop for AAP," 10 July 1969; Schneider to R. F. Thompson, "AAP PAD Change Request," 29 July 1969, with enclosed Project Approval Document Change Request,

84. Air Force Systems Cmd., "Statement Made Today by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, David Packard," 10 June 1969, Darrell Garwood (UPI), "MOL," 10 June 1969, "Manned Space Lab Canceled," Washington Evening Star, 10 June 1969.

85. Schneider to ctr. AAP mars., TWX, 22 July 1969.

86. Ibid.

87. Interviews: Floyd Thompson, 28 July 1975; Eberhard Rees, 28 Jan. 1976, Mathews, 14 July 1975; Walter F. Burke, 27 Aug. 1975; J. Pemble Field, 10 July 1975; Robert F. Thompson 18 Dec. 1975; Schneider, 22 July 1975; Gilruth, 6 Aug. 1975.

88. Mueller to ctr. dirs., 28 July 1969.

89. Belew to Schneider, "AAP Make or Buy Plan," TWX, 25 Aug.1969; Schneider to Belew, same subject, TWX, 27 Aug. 1969; Belew to Schneider, same subject, 11 Sept. 1969; Belew to Schneider, "In-House vs. Contractor Furnished Items Associated with the Saturn V Dry Workshop," 26 Sept. 1969; Belew, "Notes," 13 Oct. 1969; Harry H. Gorman to Mueller 28 Oct. 1969.

90. Hugh Dryden interview, 1 Sept. 1965, in JSC History Archives

91. Jack Hartsfield, "'Think Positive,' says Mueller of Space Flight," Huntsville Times, 9 Dec. 1969; tape recording in JSC History Archives of Mueller's address at MSC, 9 Dec 1969.

 

Chapter 6

 

1. Mueller to Gilruth, 11 Sept. 1969.

2. MSFC, "Minutes of October MSFC Staff and Board Meeting," 22 Oct.1969, NASA, America's Next Decades in Space, A Report for the Space Task Group, Sept. 1969; Thomas O'Toole, "Controversy Expected on Mars Landing Goal," Washington Post, 10 Aug.1969, pp. Al, A8; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, 1972 NASA Authorization, 92/1, 1 :80-86.

3. Mueller to Julian Scheer, "Request to NASA Project Designation Committee to Select a New Name for the Apollo Applications Program (AAP)," 15 Oct. 1969; Disher to members of screening committee, "New Name for the Apollo Applications Program," 4 Sept.1969; Belew, "Weekly Notes," 18 Aug. 1969.

4. House, Hearings, 1971 NASA Authorization, 1: 7-8, NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1970 pp. 92-93, 161-62, 203, 246, 284-85; James L. Daniels, "Meeting on Apollo/Skylab Program Options," memo for record, 15 June 1970.

5. George Low to Edward E. David, 30 Oct. 1970.

6. House Committee on Science and Astronautics Hearings, 1972 NASA Authorization, 1: 80-86, MSFC, "Staff and Board Presentation," i2 Feb. 1971.

7. Schneider to Belew, "Artificial Gravity Experiment in AAP," 22 Aug.1969; Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "Preliminary Mission Definition and Progress Planning for the Second Saturn Workshop SWS II," 5 Sept.1969; Schneider to ctr. prog. offs., "Definition Studies for a Second Workshop (SWS II)," with guidelines, 25 Nov.1969; Robert Thompson to Max Faget, "Second Saturn Workshop Planning Activities," 17 Dec. 1969, Schneider to assoc. admin. for manned spaceflight, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator-Apollo Applications Program," 21 Nov. 1969.

8. Philip Culbertson to W. R. Lucas, "Payload Planning Support for Skylab II Mission," 15 Mar. 1970, Schneider to ctr. prog. offs., "Skylab II Estimates," 12 Mar. 1970.

9. Gilruth to Myers, "Skylab II Planning," 24 Mar. 1970; Belew to Schneider, "Skylab II Estimates," I Apr. 1970, with attached "MSC Skylab II Study"; Rees to Myers, "Skylab II Planning," 30 Mar. 1970, Myers to ctr. dirs., "Skylab II Planning," 2 Apr. 1970; Belew, "Presentation to MSFC Staff and Board Meeting," 10 Apr. 1970.

10. George Hardy, "Skylab B, Phase I, Study," memo for record, 22 Oct.1970; visual aids used for MSFC presentation, "Skylab B," 10 Aug. 1970, Schneider to Myers, "Weekly Progress Summary-Skylab," 7 Aug. 1970; Schneider to Myers, "Skylab B Planning Studies," 4 Sept. 1970.

11. House Commitee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, 1972 NASA Authorization, 1: 105; Rep. Don Fuqua interview, 10 July 1975; Dale Myers interview, 25 Aug. 1975.

12. William Schneider interview, 22 July 1975; Schneider to Charles Wilson, Ames Research Ctr., "Experiments S071 Circadian Rhythm-Pocket Mice and S072 Circadian Rhythm-Vinegar Gnat," 14 Dec. 1970 Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "AAP Experiment Development and Integration," 5 Sept. 1969.

13. Skylab prog. dir. 7A, 18 Mar. 1970; Disher to Pemble Field, "ICD Responsibilities," 5 Feb. 1970.

14. Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "Interface Control Documents," 17 Aug.1970; "Procedures for Processing ICD's and IRN's," 17 Sept.1970; and "lntercenter ICD Meeting," 25 Feb. 1971.

15. Von Braun to Mueller, "Flight Missions Planning Panel," 30 Dec. 1963; Eberhard Rees to Samuel Phillips, 22 Nov. 1966; Mathews to ctr. prog. mars., "Establishment of AAP InterCenter Interface Panel Structure," 9, 24 Mar. 1967.

16. Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "AAP Panel Revisions," 8 July 1969; Robert Thompson to Harold Luskin, "Reexamination of AAP Panel Organization," 9 Dec.1968; Skylab prog. dir. 7A, "Establishment of Skylab Program Interface Panel Organization," 18 Mar. 1970.

17. NASA, Report of the Apollo 13 Review Board 15 June 1970, pp. 4-23, 5-9.

18. Henry B. Floyd interview, 5 Nov. 1974; Skylab prog. dir.34, "Skylab Program CCB Controls and Reporting Requirements," 19 Jan. 1971; Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "Level I CCB Review of Apollo Applications Program Specification," 23 July 1969.

19. AAP Off., draft agenda for AAP Executives Meeting, Michoud, 11 Aug.1969; OMSF, "Apollo Applications Program Specification," 15 Aug. 1969; Skylab prog. dir. SE, "Skylab Program Work Authorization," 27 May 1971; MSC and MSFC, "Mission Requirements, Second Skylab Mission SL-3," 1 Feb. 1972, J. A. Bethay to MSFC mars., "Management Council Meeting," 27 Oct. 1969; Schneider to Thompson, "Apollo Applications Program Specification," 7 Aug. 1969.

20. Philip Culbertson to ctr. prog. mars., "Agenda for Baseline Requirements Review," 28 Aug. 1969; Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "Documentation Requirements Review," 25 Aug. 1969; Floyd interview.

21. Skylab prog. dir. 1 IA, "Sequence and Flow of Hardware Development and Key Inspection, Review, and Certification Checkpoints," 14 Oct. 1970.

22. Ibid.; Richard Truly interview, 4 Sept 1975.

23. Belew, "Weekly Notes," 17 Nov.1969; Schneider to Mueller, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator-Apollo Applications Program," 11 Dec. 1969.

24. Schneider to Mueller, "Weekly Progress Summary for AAP," 11 Dec.1969; Schneider, "Skylab Lessons Learned as Applicable to a Large Space Station," NASA report TMX-73073 draft, Jan. 1976, pp. 25-26.

25. Schneider to Belew, "Cluster Systems Design Review," 16 Jan. 1970, Belew to von Braun "Weekly Notes," 15 Dec. 1969; Schneider to Belew, "Technical Management Meetings," 23 Dec. 1969.

26. Schneider to Belew, "Cluster Systems Design Review," 16 Jan. 1970; Belew to Schneider "Cluster Systems Design Review," 10 Feb. 1970.

27. Belew to Schneider, "Cluster Systems Design Review," 10 Feb. 1970, Donald Slayton to Robert Thompson, "Progressive Crew Station Reviews of Saturn V Workshop (SVWS) Hardware," 11 Dec. 1969; Belew, "Weekly Notes," Jan.-June 1970.

28. Schneider to Belew, "Use of Proposed AAP Guidelines for Experiment Development," 24 Dec. 1969; Belew to Schneider, "Proposed Guideline for Skylab Program Experiment Development," 5 Mar. 1970; Schneider to Belew and Kleinknecht, "Uncertified Reviews," 20 July 1970.

29. Belew, "Weekly Notes," 25 May, 17 Aug., 24 Aug.-28 Sept. 1970; D. M. Green, "Critical Design Review," 13 Aug. 1970; MSFC releases 70-168, 27 Aug., and 70-189, 21 Sept. 1970 Disher to Mathews, 24 Sept. 1970.

30. MSF Management Council review presentations, Apollo Applications, 15 Oct. and 4 Nov. 1969; MSFC, "Minutes of Combined Staff and Board Meeting," 10 Nov. 1969, Belew to Schneider, "Pending Changes in the Apollo Applications Program," 3 Nov. 1969.

31. MSFC, "Minutes of August Staff and Board Meeting," 14 Aug. 1969; Kenneth Kleinknecht "Meeting with Dr. G. E. Mueller on August 7, 1969 to Discuss Apollo/ALEM/AAP Comonality," memo for record, 26 Aug. 1969; Belew, "Weekly Notes," 15 Dec. 1969, 25 May 1970.

32. Myers to assoc. admin. for OSSA, "New/Additional Experiments for Skylab l, " 27 Mar.1970 Gilruth to Rees, 10 Apr., 26 May 1970; Rees to Mathews, 21 July 1970; Rees to Gilruth 19 Aug. 1970.

33. Schneider to Belew, "MSFC FY 71 Skylab Resources Program," 29 July 1970, Belew to Schneider, "MSFC FY 71 Skylab Resources Problem," 8 Sept., 9 Oct.1970; Belew to William Simmons and F. M. Drummond, "Workshop and Airlock Schedule and Resources Problem," 23 Nov. 1970.

34. Skylab prog. off., "Skylab Program Launch Readiness and Delivery Schedule, ML-19," Sept. 1970; Kenneth Kleinknecht interview, 10 Sept. 1976.

35. Schneider to Belew, "Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Experiment-Naval Research Laboratory (NRL-B (S-082-B) )," 15 Dec. 1970.

36. George E. Mueller to assoc. admin., "Re-entering Fragment Policy," 13 May 1964.

37. OMSF briefing documents, 22 Jan. 1970.

38. Ibid.

39. Ibid.

40. Lockheed Missiles & Space, Inc., Huntsville, Ala., "Survival Analysis of Skylab Program Vehicles," final report under contract NAS8-24249, July 1970.

41. Dale D. Myers to acting admin., "Report on Skylab Orbital Debris," 24 Nov.1970, George M. Low to assoc. admin. for Manned Space Flight, "Skylab Orbital Debris," 3 Apr. 1971.

 

Chapter 7

 

1. Frank Borman interview, 19 Apr. 1967, JSC History Office.

2. Fred A. Payne, "Work and Living Space Requirements for Manned Space Stations," Proceedings of the Manned Space Stations Symposium, Los Angeles, 20-22 Apr. 1960, pp.100-03; NASA, "Compilation of Papers Presented at the Space Station Technology Symposium, Langley Research Center," 11-13 Feb. 1969.

3. C. C. Johnson, "Skylab Experiment M487, Habitability/Crew Quarters," paper 133 of The Skylab Results: Proceedings, vol. 1, 20th American Astronautical Society Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, 1966 NASA Authorization: Hearings on H.R. 3 730, 89/1, 1965, pt. 2, p. 141; idem, 1967 NASA Authorization: Hearings on H.R. 12718, 89/2, 1966, pt. 2, p. 175; Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1968 NASA Authorization: Hearings on H.R. 4450, H.R. 6740, 90/1, 1967, pt. 1, p. 206.

4. MSC, "AS-209, Orbital Workshop, MSC Corollary Experiments, Presentation to MSFEB," 19 Sept. 1966.

5. Charles W. Mathews to Robert F. Thompson and Leland F. Belew, "Habitability and Crew Quarters Experiment, M487," 25 Jan. 1967; Belew, "Reestablishment of Workshop Habitability Responsibility at MSFC," memo for record, 29 Sept.1966; Stanley R. Reinartz, same subject memo for record, 30 Sept.1966, Thompson to Mathews, "Experiment M487, Habitability/Crew Quarters," 22 June 1967; Mathews to asst. mar., AAP Off., MSC, and prog. mar., S/AAP Off., MSFC, "Experiment Implementation Plan for M-487, Habitability/Crew Quarters," 5 Sept. 1967.

6. Richard S. Johnston interview, 21 Oct. 1975; Paul C. Rambaut interview, 2 Dec. 1976.

7. MSFC, "S-IVB Orbital Workshop, Structures and Mechanics Sub-Board Presentation," 8-9 May 1967, pp. 5-50, 5-41 to 5-46; "S-IVB Orbital Workshop, Advance Data Package for the Preliminary Design Review," May 1967, pp. 5-8 to 5-11.

8. Belew, "Minutes of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) Preliminary Design Review (PDR) during May 2-10, 1967, at MSFC," 24 May 1967.

9. Mathews to Thompson, Belew, and Robert C. Hock, "Two Level Orbital Workshop," 7 July 1967, Mathews to Belew, "Industrial Consultant for OWS," 24 Aug. 1967.

10. George E. Mueller interview, 26 Aug. 1975; MSFC, "Work Statement for an Industrial Engineering Design Consultant Covering Effort for Design Consultation on Habitability Aspects of Earth Orbital Space Stations," 1 Dec. 1967.

11. Current Biography, 1953, pp. 368-70; Manned Space Flight weekly report, 18 Dec. 1967; E. L. Field, "Washington D.C. Trip, Raymond Loewy Interview at Headquarters," memo for record, 20 Dec. 1967.

12. Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc., "Habitability Study, AAP Program," Feb. 1968.

13. Belew "Report on OWS Habitability Analysis," 16 Feb. 1968; Martin Marietta Corp., "Apollo Applications Program (AAP) Payload Integration, Review and Recommendations, Supplement to Habitability Study (ED-2002-374)," 21 Feb. 1968.

14. William A. Ferguson interview, 6 Oct. 1975; William K. Simmons, Jr., interview, 30 Oct. 1974.

15. Mueller interview; Donald K. Slayton to mar., Orbital Workshop Proj., "Orbital Workshop Habitability Study," 14 Mar. 1968, Mathews to Belew, "Industrial Consultant Contract for OWS," 1 Mar. 1968, George B. Hardy to Belton Jones, Jr., "Contract NAS8-23506, Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Incorporated," 8 Apr. 1968.

16. Thompson to H. T. Luskin, "Designation of the Principal Investigator for Experiment M487, 'Habitability/Crew Quarters,"' 3 June 1968; W. A. Ferguson to Belew, "Weekly Notes for Week Ending June 21, 1968," 21 June 1968.

17. Robert R. Gilruth interview, 6 Aug. 1975; Caldwell C. Johnson interview, 21 May 1975.

18. Johnson interview.

19. Johnson, "Experiment M-487 Requirements Guidelines," 26 Mar. 1969; Johnson to mar., AAP Off., "Initial Guidelines, Experiment M-487," 5 May 1969.

20. MSC, "Experiment M-487, Habitability/Crew Quarters, Initial Guidelines," May 1969; Johnson interview.

21. Allen J. Louviere to James W. Prim, "Experiment M-487, Habitability/Crew Quarters," 30 July 1969, "Critique of Orbital Workshop Habitability Support System for PDR at MSFC August 26-29, 1969," 22 Aug. 1969; Belew to William C. Schneider, Thomas Morgan, and Robert F. Thompson, "Habitability Support System Preliminary Design Review," 8 Aug. 1969.

22. Johnson interview, Ferguson interview.

23. Schneider to Thompson, Johnson, Belew, and Morgan, "Review of Habitability Aspects of the Saturn Workshop," 30 Sept. 1969.

24. Robert L. Lohman, "Space Station Inputs to AAP Habitability Experiments," 16 Oct. 1969; Malcolm C. Smith, Jr., to chief, Preventive Medicine Div., "AAP Habitability Support System Status Review," 20 Oct. 1969.

25. Johnson interview; Mueller interview; Schneider to Belew, "OWS Compartment Changes," TWX, 31 Oct. 1969.

26. Fred Toerge (Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc.) to Simmons, "Monthly Progress Letter Report, Contract NAS8-23506, Supplemental Agreement No.4," 1 Mar., 2 Apr. 1969; Johnson to Stanley D. Mclntyre, "Full-Scale, Model Shirtsleeve Garments for AAP/OWS," 21 Mar. 1969; Larry E. Bell to chief, Systems Support Br., "Skylab Garments," 1 July 1970; Louviere to Bell, same subj., 21 May 1970; Johnson interview; M. 1. Radnofsky to Joseph P. Kerwin, "Minutes of Meeting Held to Determine Skylab Clothing Configuration," 1 Sept. 1970.

27. Louviere to Johnson, "Status of Off Duty Activity Equipment," 25 Sept. 1970, Louviere to Prim, "Habitability Technology, Astronaut Off-Duty Activity for AAP," 19 Nov. 1969; Johnson to dir., Engineering & Development, "Engineering, Development and Supply of Off-Duty Activity Equipment for Skylab 1," 8 Apr. 1970.

28. Schneider to Belew, "Request for Proposal for a 'Space Bath Tub' for AAP," 22 Apr. 1969; Johnson interview; Johnson to mar., AAP Off., "'Space Bath Tub,"' 8 May 1969; Belew to Schneider, "Space Bath," 18 Mar. 1970, Schneider to Belew and K. S. Kleinknecht same subj.,17Apr.1970;ThompsontoBelew,"SpaceBathTubforAAP,"29July1969;Simmons to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corp., "'Whole Body Cleansing' for the Saturn Workshop," 11 Sept. 1969.

29. Paul J. Weitz interview, 15 Aug. 1975; Ferol Austin, "31 Days Adrift in the Gulf Stream," Christian Science Monitor, 21 Aug. 1969; MSFC release 185-69, 7 Apr. 1969.

30. Johnson to Kleinknecht, "Habitability Provisions of the Orbital Workshop," 26 Feb. 1970.

31. Robert A. Nanz, Edward L. Michel, and Paul A. Lachance, "The Evolution of a Space Feeding Concept for Project Gemini," paper presented to Institute of Food Technologists, Washington, 24-28 May 1964; Aerospace Food Technology, NASA SP-202 (Washington, 1970), p. 4.

32. Transcript of Apollo 7 medical debriefing, tape 2, pp. 20-22, JSC History Office; MSC, "Apollo 8 Technical Debriefing," 2 Jan. 1969, p. 113; MSC, "Apollo 9 Crew Technical Debriefing," 20 Mar. 1969, pp. 13-2, 13-5 to 13-7; Donald D. Arabian to Rita Rapp, "Evaluation of Four-Day Food Supply," 8 May 1969.

33. Charles A. Berry interview, 10 Apr. 1975.

34. G. Donald Whedon (Nat. Inst. of Health) to Paul Rambaut, 20 Dec. 1968; Schneider to Thompson, "In-Flight Food and Water Systems for AAP," 22 Apr.1969; Johnson to Thompson, "AAP/OWS Food and Food Freezer Study," 16 Apr. 1969.

35. Paul C. Rambaut, "Apollo Applications Program Requirements," Aerospace Food Technology, pp. 57-60.

36. Schneider to Thompson, "In-Flight Food and Water Systems for AAP," 22 Apr. 1969.

37. Johnson to Thompson, "AAP/OWS Food and Food Freezer Study," 16 Apr.1969; Schneider to Belew, "In-Flight Food and Water Heating and Cooling Capabilities for AAP," 22 Apr. 1969; Simmons, "Note to Mr.Belew," 2 May l969; W.W.Kemmerer to R.Machell,"Development of a Food System for AAP," 7 May 1969; Thompson to Belew, "Food Requirements for AAP," 16 May 1969, Simmons to Belew, "In-Flight Food and Water Heating and Cooling Capabilities for AAP," 23 July 1969.

38. Rambaut interview; Malcolm C. Smith, Jr., to dir., Medical Research and Operations, "Evaluation of USAF-MOL Contract for Feeding System," 17 June 1969; Smith to Machell, "Request for Contractor Manpower Increase," 31 Oct. 1969; Rambaut to mar., Orbital Assembly Proj. Off., "Skylab Food Management Plan," 6 Apr. 1970.

39. Johnson to Machell, "Food System-Orbital Workshop," 27 Oct. 1969.

40. Belew to Schneider, "Pending Changes in the Apollo Applications Program," 3 Nov. 1969.

41. Johnson interview.

42. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., to Gilruth, "Habitability of Skylab, " 6 Apr. 1970.

43. Gilruth to Eberhard Rees,10 Apr.1970, Rees to Belew, "Skylab Habitability," 15 Apr.1970; Belew to Rees, same subj., 7 May 1970, Rees to Gilruth, 27 May 1970.

44. James R. Thompson, Jr., to Simmons, "Habitability Provisions of the Orbital Workshop," 27 May 1970.

45. Gaylord M. Huffman, "Skylab Habitability," memo for record, 12 June 1970.

46. Gilruth to Rees, 26 May 1970, "Recommendations of the Skylab Habitability Committee," with enclosures, engineering design change requests" O-l O 173- 187.

47. Rees to Gilruth, 16 June 1970; Rees to Dale D. Myers, 15 June 1970.

48. Belew to Kleinknecht, "Skylab Food Requirements," TWX, 13 May 1970; Field to Simmons, "Food System Reassessment," 22 May 1970, Johnson to chief, Systems Support Br., "Soft Mockup of Skylab Wardroom," 21 Apr. 1970; Field to Simmons, "Food System Working Meeting June 6,1970,"10 June l970; Johnson to M.Smith, "Skylab Food-Storage Requirements," 4 June 1970; Johnson to mar., Skylab Prog., "Skylab Galley Arrangement," 13 June 1970; Belew to Kleinknecht, "Engineering Design Change Request (EDCR) 173, Food System and Storage," 23 June 1970; Johnson to mar., Skylab Prog., "Skylab Food and Beverage Storage Requirements," 24 June 1970; Simmons to Belew, "Notes," weeks ending 22 May, 5, 11 June 1970.

49. Myers to Gilruth, 22 June 1970; John H. Disher to Schneider et al., "2nd Draft Agenda, Skylab Program Review at MSFC, July 7-8,1970," 29 June 1970; OMSF, "Minutes, Skylab Program Review, George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, July 7-8, 1970," 22 July 1970; Schneider to Belew and Kleinknecht, "OWS Storage and Food System Changes," TWX, 13 July 1970; Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Food System Interface with Orbital Workshop," 17 July 1970, Schneider to Kleinknecht and Belew, same subj., TWX, 6 Aug. 1970; Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Changes in Skylab Program Food System Interface," TWX, 12 Aug. 1970; Schneider to Kleinknecht and Belew, "Transfer of Skylab Food Heater System Responsibility from MSFC to MSC," 25 Aug. 1970.

50. Rees to Mathews, 21 July 1970.

51. Mathews to Rees, 31 July 1970.

52. Rees to Gilruth, 19 Aug. 1970.

 

Chapter 8

 

1. MSFEB, "Minutes," meeting 66-5, 19 Sept. 1966.

2. S. P. Vinograd to ex. sec., MSFEB, "MM Agenda Items for the July MSFEB Meeting (67-4) " 6 July 1967; MSFEB, "Minutes," meeting 67-5, 18 Sept. 1967; J. W. Humphreys to assoc. adm. for manned spaceflight, "Organization and Designation of Medical Experiments and Personnel for Medical Experiments Program beyond Apollo," 13 Nov. 1967; Vinograd to acting dir., SAA Prog., "Biomedical Experiments on AAP Flights 1,2, 3, and 4," 25 Nov. 1966.

3. Richard S. Johnston interview, 21 Oct. 1975, Charles A. Berry to AAP mar., "Contract Support to MR&OD for AAP," 20 May 1969; Berry interview, 10 Apr. 1975; L. F. Belew to Eberhard Rees,22 May 1968; Henry W. Floyd to Belew, "Biomedical Experiment Hardware Transfer to MSFC," 24 May 1968; Belew to Hermann K. Weidner, "Biomedical Experiment Hardware Development," 7 June 1968; Wernher von Braun to Robert R. Gilruth, 2 Aug. 1968; Gilruth to von Braun,5 Sept.1968; Berry to Gilruth, "Reply to MSFC's Offer to Design and Develop AAP Biomedical Experiment Hardware," 30 Aug. 1968.

4. Belew to von Braun, "AAP Medical Experiment Support to MSC," 6 Sept.1968; William R. Lucas, "Notes," 9 Sept. 1968; Belew to Weidner, "Biomedical Experiment Hardware Development," 13 Sept. 1968; Belew to R. F. Thompson, same subj. and date; Lucas, "Notes," 18 Nov. 1968, R. J. Schwinghamer to Bioastronautics Task Team, "Tuesday, November 19, Task Team Notes," 20 Nov. 1968; Belew, "Notes," 4 Nov. 1968; Gilruth to von Braun, 16 Dec. 1968, with encl., "Management Agreement for AAP Medical Experiment Hardware Items", Belew to Rees, 22 Nov. 1968, Karl Heimburg, "Notes," 16 Dec. 1968; Lucas, "Notes," 2, 9 Dec. 1968, George G. Armstrong, Jr., to AAP mar., "Allocation of MSFC Experiments Development Funds," 17 Jan. 1969; MSC, "Statement of Work for the Metabolic Analyzer, Ergometer, and Task Board for Experiment M171," 23 Jan. 1969.

5. Johnston interview.

6. Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 351, 418; Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979), p. 268.

7. Paul C. Rambaut to chief, Biotechnology Div., "Inflight Medical Requirements Imposed by M071," 15 Oct. 1968.

8. William K. Simmons, Jr., "Notes from GE Presentation, 'Urine Sample Volume Measuring System,"' memo for record, 4 Feb. 1969; Berry interview; Jack H. Waite to Belew, Reinartz and Simmons, "Waste Management System (WMS) Presentation at MSC," 3 Mar. 1969, Berry to William C. Schneider, "AAP Support of M071 and M073," [Sept. 1969].

9. R. E. Allen to Stan Mclntyre, "Sampling and Preserving Urine and Feces," 16 Jan. 1969; Mgr., Orbital Assembly Proj. Off., to mar., AAP, "Weekly Activity Report," 28 Mar. 1969 Carolyn Leach interview, 3 Dec.1976, Berry interview; Stanley D. Mclntyre interview, 8 Oct. 1975; Orbital Assembly Proj., "Weekly Activity Report," 28 Mar. 1969.

10. Simmons to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corp., "Immediate Actions Required as a Result of the Habitability Support Systems Preliminary Design Review (HSS PDR)," 3 Apr. 1969; Rambaut to R. Machell, "Modifications to MDAC Test Plan Dated April 1969," 6 May 1969; Mclntyre interview.

11. Robert F. Thompson to Belew, "Medical Experiment M073," 17 June 1969, Simmons to attendees, "Minutes and Actions on the Habitability Support Systems Meeting at McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-Western Division (MDAC-WD) on July 2,1969," 28 July 1969; Simmons to MDAC-WD, "Habitability Support Systems Requirements," 24 July 1969; Belew to Thompson, "Urine Preservation Methods," 29 Aug. 1969; Paul C. Rambaut interview, 2 Dec. 1976.

12. W. W. Kemmerer to asst. for AAP, "AAP Urine Measurement Concepts," 29 Aug., 21 Sept. 1969; B. D. Newsom to mar., Orbital Assembly Proj., same subj., 6 Oct. 1969, Rambaut, "Review Item Discrepancy WM-21, Habitability Support System Preliminary Design Review," 28 Aug. 1969; Newsom to AAP mar., "Urine Volume Measuring," 27 Oct. 1969.

13. Orbital Assembly Proj., "Weekly Activity Report," 19 Dec. 1969, MSFC AAP Off., "Waste Management System, [viewgraphs of] Presentation to MSC, Dec. 18, 1969", Schneider to Belew, Berry, Thompson, "Medical Experiment Waste Collection and Preservation Requirements and Methods Meeting at MSC December 18,1969," TWX, 23 Dec. 1969, Simmons to MDAC-WD, "Impact Study for Incorporation of a Urine Pooling System," TWX, 30 Dec. 1969.

14. Gaylord M. Huffman, "Minutes of Meeting, Urine Shelf Life Test Review at Bionetics Research Lab, Bethesda, Md." [15 Feb. 1970], H. H. Ash to G. M. Huffman, 5 Mar. 1970; Rambaut to asst. dir. of research, "Urine Freezing versus Urine Drying," 19 Feb. 1970.

15. Simmons, "Note to Mr. Belew" [23 Feb. 1970]; "Manned Space Flight Weekly Report," 16 Mar. 1970, Simmons to Craig Mitchell, "Waste Management System Design," 12 Mar. 1970; A. D. Catterson, "Results of the Skylab Program Management Meeting at MSC on March 10, 1970," 16 Mar. 1970; Belew, "Notes," 16 Mar. 1970.

16. Berry interview, Mclntyre interview, William K. Simmons, Jr., interview, 30 Oct. 1974.

17. Mclntyre interview; Kemmerer to chief, R&D Procurement Br., "Justification for Non-Competitive Procurement," 2 Feb. 1970.

18. K. S. Kleinknecht, "Minutes of Teleconference Meeting on Skylab Waste Management System, March 20, 1970," 24 Mar. 1970, Kemmerer to chief, R&D Procurement Br., "Justification for Non-Competitive Procurement," 2 Feb. 1970, MSFC, "Minutes, OWS Urine Collection Equipment Evaluation, April 3, 1970, Held at MDAC-WD, Huntington Beach"; A. G. Puglisi to Simmons, 13 Apr. 1970, with encl. detailing MDAC-WD comments to MSFC statements concerning the GE and Fairchild Hiller urine collection concepts, anon. "Program Factors" [Jan.-Mar. 1970], memo in files of MSFC OWS proj. mar.; Mclntyre interview, MSFC, "OWS Urine Collection Equipment Evaluation," 9 Apr. 1970, Ernest E. Kennedy to Mclntyre, "Comparison of Design Features," 10 Apr.1970; Simmons to MDACWD, "Urine Collection and Sampling," 6 May 1970; Simmons, "Transmittal of the Minutes to the Urine Pooling Design Review at Fairchild Hiller on May 27, 1970," 12 June 1970.

19. Mclntyre to Bowden and Simmons, "Trip Report, Urine Pooling Zero-G Flight Test Review at Fairchild Hiller, August 13,1970," 21 Aug.1970, Fairchild Hiller, "Interim Test Report, No. MS115T0024," 7 Aug. 1970; Mclntyre to Simmons and Bowden, "Trip Report, Urine Pooling Bag Development Status Review, September 3, 1970, at MSC," 15 Sept. 1970.

20. Simmons, "Weekly Notes for Week Ending September 4, 1970"; same for 11, 18 Sept. 1970; Simmons to Kingsbury, "Urine Pooling Problem," 24 Sept. 1970; Belew to Kleinknecht, "Urine Collection," 28 Sept. 1970; Mclntyre to Simmons and Bowden, "Trip Report, Urine Pooling Review at MDAC-WD, September 15-16,1970," 20 Sept.1970, Belew to Schneider et al.,Weekly Activity Report for Week Ending 9-15-70," TWX, 16 Sept. 1970; Melvyn Savage, "Weekly Status Report [of Skylab Program Test Office]," 23 Sept. 1970; Schneider, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator, Skylab Program," 30 Sept. 1970.

21. Simmons, "Weekly Notes for Week Ending October 9, 1970"; Schneider to Belew and Kleinknecht, "Urine System Telecon of 10/30/70," TWX, 3 Nov.1970; Simmons to Mitchell, "Agreement to Proceed with Three Urine Pooling Concepts at October 30, 1970, Teleconference with Messrs Schneider (NASA Headquarters), Belew (MSFC), and Kleinknecht (MSC)," 6 Nov. 1970.

22. Simmons, "Weekly Notes," 13 Nov. 1970; Belew to Schneider, "One Bag Concept for OWS Urine Collection," 11 Jan. 1971; Wm. J. Huffstetler to acting chief, Proj. Support Div. "Urine Collection Measuring System," 13 Jan. 1971; Schneider to Belew and Kleinknecht, "Urine Systems," TWX, 15 Jan. 1971; Simmons to Mitchell, "Suspension of Contractor Effort on the One-Bag Urine Pooling Concept," 15 Jan. 1971; Simmons to MDAC-WD, "Urine Collection Systems Development," 22 Jan. 1971; Belew to Schneider, "Urine System Parallel Development Plan and Final Selection Criteria," 5 Feb. 1971.

23. R. M. Machell to Simmons "Minutes of Urine System Tiger Team Meeting, March 23, 1970," 2 Apr. 1970; E. L. Field to Reinartz, "Urine Collection," 23 Dec. 1970.

24. Kleinknecht to Belew, "Urine Volume Measurement, Tracer Technique," 27 Jan. 1971; Simmons to MDAC-WD, same subj., 10 Feb. 1971; Mclntyre, "Visit to Fairchild Hiller February 10, 11, and 12, 1971," memo for record, n.d.; Simmons,"Note to Mr. Belew," 13 Apr. 1971, Mclntyre, "Trip to Fairchild Hiller on May 6 and 7, 1971 (Meeting Notes)," memo for record, 20 May 1971, Fairchild Hiller, "Interim Report, Lithium Chloride Tracer Study," rpt. MSIIST0075,6 May 1971;Simmons, "Weekly Notes for Week Ending April 22, 1971."

25. MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Orbital Workshop," NASA TM X-64813, vol. 3, pp. 2.2.11.34 to 2.2.11.38, 2.2.11.56 to 2.2.11.58.

26. Mclntyre interview; Simmons, "Workshop Weekly Notes for Week Ending 11/21/69"; von Braun's handwritten annotation on Belew's "Notes" for 24 Nov. 1969.

27. S. R. Reinartz to Rees, "Disapproval of Flying Skylab Fecal Collector on Apollo 14, " 21 Aug. 1970; Heimburg to Rees, "Flight Assignment of the Apollo [sic] Fecal Collector (AFC)" [10-14 Aug. 1970], Kleinknecht to Belew, "Hardware and Schedule Requirements for the Skylab Program Fecal Collector on Apollo," 18 Mar. 1970; Kleinknecht to Belew, "Skylab Fecal Collector Assignment to Apollo 14, " 28 July 1970; J. W. Prim, "Skylab Fecal Collector on Apollo 14, Justification for Usage," memo to file, 31 July 1970; Kleinknecht to dep. dir., MSC, "Use of Skylab Type Fecal Collector on Apollo," 6 Aug. 1970; Field, "Note to Mr. Belew, Apollo [sic] Fecal Collector," 12 Aug. 1970; C. C. Kraft, Jr., to Kleinknecht, "Use of Skylab Type Fecal Collector on Apollo," 10 Aug.1970; Kleinknecht to mar., Apollo Spacecraft Prog., "Withdrawal of Request to Use Skylab-Type Fecal Collector on Apollo," 20 Aug.1970; Apollo Configuration Control Board Dir. APO-214, 26 Aug. 1970.

28. Gilruth to von Braun, 16 Dec. 1968, with encl., "Manned Spacecraft Center-Marshall Space Flight Center Management Agreement for AAP Medical Experiment Hardware Items"; Johnston interview.

29. Schneider to Thompson and Belew, "Review of AAP Medical Experiments," 18 Feb. 1969; OMSF, "Minutes of Medical Experiments Meeting, MSFC, February 25, 1969," 16 Apr. 1969; Johnston interview.

30. E. L. Michel to Hilary Ray, "Experiment M-171, Metabolic Rate Analyzer Development Plan," 3 Feb. 1969, with encl. "Metabolic Rate Analyzer Development Plan."

31. J. E. Bost, "Meeting with AAPO Regarding Procurement of Metabolic Analyzer for AAP Experiment M171," memo for record, 8 May 1969; Heimburg, "Notes," 28 July 1969; Berry to asst. dir. for Electronic Systems, "Request for Engineering and Development Support to Develop a Mass Spectrometer for AAP Medical Experiments," 18 Sept. 1969; G. G. Armstrong, Jr., to mar., Orbital Assembly Proj. Off., "Transfer of Funds for Medical Experiments Development," 7 Oct.1969, with encl., "Working Agreement for Contract NAS9-9799, Mass Spectrometers", Belew, "Notes," 7 July 1969.

32. Belew, "Notes," 27 Apr. 1970; Kleinknecht to Belew, "Metabolic Analyzer for Medical Experiment M 171," 7 May 1970.

33. Jeffrey T. Hamilton to Belew, "Notes," 24 Feb., 13 Mar. 1970.

34. MSC, "Request for Engineering Change Proposal No. OTO309," 28 July 1970; A. D. Catterson to mar., Skylab Prog., "Skylab RECP #OTO309 Concerning Hardware for the M171 Metabolic Analyzer," 24 Sept.1970, "Minutes, Skylab Level II Configuration Control Board Meeting 29RB," 25 Sept. 1970.

35. Berry interview; Johnston interview; MSC announcements 70-185 28 Sept. and 70-193, 16 Oct. 1970.

36. Heimburg, "Notes," 10 May 1971; Dieter Grau, "Notes," 10 May 1971.

37. Schwinghamer to Weidner, "Biomed Weekly Status Reports," 14 May, 1, 14, 18 June 1971 anon., "Note to Mr. Belew, Bio-Med Problems," 25 June 1971, "Biomed Weekly Status Report," 9 July 1971.

38. Schwinghamer, "Biomed Weekly Status Report," 4, 12, 15, 22, 28 Oct., 30 Nov., 14, 23 Dec. 1971; MSC, "Medical Experiments Status Report, October 15, 1971", K. Natzke, "Interim Test Report-Biomedical System Integrated Test at MSFC-DVTU Experiment Hardware,"2Nov.1971;SimmonstoMDAC-WD,"BiomedicalExperimentDeliveries,"28Dec. . 1971.

39. Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Change in Controlled Milestones for Medical and Science Experiments," TWX, 24 Jan. 1972; Schneider to Kleinknecht, same subj., TWX, 3 Feb. 1972; Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Impact of Not Flying Experiment M171, Metabolic Analyzer," 26 Jan. 1972; Johnston to Kleinknecht, "Headquarters Request for Medical Directorate Position Relative to Elimination of M171 Metabolic Analyzer from the Skylab Program," 26 Jan. 1972.

40. Belew to Schneider, "Effect of Metabolic Analyzer Late Delivery," 31 Jan. 1972, Schneider to Belew and Kleinknecht, "Metabolic Analyzer Experiment M171, Metabolic Activity," TWX, 7 Feb. 1972; Kraft to Rees, 16 Feb. 1972, MSFC, "Biomedical Hardware Status " 12 Apr. 1972; O. S. Tyson to Simmons, "M171 Metabolic Analyzer," flash report, 13 Apr.

41. Berry to dir., space medicine, "Proposal for Ground-Based Manned Chamber Study for the Skylab Program," 24 Mar. 1970.

42. J. W. Humphreys, Jr., to assoc. adm. for manned spacefiight, "Ground-Based Simulation of Skylab Medical Experiments," 1 July 1970; Gilruth to Dale D. Myers, 22 Sept. 1970, with encl., "Skylab Medical Experiment Test"; OMSF, "Minutes, Skylab Medical Experiments Chamber Study Presentation, December 2, 1970."

43. JSC, "Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT)," NASA TM X-58115, pp. 2-1 to 2-5.

44. Ibid., pp. 3-1 to 3-5, 20-5 to 20-8.

45. Ibid., p. 3-27.

46. Ibid., pp. 21-5 to 21-8, 21-19 to 21-21.

47. Ibid., pp. 21-1 to 21-46, Karol J. Bobko interview, 18 Aug. 1975, Bobko, "Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test Crew Observations," ASME pub. 73-ENAs-30, paper presented at the Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Diego, 16-19 July 1973.

48. JSC, "Skylab Medical Experiments," pp. 21-1 to 21-46.

49. R. S. Johnston, "Summary of M171 Metabolic Analyzer Review," 24 July 1972, Johnston to Hq., "Skylab Metabolic Analyzer Design Review Team," TWX, 25 July 1972; J. C. Stonesifer to chmn., Bioastronautics Task Team, "Required M171 Hardware Activities," 14 Aug. 1972; Schwinghamer to Stonesifer, same subj., 19 Aug. 1972, Schwinghamer to Stonesifer, "Damage Assessment, Trainer Ergometer Load Module," 22 Aug. 1972; Weidner to Johnston, "Biomedical Hardware Use in SMEAT Test," 15 Aug.1972; Johnston to Weidner, same subj., 29 Sept. 1972; Stonesifer to chmn., Bioastronautics Task Team "Rework of Biomed Flight Hardware," 3 Oct.1972; Johnston to Berry, 18 Oct.1972; Schwinghamer to Weidner, "Biomed Weekly Status Report," 18 Aug.-17 Nov.1972, Stonesifer to chmn., Bioastronautics Task Team, "M171 Metabolic Analyzer," 8 Dec. 1972.

50. JSC, "Skylab Medical Experiments," p. 21-19; Mclntyre interview.

51. JSC, "Skylab Medical Experiments," p.21-19; Mclntyre interview; Richard H. Truly interview, 4 Sept. 1975 Charles Conrad, telephone interview, 18 Mar. 1977.

52. Belew to mgr., Skylab Prog., MSC, "Orbital Workshop (OWS) Urine System Requirements," 8 Sept. 1972; Belew to Kleinknecht, same subj., TWX, 22 Sept. 1972.

53. Schneider to MSC and MSFC Skylab Prog. mars., "Action Items from Skylab Telecon on Urine Collection System on Sept. 27, 1972," TWX, 2 Oct. 1972, Richard L. Sauer to chief, Environmental Health Br., "Trip Report," 17 Oct. 1972; Belew to Kleinknecht, "Urine System Requirement/Design Changes," TWX, 18 Oct. 1972, Truly to Skylab astronauts, "Urine System Redesign (A Giant Leap)," 19 Oct. 1972; Kleinknecht to dir., Skylab Prog., "Action Items from Skylab Teleconference on Urine Collection System Held on September 27, 1972," 8 Nov. 1972; Simmons to Mitchell, "Change Order for 4000 ml OWS Urine System," 24 Oct.1972, Schneider to Skylab Prog. mars., MSC, MSFC, and KSC, "Minutes of Telecon Regarding Urine Collection System on 10/17/72," 6 Nov. 1972; Sauer to E. S. Harris, "Trip Report," 21 Nov. 1972; Truly to Skylab Astronauts, "Skylab Urine Collection System," 18 Dec. 1972.

54. Transcript of SMEAT crew press conference, 26 Sept. 1972; Mclntyre, Truly, Conrad interviews; MSFC, "MSFC Skylab," vol.3, pp.2.2.11.165 to 2.2.11.170,2.2.11.147 to 2.2.11.152.

 

Chapter 9

 

1. For a discussion of the purposes of solar research, see Henry J. Smith, "Solar Astronomy," in Astronomy in Space, NASA SP-127 (Washington, 1967), a collection of papers by several NASA officials, for AOSO, see House Subcommittee on Space Science and Astronautics, 1966 NASA Authorization: Hearings on H.R. 3730, pt. 3, pp. 571-77.

2. Richard S. Johnston interview, 21 Oct. 1975.

3. W. C. Keathley, "Apollo Telescope Mount Experiments Technology," 15 Apr. 1974, p. 3; A. R. Morse, "MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount," NASA TMX-64811, pp. 19-1 to 19-10.

4. Richard Tousey, "The NRL Solar Experiments in the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: Historical, Operational, and Results," preprint of a paper to be published in "Report of NRL Progress, " pp. 12, 14.

5. Walter Fellows, "Notes," 22 Aug. 1966; MSFC release 66-295, 20 Dec. 1966; Rein Ise interview, 6 Nov. 1974, telephone interview 27 Feb. 1977.

6. Morse, "MSFC Skylab," pp. 5-13 to 5-19.

7. Belew, "Notes," 20 Feb., 13 Mar. 1967, Werner Kuers, "Notes," 10 Jan., 12 Sept. 1966; NASA release 69-4, "NASA Underwater Tests," 15 Jan. 1969; Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1970: Hearings on S. 1941, 91/1, pp. 128-29; Russell Schweickart interview, July 1975. A. W. Vogeley, "Docking and Cargo Handling," presented at the Space Station Technology Symposium, Langley Research Ctr.,11 - 13 Feb.1969, discusses neutral buoyancy training and facilities, p. 453.

8. Morse, "MFSC Skylab," p. 11-3.

9. Ibid., pp. 11-4 to 11-11.

10. Ibid., 11-9 to 11-11.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., 11-11 to 11-12.

13. Ibid., 11-17 to 11-18.

14. Harold E. Gartrell to Rein Ise, "General Comments on ATM Design Philosophy," with encl., "Flight Crew Operations Directorate Requirements and Philosophy on ATM Displays and Controls," 3 Aug. 1967.

15. Gartrell, "Design Review Working Group-X for ATM Controls and Displays," with encl., "Notes" [draft of MSC consolidated position on C&D design philosophy], 2 Feb. 1968; William P. Horton and Glenn Smith to R. F. Thompson and L. F. Belew, "ATM Control and Display Ad Hoc Working Group," 7 Feb.1968; Walter Haeussermann, "Notes," 29 Jan.,12, 19 Feb., 25 Mar., 8, 15 Apr., 13, 20 May 1968; Belew, "Notes," 29 Jan., 20 May 1968.

16. Donald K. Slayton to mar., Skylab Prog., "Flight ATM Hardware Anomalies," 12 Apr.1972; Tousey, "The NRL Solar Instruments," p. 8; Cosimo P. Fazio, "Evolution of the Apollo Telescope Mount Control and Display Panel," paper 167, American Astronautical Society, 20th annual meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974.

17. Keathley et al., "Minutes of ATM Principal Investigators (P.I.) Meeting," 10 Apr. 1969.

18. William C. Schneider to Belew, "HCO Proposal for Automated ATM Operation," 7 Feb. 1969, D. L. Forsythe to dir., AAP "Unofficial Minutes of the September 3 ATM Principal Investigator's Meeting," 10 Sept. i969; Schneider to dep. assoc. adm. for MSF, "Unmanned ATM Operations," 19 Jan. 1970; Keathley, "ATM Principal Investigator (P.I.) Meeting of December 2 and December 3,1969," 5 Jan.1970; E. M. Reeves to Leo Goldberg, "Unmanned Operation for ATM," 22 July 1970; Schneider to ctr. Skylab mars., "Unmanned ATM Experiment Operations Meeting of July 16, 1970," 29 July 1970.

19. George E. Mueller to Gordon Newkirk, Jr., 28 Aug. 1970.

20. T. C. Winter, Jr., "PI Meeting at MSFC on 2-3 December 1969," 3 Dec. 1969, and "Dry Workshop PDR at MSFC on 2-4 December 1969," 4 Dec.1969, Reeves to Keathley, "Observing Time Allocations for ATM," 21 Jan. 1970.

21. Goetz K. Oertel to prog. mar., ATM, "ATM Operations," 2 Oct. 1970.

22. Tousey to A. F. White, Jr., 8 Oct. 1970; White to Tousey, 26 Oct. 1970; Tousey, "The Experiment Coordinators Meeting for ATM Held at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado, on 26 January 1971," 26 Jan.1971, V. Scherrer "Report on Combined Experiment Coordination and PI Meeting at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado on 26 and 27 January 1971," 27 Jan. 1971; George L. Withbroe to Keathley, 20 Aug. i971, Tousey, "The NRL Solar Experiments," pp. 14-16; Tousey interview, 20 Apr. 1976.

23. Tousey interview.

24. Schneider to assoc. adm. for MSF, "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator-Apollo Applications Program," 4, 10, 28 Apr., 8, 16 May, 12, 26 June 25 July, 11 Aug., 22 Sept., 18 Oct., 14, 21, 28 Nov. 1969, 2 Feb. 1970; T. C. Winter, Jr., "ATM Management Review Conference at MSFC on 22 January 1970," 22 Jan. 1970 "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator, Skylab Program," 2 Feb.,13, 23 Mar. 1970.

25. Roy Bland, "Weekly Notes, AA-SVO-3," 18 Aug. 1970.

26. "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary for the Administrator, Skylab Program," 25 May, 29 June, 20 July, plus one undated, 1970; Bland, "Weekly Notes, AA-SVO-3," 20 Oct.1970.

27. Transcript, NASA briefing on FY 1972 budget request, 28 Jan.1971; OMSF, launch schedule ML-20, 13 Apr. 1971; Bland, "Weekly Notes, AA-SVO-3," 26 Jan. 1971.

28. "Weekly Progress and Problem Summary," 14, 27 May, 17, 24 June 1970.

29. MSFC, "Skylab Program, Mid-Term Review, December 2, 1971," p. 163.

30. Belew, "Notes," 7 Aug., 25 Sept. 1972.

 

Chapter 10

 

1. For a discussion of the unexpected value of the Gemini photographs to earth scientists, see Paul D. Lowman, Jr., "The Earth from Orbit," National Geographic Magazine 130 (1966) 645-70 (Nov. 1966); and Richard W. Underwood, "Gemini Earth Photographs " in Grim wood and Hacker, On the Shoulders of Titans, pp. 373-409. Two volumes of Gemini photographs have been published: Earth Photographs from Gemini III, IV, and V, NASA SP-129 (Washington, 1967), and Earth Photographs from Gemini Vl through Xll, NASA SP-171 (Washington, 1968).

2. House Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Earth Resources Satellite System: Report, 90/2, 1968, pp. 11-13; George E. Mueller and Homer E. Newell to Robert R. Gilruth, 20 Sept. 1966; House Subcommittee on Science and Applications, 1969 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 15086, 90/2, pt. 3, pp. 430-43.

3. Robert J. Molloy interview, 18 Aug. 1975, Ralph E. Lapp, "Send Computers, Not Men, into Deep Space after the Moon Landing," New York Times Magazine, 2 Feb. 1969, pp. 32-33.

4. J. Pemble Field, Jr., interview, 10 July 1975; House Subcommittee on Science and Applications, 1969 NASA Authorization, pp. 415-16, 421-22, 426-43, 504, 509-10.

5. R. F. Thompson to C. W. Mathews, "MSC Addendum to MSFC's Payload Integration Contract with Martin," TWX, 15 Jan. 1968; Harold E. Gartrell to mar., Future Missions Proj. Off., "MDA Conference/Earth Looking Sensors Integration," 29 Mar. 1968; Wyndell B. Evans to co-chairman, Mission Requirements Panel, "Earth Resources Working Group " 27 May 1968; Robert O. Piland to mar., AAP Off., "Earth Applications Package for Early AAP Missions," 4 Apr. 1968; Thompson, "Compatibility of the Earth Applications Instrument Package with the Airlock Module Data System," 5 June 1968, Arthur R. White, "Summary of the First Meeting of Earth Resources Working Group," 6 June 1968, idem "Summary of Third Meeting of Earth Resources Working Group," 8 July 1968; idem, "Summary of Meeting on Earth Resources Data Requirements," 8 July 1968.

6. Jacob E. Smart to George E. Mueller, 8 May 1968.

7. T. A. George to Leonard Jaffe, "Review of Proposed AAP Earth Resources Survey Mission," 26 Mar. 1968.

8. National Research Council, Div. of Engineering, Useful Applications of Earth-Oriented Satellites: Summary of Panel Reports, contract NRS 09-112-909 (1967).

9. Gilruth to assoc. adm., OSSA, "Experiment Proposal for a New AAP Earth Applications Multispectral Photographic Facility to Replace Experiment S101," 2 Oct.1969; Schneider to MSC and MSFC, "Earth Resource Package Review," TWX, 14 Oct. 1969; MSF Management Council, "Meeting Highlights," 15 Oct. 1969; John E. Naugle, "Office of Space Science and Applications Earth Observations Program Review," 28 Oct. 1969; Morris Tepper to assoc. adm., OSSA, "Earth Survey Experiments for the First Saturn V Dry Workshop," 19 Nov. 1969.

10. MSFEB, "Minutes," meeting 69-6, 8 Dec. 1969.

11. Ibid., Leland F. Belew and Ernst Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, NASA EP-107, pp. 148-57.

12. Schneider to ctr. AAP mars., "Guidelines for Interim Activities on EREP," TWX, 9 Dec. 1969, Schneider to ex. sec., MSFEB, "AAP Presentation to 69-6 MSFEB, Earth Resources Experiment Package," 1 Dec. 1969; Robert O. Piland to Leonard Jaffe, "AAP Earth Resources Experiment Package," 19 Dec. 1969.

13. Naugle to assoc. adm., OMSF, "Earth Observations Experiments for Saturn I Workshop," 3 Feb.1970; Dale D. Myers to dir., AAP, "Experiment Assignments," 16 Feb. 1970; interim Configuration Control Bd. directive 024, "Addition of Earth Resources Experiment Package to Apollo Applications," 16 Feb. 1970; Myers to assoc. adm., OSSA, "Planning for Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP)," 19 Feb. 1970.

14. Schneider to MSC Skylab mar., "Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package, Reference Procurement Plans for EREP," 2 Mar.1970; Schneider to assoc. adm., OMSF, "Procurement Action for S190 Multispectral Photography Cameras/Lenses," 17 Mar. 1970; Naugle to assoc. adm., OMSF, "Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) for Skylab-A," 4 June 1970, Myers to admin., 23 June 1970.

15. Schneider to ctr. Skylab mars., "Revised Funding for Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP)," 22 June 1970; Myers to admin., "Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) for Skylab-A," 23 June 1970, "Project Approval Document Change," Skylab Program, 27 July 1970, Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Skylab Experiment Funding," 13 July 1970.

16. Schneider to Kleinknecht and Belew, "EREP Costs Review," 14 Dec.1970; John H. Disher, "EREP Costs," note for file,7 Dec.1970; Schneider to MSC and MSFC Skylab mars., "EREP Costs," 11 Mar. 1971, Kleinknecht to Schneider, same subj., 23 Apr. 1971; Thomas L. Fischetti, memos for record, "S-193 Technical Review with SA," 12 May 1971, and "S-193 Review at General Electric," 12 May 1971; Schneider to assoc. adm., OMSF, "EREP Costs," 4 June 1971.

17. Belew and Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, pp. 22-23.

18. Ibid., p. 27.

19. A. R. Morse, "MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount," NASA TM X-64811, pp. 11-17 to 11 - 19.

20. Kleinknecht to Belew, "Skylab A X-IOP/Z-LV Profiles for EREP Operation," 15 July 1970; Belew to Kleinknecht, same subj., 3 Aug. 1970; Belew to Schneider, "Local Vertical Control for Earth Resources Experiments," 3 Aug. 1970.

21. H. E. Whitacre, "Earth Resources Mission Planning," 10 July 1970.

22 Eugene F. Kranz, "Earth Observations," 22 Sept. 1970.

23 "Announcement of Flight Opportunity," memo change 33 to NHB 8030.1A, 22 Dec. 1970; Myers to Gilruth,11 Mar.1971; Kleinknecht and A. J. Calio to dir. of adm. and prog. support, "Selection of EREP Investigators," 14 May 1971.

24. Schneider to ctr. Skylab mars. "Z-LV Study," TWX, 11 June 1971; Belew to Schneider, "Feasibility of Increasing EREP Mission Time," 24 Sept. 1971; Kleinknecht to Schneider, "Operational Impact of Increasing the Number of EREP Passes," 15 Sept. 1971; Charles A. Berry to Kleinknecht, "Impact Study of Increased EREP Passes," 24 Sept. 1971; Calio to Kleinknecht, "Enhancement of EREP Data Taking Opportunities," 1 Oct. 1971; John L. Kaltenbach, "Candidate List of Approved Skylab EREP Proposals," 18 Oct. 1971.

25. Gilruth to Myers, 23 Nov. 1971, O. Glenn Smith to Kleinknecht, "Calio-Smith Presentation of EREP Compatibility Assessment Results to C. W. Mathews, December 7, 1971," 13 Dec. 1971; J.P.Field, Jr., to Schneider,"MSC Management of EREPPI's," 17 Dec.1971, John M. DeNoyer to assoc. adm., OA,"EREP lnvestigations," 4 Jan. 1972, NASA release 72-150 "Skylab Earth Resource Investigators Selected " 3 Aug. 1972.

26. Kleinknecht to Belew, "Controlled, Repeating Orbit for Skylab," 11 Jan. 1972, Belew to Kleinknecht, same subj., 19 Jan. 1972; MSC internal note 72-FM-143, "Skylab Reference Trajectory," 7 June 1972.

27. Schneider to assoc. adm., OA, "Flight Planning for EREP Passes," 31 Aug. 1972, Mathews to JSC, "Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP)," TWX, 8 May 1973.

28. Bill Bollendonck interview, 20 Aug. 1975.

29. Schneider to dep. assoc. adm., OSSA (Applications), "Escalation of EREP Cost Runout," 22 Nov. 1971; Bollendonck interview.

30. Schneider to dep. assoc. adm., OSSA (Applications), "Escalation of EREP Cost Runout," 22 Nov. 1971; Mathews to assoc. adm., OMSF, "Skylab Launch Schedule," 7 Feb. 1972.

31. KSC, "Skylab 1, Post-Launch Report," 8 June 1973, pp. 2-37 to 2-41.

32. Interviews: Ken Timmons, 20 Aug.1975, Henry B. Floyd, 5 Nov.1974, William C. Schneider 22 July 1975.

33. MSFC, "Skylab Student Project Summary Description," Mar. 1973, Floyd interview, Henry B. Floyd, "Introduction to the Session on Skylab Student Science," 20th Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974.

34. Floyd interview.

35. MSFC, "Skylab Student Project Summary Description."

36. Ibid.; Floyd interview; Lee Summerlin, "The Skylab Student Project: A Science Educator's Appraisal," and Jeanne Leventhal, "The Skylab Student Science Program from a Student Investigator's Point of View," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974.

 

Chapter 11

 

1. L. F. Belew to W. C. Schneider, "In-House vs. Contractor Furnished Items Associated with the Saturn V Dry Workshop," 26 Sept. 1969; Harry H. Gorman to George Mueller, "AAP Make or Buy Items," TWX 31 Oct. 1969.

2. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1971 NASA Authorization 91/2, 1. 364-65 ; John H. Disher interview, 16 July 1975; Caleb B. Hurtt interview, 19 Aug. 1975.

3. Hurtt interview.

4. MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Program Engineering and Integration," NASA TM X-64808, pp. III-1 to III-10.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., p. III-38.

8. MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Airlock Module," NASA TM X-64810, vol. 2, pp. 2.1-3 to 2.1-10,

9. MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter," NASA TM X-64812, pp. 2-1 to 2-17,

10. MSFC, "Skylab Program Engineering," pp. III-10 to 111-20; MSFC, "Skylab Airlock," vol. 2, app. J, pp. 38-41.

11. Ronald E. Jewell, "Skylab Vibroacoustic Test Program," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper

12. Ibid.; Wade Dorland interview, 19 Aug. 1976, MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount," NASA TM X-64811, pp. 6-36 to 6-37.

13. MSFC, "Skylab Airlock," vol. 2, pp. 2.13-1 to 2.13-25; MSFC, "Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter," vol. 1, pp. 2-101 to 2-108.

14. MSFC Skylab Prog. Off., "Mid-Term Review Report, IVB, Technical Content," 22 Dec 1971.

15. Belew, "Notes," 10 Oct. 1972.

16. Harry Mannheimer to dir., Skylab Prog., 15 July 1971.

17. Belew, "Orbital Workshop Task Team," 11 Aug.1971; MSFC charter 88-1, "Orbital Workshop Task Team" [Aug. 1971]; William K. Simmons, Jr., interview, 30 Oct. 1974; Walter Burke interview, 27 Aug. 1975; Fred Sanders interview, 28 Aug. 1975.

18. Simmons to Belew, "Program Report," 20 Aug. 1971; Richard H. Truly interview, 4 Sept. 1975.

19 Simmons to Belew, "Program Report," 20 Aug. 1971; Burke, Simmons interviews.

20 Simmons to Belew, "Orbital Workshop (OWS) Task Team Progress Reports," 30 Aug.- 16 Dec. 1971, Richard Truly to Alan Bean, "OWS Tigertale #27," 24 Mar. 1972.

21. Eberhard Rees to Walter Burke, 14 Oct. 1971; Simmons, "Skylab Mid-Term Review, Workshop Project Problem Summary," and "Skylab Mid-Term Review, Workshop Project Schedule Status" [Dec. 1971].

22. Simmons to Belew, "OWS Task Team Progress Reports," weekly, 2 Mar.-2 June 1972; "OWS Status," weekly reports, 16 Mar.-2 June 1972.

23. Simmons to Belew, "OWS Task Team Progress Report," 10 Aug. 1972; O. S. Tyson, "Completion of All Systems Test for OWS-1," flash report, 10 Aug.1972; Simmons to Belew, "OWS Task Team Progress Reports," 18, 25, 31 Aug. 1972; MSFC Skylab Prog. Off., "Weekly Activity Report to Headquarters," 12 Sept. 1972.

24. William A. Fleming, "Decisions, Action Items, and Open Issues Resulting from October 18 Meeting with Dr. Low on Orbital Debris," memo for record, 26 Oct. 1972.

25. Dale D. Myers to admin., "Skylab Program, Deorbit of S-IVB," 28 Nov. 1972.

26. William A. Fleming, "Orbital Debris Overview," briefing documents, 30 Nov.1972; William C. Schneider to MSFC and MSC Skylab prog. mars., TWX, 20 Dec. 1972.

27. M. L. Raines (dir., Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance, MSC) to mar., Skylab prog. (MSC), "Deorbiting the SWS with the SL-4 CSM/SPS," 15 Feb. 1973.

28. Schneider to MSFC and MSC Skylab prog. mars., "OWS Deorbit," TWX, 30 Mar. 1973; L. F. Belew to Schneider "Saturn Workshop Deorbit " 5 Apr. 1973; Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "SWS Deorbit Telecon," 17 Apr.1973; F. C. Littleton (MSC), "Skylab OWS Deorbit Mission Techniques Review," 18,26 Apr., 14 May 1973; Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "SWS Deorbit," 13 July 1973.

 

Chapter 12

 

1. Jones W. Roach and Eugene F. Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions," presented to the American Astronautical Society 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 2022 Aug. 1974, p. 2.

2. Belew, "Weekly Notes," 24 Oct. 1966, and Speer, 27 Mar. 1967.

3. Speer, "Weekly Notes," 12 June, 10 July, 27 Nov. 1967, 9 Dec. 1968.

4. Thompson to Belew, "MSC's Engineering Requirements for Mission Operations," 25 Feb. 1969.

5. Speer, "Weekly Notes," 30 June 1969; Reinartz, "AAP Flight Operations Presentation Outline," 14 Apr. 1969.

6. Schneider to Mueller, "Weekly Progress Report-AAP," 1 Oct. 1969.

7. Eugene Kranz interview, 19 Aug. 1976; Roach and Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions," pp. 18- 19.

8. Kranz to Lynwood Dunseith, chief, Flight Support Div., "Operations/Facility Concepts for Apollo Applications Program (AAP)," 19 Aug. 1969, pp. 1-3; JSC, "Minutes of the 28th Skylab Flight Operations Plan (FOP) Meeting," 16 July 1970; Kranz interview, 19 Aug. 1976.

9. Kranz, "Advanced Planning Tasks," 20 Nov. 1969; "Advanced Planning Issues #3-AAP, Subj: 'Key Mission Issues,"' in Eugene Kranz's papers.

10. Kranz interview, 19 Aug. 1976; Roach and Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions," pp. 1-2.

11. Leland F Belew and Ernst Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, NASA EP-107, n.d., pp.99-101.

12. Kranz interview, 19 Aug. 1976; Roach and Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions, " pp. 10- 11.

13. W. M. Anderson and T. W. Holloway, "Skylab Flight Plan Development," pp. 3-4, Thomas Holloway interview, 8 July 1977.

14. H. F. Kurtz, Jr., W. G. Clarke, and M. Naumcheff, "MSFC Engineering Support to Skylab Operations: Support Summary," NASA TMX-64845, June 1974, pp. 7-11.

15. NASA, Skylab News Reference, Mar. 1973, pp. VI-9 through VI-14.

16. Ibid., p. VI-8.

17. "Minutes of MSFC Center Staff & Board Meeting," 10 Nov. 1969.

18. Transcription of notes made by Homer Newell at meeting with scientist-astronauts, Houston 12 Jan. 1971; Homer Newell interview, 2 Mar. 1976.

19. Transcription of notes by Newell, 12 Jan. 1971.

20. Gilruth to Myers, 29 June 1971.

21. Myers to Low, "Astronaut Selection for Skylab," 6 July 1971; Newell to Fletcher, "Recommendations Stemming from Associate Administrator's Discussions with Scientist Astronauts," 21 July 1971.

22. House Committee on Science and Technology, 94/1, Astronauts and Cosmonauts: Biographical and Statistical Data, June 1975, passim.

23. Schneider, "Skylab Lessons Learned as Applicable to a Large Space Station," NASA TMX 73073, editorial draft, Jan. 1976, pp. 29-30.

24. Tousey to Robert Thompson, 4 Feb. 1970.

25. Schneider to Myers, "Skylab Weekly Progress Report," 15 June 1970.

26. Schneider to Myers, "Skylab Weekly Progress Report," 26 Oct. 1970; Tousey to Slayton 26 Oct. 1970; Slayton, "Solar Physics Course Description and Schedule," 9 Oct. 1970.

27. Jerry Carr interview, 5 Aug. 1975.

28. Robert Kohler, "Skylab Mission Training Program: Mission 2, 3, and 4," June 1971 pp. 1-23; William Stocking interview, 19 Aug. 1975.

29. Kohler, "Skylab Mission Training Program," pp. 5-13.

30. John Von Bockel, "Skylab Flight Crew Training Experience Report," n.d., pp. 3-4.

31. Ibid., pp. 5-6; Kohler, "Skylab Mission Training Program," pp. 19-20

32. NASA, Skylab News Reference, Mar. 1973, pp. VI1-3, VII-4; JSC, "Skylab Crew Press Conference; Session 1," 19 Jan. 1972, pp. 3-4.

33. Brzezinski, "Crew Training Summaries," NASA, Skylab News Reference, p. VII-1; JSC, "Skylab Crew Press Conference: Session 1," 19 Jan. 1972, pp. 3-4; Von Bockel, "Skylab Flight Crew Training," pp. 4-5.

34. Anderson and Holloway, "Skylab Flight Plan Development," pp. 13-15

35. Von Bockel, "Skylab Flight Crew Training," p. 7.

36. John Von Bockel interview, 8 July 1977; Roach and Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions," p. 4.

 

Chapter 13

 

1. Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty, Moonport: A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations, NASA SP-4204 (Washington, 1978), chaps. 10, 17.

2. Mueller to von Braun, 13 Aug. 1968; Mueller to Debus, 14 Aug. 1968 KSC, "Apollo Applications Program: Concept for Maintenance of Saturn IB Capability," presented to Hq. Apollo Applications Off., Oct. 1968; weekly report, AAP Off. to assoc. adm. for OMSF, 13 Sept. 1968; Morgan to Dir. of Executive Staff, 3 Feb. 1969; von Braun to Mueller, 2 Oct. 1968.

3. Benson and Faherty, Moonport, pp. 21-28, 196-203.

4. OMSF, AAP launch and delivery schedules, ML-13A, 5 Mar., ML-14A, 4 June 1968 interview with Robert Hock, 9 Nov. 1976; Chrysler Corp. Space Div., "Study Report Launch of Saturn IB/CSM from Launch Complex 39," CCSD-TR-FO-800-8, 15 Apr. 1970. p. v Benson and Faherty, Moonport, pp. 271-94.

5. Benson and Faherty, Moonport, pp. 264, 279-84.

6. James D. Phillips to R. H. Curtin,26 Jan.1972; Boeing Co., "Utilization of Launch Complex 39 to Launch Saturn IB/CSM," 14 Feb. 1969, pp. 48-69, 234-37, idem, "Utilization of Launch Complex 39 . . ., Executive Summary Report," 7 May 1969; KSC Skylab Prog. Off., "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39," presented to KSC Management Council 23 Apr. 1970, p. 3.

7. Morgan to Roy Godfrey, "Utilization of Launch Complex 39 for AAP," 27 Feb.1970; Morgan to Kleinknecht, same subj., 13 Mar. 1970; Morgan to KSC directorates, "AAP Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39," 27 Feb. 1970; Williams to Morgan, same subj., 10 Apr. 1970.

8. Kapryan to Morgan, "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39," 10 Apr. 1970; Clark to Morgan, same subj., 14 Apr. 1970.

9. Godfrey to Morgan, "Utilization of Launch Complex 39 for Skylab/Saturn IB Launches," 15 Apr. 1970.

10. Kleinknecht to Morgan, 4 Apr. 1970.

11. KSC Skylab Off., "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39," 23 Apr. 1970; T. F. Goldcamp, memo for record, 31 Mar. 1970; Goldcamp, "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39: Minutes of Meeting Held at KSC on 23 Apr. 1970," memo for record, 19 May 1970.

12. Godfrey to Morgan, "Utilization of Launch Complex 39 for Skylab/Saturn IB Launches," 27 Apr. 1970.

13. Goldcamp, "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39: Minutes of Executive Meeting of 27 Apr. 1970," memo for record, 19 May 1970.

14. Schneider to Myers, "Skylab Program Office Weekly Report," 8 May 1970; KSC Skylab Off., "Weekly Progress Report," 13 May 1970; Low to Myers, 14 May 1970; Low to Anderson, 15 May 1970, Schneider to Morgan, "Safety Aspects of Launch of Saturn IBs from Launch Complex 39," 19 June 1970; Morgan to Schneider, same subj., 9 Sept. 1970.

15. Schneider to Myers, "Unmanned Saturn IB Mission," 3 Dec. 1970; OMSF, "Minutes of Skylab Managers Meeting, 9-10 Nov. 1970"; Rees to Myers, 1 Dec. 1970.

16. James D. Phillips, "Skylab Facilities Modifications at KSC," pp. 7-9.

17. H D Lowrey, pres., Chrysler Corp., to Morgan, "LC-39 Saturn IB Launch Pedestal Tower," 16 June 1970, Morgan to Lowrey, same subj., 25 June 1970; Buchanan to Morgan, "Chrysler Proposal for LC-39 Saturn IB Launch Pedestal-Tower," 18 June 1970; Phillips to Curtin, "Saturn IB Pedestal," 28 June 1972.

18. Phillips to Curtin, "Saturn IB Pedestal"; interviews with George Walter t 9 Nov. 1976, with Walter and William Tolson 12 Jan. 1977.

19. KSC dir. of admin. to SBA center rep., "Approval of Contracting Officer Action for Recommended Set-Aside," 25 Nov. 1970; KSC, "Skylab Weekly Progress Report," 9 Dec. 1970; R. B. Krause to Morgan, "LUT Pedestal Contract," 22 Dec. 1970; Krause, "Weekly Notes," 29 Dec. 1970, 26 Jan., 2 Feb., 20 Apr., 4 May 1971; William Lohse interview, 10 Nov. 1976.

20. Robert Hock interview, 9 Nov. 1976; KSC AAP Off., "Status Report," 5 Dec. 1969; OMSF, "Highlights from Manned Space Flight Management Council," 5 Dec. 1969.

21. Interviews with Robert Raffaelli and Willard Halcomb 10 Nov. 1976; with Charles Mars 12 Jan.1977, telephone interview with George Page 16 Dec.1976; John Leeds, Jr., "Minutes of the Sept. 23, 1970 KSC Apollo-Skylab Program Review."

22. Morgan to Belew, "SL-1 Launch Pad Dwell Time," 23 July 1970; Leeds, "Minutes of the Dec. 1, 1970, KSC Apollo-Skylab Program Review"; telephone interview with George Page 16 Dec. 1976.

23. Robert Moser, "Skylab Checkout and Launch Operations at KSC," pp.1-3; KSC, "Skylab 1 & 2 Processing Study," 25 Aug. 1971.

24. Moser, "Skylab Checkout," pp. 4-6; MSFC, Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-SA-206, Skylab 2, MPR-SAT-FE-73-3, 23 July 1973.

25. Phillips, "Skylab Facilities Modifications," pp. 7, 12; KSC, "Launch Pad Access, Orbital Workshop," presentation materials, 12 Nov. 1970; KSC, AAP Off., "Status Report," 5 Dec. 1969, OMSF, "Highlights from MSF Management Council," 5 Dec. 1969.

26. Interviews with Brad Downs and Enice Hubble 5 Jan. 1977, with William Mahoney 5 Jan. 1977, Leeds, "Minutes of Dec. 1, 1970 KSC Apollo-Skylab Program Review"; Phillips, "Skylab Facility Modifications," p. 4; Kapryan to Morgan, "Environmental Enclosure on Service Arm #8," 14 May 1971; Markey to Halcomb, "Service Arm #8 Modifications," 9 June 1971.

27. T. F. Goldcamp, "Skylab Saturn IB/CSM Launches from LC-39, Minutes of 23 Apr. 1970 presentation," memo for record, 19 May 1970.

28. Phillips, "Skylab Facilities Modifications," p. 14.

29. Kapryan to Morgan, "Skylab Launch Vehicle Access," 14 Oct.1970; P. J. Markey, "External Vehicle Access Requirements for SL- 1," memo for record, 2 Nov. 1970, R. B. Krause to Hock "Modifications of MSS Platform #1 for SL-3 and SL-4," briefing note, 29 Dec. 1970.

30. Phillips, "Skylab Facilities Modifications at KSC," pp. 10, 13-14, 17.

31. Ibid., pp. 3-6; KSC, "Clean Room under Construction for Skylab," n.d., in program office notes; KSC, Spaceport News, "2 Skylab Clean Rooms under Construction Here," 30 Dec. 1971; Roy McGowan interview, 25 Jan. 1977.

32. KSC, "DTS 4-Week Composite Schedule," Dec. 1971; Robert Krause, "Weekly Notes," 1971; KSC, Spaceport News, "Skylab Pedestal Work Completion Set in August," 1 July 1971.

33. KSC, "DTS 4-Week Composite Schedule," 1971; Krause "Weekly Notes," 1971, KSC Spaceport News, "2 Skylab Clean Rooms under Construction Here," 30 Dec. 1971.

34. Reed Barnett, "Skylab Experiments Processing at KSC," p. 6, KSC prog. dir. 8030.1/AA "KSC Policy for the Implementation of Skylab Experiments Requirements," 20 Mar. 1972 pp. A-3-A-5, A-7, A-8, att. C-E.

35. Barnett, "Skylab Experiments," pp. 6-7.

36. KPD 8030.1/AA, "KSC Implementation of Skylab Experiments," pp. A-8, A-9.

37. Ibid., p. A-6; Barnett, "Skylab Experiments," p. 5; Ed Johnson interview, 14 Jan. 1977.

38. Interviews with Robert Raffaelli 29 Dec. 1970 and with Charles Mars 12 Jan. 1977.

39. Roy Bland, "Notes on ATPOP Meeting, Dec. 14-15, 1970," in SVO reading file 1970, KSC Archives.

40. Bland, "Notes on ATPOP Meeting"; Bland, "Background Material for the ATM Pre-Flight Operations Procedures," memo for record, 31 Dec. 1970, in SV0-3 reading file 1970.

41. Interviews with Raffaelli and Halcomb 10 Nov. 1976 and with Mars 12 Jan. 1977.

42. KSC Launch Ops. Dir., "Minutes of the Launch Operations Committee, Apollo/Skylab," 3 Aug. 1972; R. E. Moser, "Skylab Checkout and Launch Operations at KSC," p. 5; KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," 20, 31 July 1972, MSFC, "Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-SA-206, Skylab 2. "

43. KSC Launch Ops. Dir., "Minutes of Launch Operations Committee," 21 Sept. 1972; KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," 26 July-4 Aug. 1972, Moser, "Skylab Checkout," pp. 2-3, 5 Leland F. Belew and Ernst Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, NASA EP-107, n.d., pp.55-57

44. NASA, NASA Investigation Board Report on the Initial Flight Anomalies of Skylab 1, on May 14, 1973, 13 July 1973, pp. 4-1-4-3, Barnett, "Skylab Experiments Processing," p. 9 KSC, "DTS 4-Week Composite Schedule," 2 Oct. 1972.

45. NASA, NASA Investigation Board Report, pp. 5-7-5-12; telephone interview with John Heard, 26 Jan. 1977.

46. KSC Launch Ops. Dir., "Minutes of the Launch Operations Committee, Apollo/Skylab," 26 Oct. 1972.

47. KSC, "DTS 4-Week Composite Schedule," Oct.-Dec. 1972; Barnett, "Skylab Experiments Processing," p. 9; Moser, "Skylab Checkout," pp. 2-6.

48. KSC, "DTS 4-Week Composite Schedule," Oct. 1972-Jan. 1973; KSC, "Minutes of the Launch Operations Committee " 26 Oct. 1972, 18 Jan. 1973.

49. Ken Timmons interview, 20 Aug. 1975.

50. Robert Johnson to KSC chief of Engineering Div., "Experiment Integration Problems Encountered in Past Programs," 14 Aug. 1975.

51. Schneider to ctr. prog. mars., "Launch Complex 39 Delta DCR and Integrated SWS and Launch Vehicle GSE/ESE DCR-Action Items," 30 Jan. 1973 Schneider, "Skylab Launch Complex 39 and MSFC Integrated SWS GSE/ESE Design Certification Reviews-Agenda," 17 Jan.1973; Schneider to Myers, "Background Summary Information for KSC LC-39 DCR and MSFC Integrated GSE/ESE DCR," 15 Jan. 1973, Myers to Fletcher, "Skylab Design Certification Reviews," 12 Feb. 1973.

52. KSC, Launch Ops. Dir., "Skylab Daily Status Report," 2-31 Jan. 1973; Schneider to prog. Offs., "Skylab Planning," 22 Jan. 1973; Myers to Fletcher, "Rescheduling of Skylab I Workshop Launch," 24 Jan. 1973; Space Business Daily, 22 Jan. 1973.

53. KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," Feb.-Mar. 1973; KSC, Spaceport News, 22 Feb., 8, 22 Mar. 1973; NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1973, p. 104.

54. KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," 1-17 Apr. 1973; Moser, "Skylab Checkout," p. 4.

55. KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," 17 Apr.-3 May 1973; Moser, "Skylab Checkout," pp. 4, 7-10; KSC, Spaceport News, 19 Apr., 3 May 1973.

56. KSC, "Skylab Daily Status Report," 3-16 May 1973; Moser, "Skylab Checkout," p. 10.

 

Chapter 14

 

1. NASA, NASA Investigation Board Report on the Initial Flight Anomalies of Skylab 1 on May 14, 1973 table 11-4, OMSF, Skylab Mission Operation Report, M-960-73, pp. 8-11; MSFC, "A Narrative Account of the Role Played by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in the Skylab 1 & 2 Emergency Operations, May 14-June 22,1973," 24 June 1973, p. 3; John Noble Wilford, "Space Station in Orbit, but Malfunction Perils Astronaut Launch Today," New York Times, 15 May 1973, p. 1; Thomas O'Toole, "Skylab Crew Launch Put Off by Power Loss," Washington Post, 15 May 1973, p. 1; William Schneider and William Green, Jr., "Saving Skylab," Technology Review, Jan. 1974, pp. 43-45.

2. Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p.45; O'Toole, "Skylab Crew Launch," p.1; Wilford, "Space Station in Orbit," p. 1; Skylab-I Postlaunch Briefing, 5/14/73 CST 13:45, p. 3A/3; Skylab Press Conference, 5/14/73 CDT 21:30, p. 5D/1.

3. Leland F. Belew and Ernst Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, NASA EP-107, n.d., pp.107-11; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p. 45; NASA, Skylab: News Reference, pp. 11-4011-44; MSFC, MSFC Skylab Electrical Power Systems Mission Evaluation, NASA TM X64818, June 1974, p. 177.

4. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 6-8; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p. 45; NASA, NASA Investigation Board Report, p. 4-3; Belew and Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, pp.63, 98-99.

5. Skylab I press conference, 15 May 1973, CST 8:20 a.m., p. 6A/3; MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 4-9; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Skylab Status Reviews-May 14/15, 1973."

6. Skylab press conferences, 5/14/73, CDT 21:10, p. 5B/2, p. 5D/1; 15 May 1973, CDT 8:20 a.m., p. 6B/2.

7. Skylab Ops. Dir., "Skylab Status Reviews-14/15 May 1973"; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p. 45.

8. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 2, 16, 33-37, 45-47; James Splawn interview, June 1973.

9. MSFC, MSFC Skylab Operations Support Summary, NASA TM X-64845, June 1974, pp. 4-5, 8, 17-20; H. F. Kurtz, Jr., W. G. Clarke, and M. Maumcheff, "MFSC Engineering Support to Skylab Operations," pp. 5-12; Milton Clarke interview, 16 Apr. 1976.

10. JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work Items or 11 Days in May," May 1973, on microfiche in Flight Ops. Off.

11. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 31-35, 88-91; Jones Roach and Eugene Kranz, "Management and Control of Skylab Missions," p. 16.

12. Skylab status briefing, 15 May 1973, 14:10 CST, pp. 7A/2-7B/1; John N. Wilford, "Skylab Short of Power, Overheating, Further Delay for Astronauts Feared," New York Times, 16 May 1973,p.1; JSC Flight Director's Log, Maroon handover, day 135(15 May l973);JSC Guidance Sec. Log, days 136-138; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Minutes to Skylab Telecon Status Meeting-18 May 1973", JSC change of shift briefings, 16 May, 8:20p.m. CDT, p.llA/1; 18 May, 9:00 a.m. CDT, p. 14A/1; 21 May 1973, 4:30 p.m. CDT, p. 19A/2.

13. W. B. Chubb et al., "Flight Performance of Skylab Attitude and Pointing Control System," AIAA paper 74-900, pp. 4-8, MSFC, MSFC Skylab Attitude and Pointing Control System Mission Evaluation, NASA TM X-64817, pp.41-52; Belew and Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, pp. 91-93; Skylab press conference, 14 May 1973, 21:10 CST, p. SB/2.

14. MSFC, MSFC Skylab Attitude, p. 52, NASA, Skylab News Reference, p. 11-61; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Skylab Planning Meeting-17 May 1973"; idem, "Minutes to Skylab Telecon Status Meeting-18 May 1973"; JSC, "Guidance and Navigation Console Logbook-Skylab 1/2 TACS Usage."

15. JSC change of shift briefings, 18 May, 5:20 p.m. CDT, p. 15A/1; 20 May, 5:00 p.m. CDT, pp. 17A/2-17B/1; 21 May, 9:15 a.m. CDT, p. 18A/1; 21 May, 4:30 p.m., CDT, passim; 22 May, 5:22 p.m. CDT, p. 21A/1; 23 May 1973, 5:09 p.m. CDT, p. 23A/1; JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work," n. 22.

16. MSFC, MSFC Skylab Electrical Power, pp. 175-79; JSC change of shift briefing, 24 May 1973, 5:24 p.m. CDT, p. 25E/2; JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work."

17. MSFC, Skylab 1 status report, 16 May l973,4:20 p.m. CDT, pp.1OB/1, 1OD/3; JSC change of shift briefing, 22 May 1973, 5:22 p.m. CDT, pp. 21C/2-21E/I; JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work."

18. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 13-14; MSFC, Skylab 1 status report, 16 May 1973, 4:20 p.m. CDT, p. 10B/I; JSC change of shift briefing, 23 May 1973, 5:09 p.m. CDT, p. 23A/I.

19. Skylab Ops. dir., "Skylab status reviews-14/15 May 1973"; JSC change of shift briefing, 15 May 1973, 8:50 p.m. CDT, p. 8A.

20. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 24-28, 73-76; JSC change of shift briefing, 19 May 1973, 9:45 a.m. CDT, pp. 16A-1, 16A-2.

21. Interviews with Dale Myers 28 June and Bob Schwinghamer 12 June 1973; JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work."

22. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 49-54; Maxime Faget interview, June 1973; Caldwell Johnson and William W. Petynia interview, June 1973.

23. JSC Flight Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work," n. 2.

24. Johnson and Petynia interview; Skylab status briefing, 17 May 1973, 12:30 p.m. CDT, p. 13A/2.

25. Johnson and Petynia interview; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Minutes of Skylab Program Planning Meeting-16 May 1973."

26. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 53-54, 57; Russell Schweickart interview, 8 July 1975.

27. MSFC, "Narrative Account," p. 54, Schweickart interview.

28. Jack Kinzler interview, June 1973.

29. Ibid.

30. Johnson and Petynia interview; Dir., Skylab Ops., "Minutes of Skylab Status Telecon Meeting-19 and 21 May 1973," memo for record; JSC Flt. Control Div., "Skylab Flight Work. "

31. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 49-70, Schweickart interview.

32. Kinzler interview.

33. Kinzler interview; Donald Arabian interview, June 1973.

34. Robert Schwinghamer interview, June 1973, for the quotation; Aleck Bond interview, June 1973; George Low, "The Effect of UV Radiation on Nylon," memo for record, 29 May 1973; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Minutes of Skylab Status Telecon Meeting-19 May 1973"; Stephen Jacobs and Thomas J. Ballentine, Skylab Parasol Material Evaluation, NASA TM X-58161, Apr. 1975; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p. 48.

35. Schwinghamer interview; Skylab Ops. Dir., "Minutes of Skylab Telecon Status Meeting- 19 May 1973", idem, "Minutes of Skylab Telecon Status Meeting-22 May 1973"; Low, "Effect of UV."

36. Schneider, "Skylab Design Certification Review of New or Changed Equipment and Procedures for Revised SL-I/SL-2 Mission," 20 June 1973.

37. Interviews with Aleck Bond, Donald Arabian, Caldwell Johnson and William Petynia, and Gordon Harris, all June 1973; NASA, "Minutes of SL-2 Launch-I Day Meeting," 24 May 1973, 10:00 a.m.; SL-2 prelaunch press conference, 24 May 1973, 1:00 p.m. CDT, p. IA/2 NASA, "Minutes of Management Council Meeting to Select Heat Shield," 24 May 1973, 4:00 p.m., KSC; Low, "Effect of UV."

38. Arabian and Kinzler interviews; SL-II status briefing, 25 May 1973, 9:00 a.m. CDT, p. 2-1.

39. Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p.48; SL-2 prelaunch press conference, 24 May 1973, 1:00 p.m. CDT, p. IA/I.

40. MSFC, "Narrative Account," pp. 70-73.

41. Ibid., James Splawn interview, June 1973; Schneider, "Skylab Design Certification Review."

42. "SL-II Status Briefing," 25 May 1973, 9:00 a.m. CDT, pp. 2-1-2-2.

43. "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary Transcript," 25 May 1973, pp. 38/2-41/3.

44. Ibid., pp. 43/1-49/5; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," pp. 49-50.

45. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 25 May 1973, pp. 50/1-55/4; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," pp. 49-50; Charles Conrad interview, 18 Aug. 1975.

46. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 25 May 1973, pp. 55/4-60/1; NASA, "SL-II Post Docking Press Conference," 25 May 1973, 11:38 p.m. CDT, pp. PC 3B/I, PC-s C/l.

47. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 26 May 1973, pp. 80/1-112/1; NASA, "SL-II Post-Docking Press Conference," 25 May 1973, 11:38 p.m. CDT, pp. 1-2.

48. "Change of Shift Briefings," 27 May, 9:50 p.m. CDT, pp. SB/I-SB/3; 28 May, 6:47 p.m. CDT,pp.6E/1-6F/1;29Mayl973,.8:01p.m.CDT,pp.7A/1-7B/2;JoeKerwininterview, 8 Aug. 1975.

49. "Change of Shift Briefing," 30 May 1973, 10:07 p.m. CDT, pp. 10A/I-IOC/I; Schneider, "Management Council Telecon, 31 May 1973."

50. David C. Schultz, Robert R. Kain, and R. Scott Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular Activity," American Astronautical Society 74-120, presented at 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug.1974, Schweickart interview. Skylab officials reviewed the procedure for newsmen at several briefings between 4 and 6 June. In particular see JSC medical briefing, 6 June 1973, 2:34 p.m. CDT, which included a detailed description by Schweickart.

51. George Low, "Decision to Deploy Skylab Solar Wing," memo for record, 11 June 1973; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," p. 51.

52. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 4 June, pp. 535/2-536/2; 5 June, pp. 569/1- 572/2; 6 June 1973, pp. 592/1-599/1; Conrad interview; Kerwin interview.

53. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 7 June 1973, pp. 638/3-644/l; "Post EVA Briefing," 7 June 1973, 3:38 p.m. CDT, pp. 32 B/2-32D/2; Kerwin interview; Conrad interview.

54. "Mission Commentary Transcript," 7 June 1973, p. 652/1; MSFC, MSFC Skylab Electrical Power, pp. 217-19, Conrad and Kerwin interviews.

55. Myers to Debus, "Skylab 1 Investigation Board," 31 May 1973; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Skylab I Investigation Report, hearings before the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, 93/1, pp. 2-23; Richard D. Lyons, "Congressional Inquiry on Skylab Asked," New York Times, 16 May 1973, p. 42; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Skylab-Part 2, hearing, 93/1, 30 July 1973, p. 1.

56. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Skylab 1 Investigation, p. 52; John Disher interview, 16 July 1975.

57. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Skylab 1 Investigation, pp. 5-9, 19-21; Richard Smith interview, June 1973.

58. NASA, Investigation Board Report, pp. viii-ix, 10-1 through 10-4.

59. Ibid., p. ix; Schneider and Green, "Saving Skylab," pp. 52-53.

 

Chapter 15

 

1. Paine to ctr. and prog. dirs., 13 Mar. 1969; Chris Kraft interview, 25 Feb. 1977.

2. Kraft to Myers, "Skylab Program Private Communications Plan Dated January 1973," 9 Feb. 1973.

3. OMSF, "Skylab Program Private Communications Policy," attached to memo from Donnelly to Fletcher, 2 Mar. 1973; Eugene Kranz interview, 19 Aug. 1976.

4. Donnelly to Fletcher, "Air to Ground Communications," 29 Jan. 1973.

5. George Low, "Meeting on Private Conversations," memo for record, 2 Mar. 1973; Fletcher to Myers and Donnelly, "Private Communications for Skylab," 29 Mar., superseded by memo of same author and title, 3 May 1973.

6. Skylab 2 air-to-ground tapes, 219/2, 22:21 CDT, 5/28/73; Schneider, "Private Operational Communications," memo for record, 20 June 1973; Pete Conrad interview, 18 Aug. 1975.

7. "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary Transcript," p.239/1,10:23 a.m. CDT, 5/29/73; Schneider, "Private Operational Communications," memo for record, 20 June 1973; Myer to Donnelly, "Release of Voice Data Dump," with attached memo, "Release by Donnelly at JSC, Advisory to Editors," 29 May 1973.

8. Schneider, "Air-to-Ground Recorded Tapes," memo for record, 7 June 1973; Donnelly, "Release of Raw Medical Data, Channel B Transcript," attached to Myers memo, "Release of Voice Data Dump," 30 May 1973.

9. NASA release 73-110, "Fletcher Statement on Skylab Private Communications," 31 May 1973; Low to Myers, "Private Conversations for Skylab," 5 July 1973.

10. Donnelly to Fletcher, "Private Conversations and All That Stuff," 29 July 1973. Negotiation of public information plans with the Soviets is discussed in Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209 (Washington, 1978), pp. 234-44.

11. Low to Myers, "Private Conversations for Skylab," 5 July 1973; Jerry Carr interview, 5 Aug.1975.

12 . Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire, p 148; interviews with Dr. Charles Berry 10 Apr. 1975 and with Dr. Joe Kerwin 8 Aug. 1975.

13. Kerwin interview; J. A. Rummel et al., "Exercise and Long Duration Spaceflight through 84 Days," Journal of American Medical Women's Association 30 (Apr. 1975): 173; "Skylab 2 Medical Experiments Status Briefing," 6 June 1973, 11:00 a.m. CDT, pp. 29-BI, 29-B2.

14. John A. Rummel et al., "Physiological Response to Exercise after Space Flight-Apollo 14 through Apollo 17," Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1975, pp. G79-83; idem, "Exercise and Long Duration Spaceflight," and E. L. Michel et al., "Results of Skylab Medical Experiment M 171-Metabolic Activity," both in The Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, NASA TMX-58154 Nov. 1974.

15. "Change of Shift Briefing," 6:47 p.m. CDT, 28 May 1973, pp.6B/1-6C/2; "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary," pp. 190/1-190/2, 214/3, 239/1 244/3, "Skylab 1/2 Onboard Voice Transcription," pp. 188, 234-35; JSC Skylab Mission Report, First Visit, JSC-08414, pp. 4-11, 4-12. During the change-of-shift briefing the doctor indicated that Weitz had completed the full exercise on 28 May, a statement contradicted by the air-to-ground testimony of Kerwin and the postmission results. Researchers should verify information in the news briefings since the participants were dealing with a fast-changing situation and sometimes had incomplete information.

16. "Skylab 1/2 Onboard Voice Transcription," p. 235.

17. JSC, Skylab Mission Report, First Visit, pp. 4-11, 4-12, "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary," 4 June 1973, p. 526/1.

18. "Skylab 2 Medical Briefing," 5 June 1973, 3:07 p.m. CDT pp. 26A/1 through 26H/2, E. L. Michel, J. A. Rummel, and C. F. Sawin, "Skylab Experiment M-171 'Metabolic Activity'-Results of the First Manned Mission," Acta Astronautica 2: 356-57, interviews with Charles Conrad 18 Aug., with Joe Kerwin 8 Aug. 1975; "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary," p. 550/1.

19. "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary," pp. 550/1,558/1, 558/2; Conrad interview; Kerwin interview; Thomas O'Toole, "Astronaut Heartbeat Stirs Flap," The Washington Post, 6 June 1973, p. 6A.

20. "JSC Change of Shift Briefing," 5 June 1973, 7:08 p.m. CDT, p. 27D/I; "SL-II Postflight Review-Crew Health," 28 June 1973 4:47p.m. CDT, pp.80C/2,80C/3, Conrad interview.

21. JSC, Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing, 30 June 1973, pp. 7-1, 7-2, 14-27, "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 29 May 1973, 8:01 p.m. CDT, pp. 7A-2, 7C-2; "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 31 May 1973, 7:42 p.m. CDT, p. 12B/2; "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," I June 1973, 9:00 a.m. CDT, p. 13-A/2; "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary Transcript," I June 1973, p. 396/1.

22. "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary," 31 May 1973; pp. 337/1, 361/1, 361/2; "JSC Change of Shift Briefing," 9:00 a.m. CDT, I June 1973, p. 13-A/2.

23. "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 30 May 1973, 10:17 p.m. CDT, p. 10K-I; "Skylab 2 Mission Commentary Transcript," I June 1973, p. 395/1.

24. Kerwin interview; Paul Weitz interview 19 Aug. 1975, "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 8 June 1973, 6:51 p.m. CDT, p. 36A-I.

25. Interviews with John Disher 16 July, Dr. Robert Parker 20 Oct., Dr. Karl Henize 24 Sept. 1975; John Sevier and Robert Parker, "Experiment Planning during the Skylab Missions," presented to the American Astronautical Society 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles 20-22 Aug. 1974, p. 10.

26. "Skylab 2 Science Status Briefing," 8 June 1973, 4:24 p.m. CDT, pp. 35B/1 through 35C/I; Disher interview; Parker interview; JSC, Skylab Mission Report, First Visit, pp. 14-1 through 14-7; "Skylab Program Post Mission Press Conference," 22 June 1973, 11:10 a.m. CDT, pp. 73A/1 through 73B/2; "Skylab-l! Postflight Review-Summary," 28 June 1973, 1:08 p.m. CDT, pp. 78A/2 through 78C/3.

27. Parker interview; Sevier and Parker, "Experiment Planning," p. 10.

28. JSC, Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing, p. 14-45; Henry S. F. Cooper, A House in Space (New York 1976), p. 124.

29. JSC, Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing, pp. 14-37 through 14-40.

30. "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 14 June 1973,9:05 a.m. CDT,p. 47A/l; "Skylab 2 Solar Flare Activity," 15 June 1973, 13:30 p.m. CDT, pp. 51B/2 through 51C/l; "Skylab Air-to Ground Voice Transcription," pp. 1499, 1523.

31. "Skylab 2 ATM Status Briefing," 15 June 1973, 10:03 a.m. CDT, p. 50A/2; "SL-III Outlook-ATM," 29 June 1973, 1:00 p.m. CDT, pp. IA/3 through IBI.

32. "Skylab 2 Change of Shift Briefing," 28 May 1973, 6:47 p.m. CDT, p. 6B/I; NASA, Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing, pp. 14-23, 14-107; Weitz interview; "SL-II Postflight Review-EREP," 28 June 1973, 2:09 p.m. CDT, pp. 79A-3 through 79B/I.

33. JSC, Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing, pp. 5-2, 5-4, 7-7 through 7-10.

34. Ibid, pp. 14-1 through 14-3, 23-3 through 23-7.

35. Ibid., p. 14-2.

36. David Schultz, Robert Kain, and Scott Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular Activity," presented to the American Astronautical Society 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974, p. 24; Weitz interview.

 

Chapter 16

 

1 . "Skylab III Launch Briefing," I June 1973,11:45 a.m.; James Fletcher, "Decision to Launch SL-3 on July 27,"memo for record, 1 June 1973; "Minutes of OMSF Management Telecon," 31 May 1973, Dr. Story Musgrave interview, 4 Aug. 1975; "SL-II Postflight Review-Crew Health," 28 June 1973,4:47 p.m., p. 80B/2; Eugene Kranz interview, 19 Aug.1976; Richard Johnston interview, 7 July 1977; Ashton Graybiel, Earl F. Miller 11, and J. L. Homick, "Experiment M-131, Human Vestibular Function," in The Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, JSC, 27-29 Aug. 1974, 1: 169-73; Nicholas C. Chriss, "Inner Man Is a Vexing Problem in Journeys through Outer Space," Los Angeles Times, 6 Aug. 1973, pp 3-4

2. "Skylab Program Post Mission Press Conference," 22 June 1973,11:10 a.m., p.73C/2; SL-II crew postflight press conference, 29 June 1973, 9:00 a.m., pp. 81F/2, 81F/3; "Skylab 111 Medical Status Briefing," 29 July 1973, 4:10 p.m., pp. 16B/1, 16E/I.

3. JSC, "Skylab 1/3 Onboard Voice Transcription," pp. I,18,23,38,67,147;JSC, "Skylab 1/3 Technical Air-to-Ground Transcription," pp. 79, 91; Graybeil, Miller, and Homick, "Experiment M-131," p. 182. The article states that Lousma's first symptoms came shortly after removing his helmet and spacesuit. The onboard tapes indicate that Lousma removed his suit 90 minutes into flight, 70 minutes after the first mention of illness and 45 minutes after he took his first medication.

4. John N. Wilford, "Space Making Skylab Minnows Swim as if They're Confused," New York Times, 1 Aug. 1973, JSC, "Skylab 1/3 Technical Air-to-Ground Transcription," pp.91,111, 116-38, "Change of Shift Briefing," 29 July 1973, 9:20p.m., p.17A/I; also 30 July 1973,9:40 a.m., p 18A/1, and 31 July 1973, 9:54, p. 21B/I.

5. "Skylab 1/3 Technical Air-to-Ground Transcription," pp. 138-39; "Medical Status Briefing," 30 July 1973, 4:51 p.m., p. 19B/2; Thomas O'Toole, "Motion Sickness Delays Skylab Walk Again," Washington Post, 31 July 1973, p. 2.

6. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 127/2, 128/1; "Skylab 1/3 Technical Crew Debriefing," pp. 0-8 through 0-12, 5-13.

7. John N. Wilford, "3 Astronauts Appear Fully Recovered," New York Times, 2 Aug. 1973, p. I, "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 185/1,213/1, 214/1, and the film clip; "Medical Briefing," I Aug. 1977, 5:24 p.m., pp. 25A/1 and 25A/2.

8. Low to Myers, "Use of Scop-Dex on Skylab 4," 2 Oct. 1973; Richard Johnston interview.

9. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 20/2-21/1; John N. Wilford, "Skylab Troubles Set Off Planning for Space Rescue," New York Times, 3 Aug. 1973, pp. 4-5.

10. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 234/1-240/1; Wilford, "Skylab Troubles."

11. "RCS Status Briefing," 2 Aug. 1973, 9:50 a.m., pp. 26A/1-26E/2; "Change of Shift Briefing," 2 Aug. 1973, 10:35 a.m., pp. 27A/1-27C/2; Low to Fletcher, "Skylab Review in Houston on August 2, 1973," 6 Aug. 1973.

12. Stuart Auerbach, "Rescue Ship Readied for Skylab Crew," Washington Post, 3 Aug. 1973, pp.1-2; John N. Wilford, "Peril Diminishes, but Skylab Rescue Preparations Are Pressed on Accelerated Basis at Cape Kennedy," New York Times, 10 Aug. 1973, pp. 1-2; "Skylab 111 Status Briefing," 2 Aug. 1973, 4:15 p.m., pp. 28B-28C/2.

13. Low to Fletcher, "Skylab Review in Houston," 6 Aug. 1973; "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 258/1-259/1; "Skylab 111 Status Briefing," 2 Aug. 1973, 4:15 p.m., pp. 28A/I, 28C/1, 28E/2-28G/2.

14. "Skylab III Status Briefing," 2 Aug. 1973, 4:15 p.m., p. 28B/2, "Skylab Program Director Briefing," 3 Aug. 1973, 3:10 p.m., pp. 31B/2-31C/2; Mark Bloom, "NASA Could Have Prevented Skylab 2 [sic] Crisis," Miami Herald, 21 Aug. 1973, p. 9.

15. George Low, "Replacement of Skylab Sun Shield," memo for record, 18 June 1973; David C. Schultz, Robert R. Kain, and R. Scott Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular Activity," AAS 74-120 presented at the American Astronautical Society 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles 20-22 Aug. 1974, pp. 10-14.

16. Schultz, Kain, and Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular," p. 25; "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 412/2-413/1; Michael Brzezinski, "Crew Training Summaries: Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Summaries," Aug. 1975.

17. "Change of Shift Briefing," 5 Aug. 1973, 5:34 p.m., p. 35A/I, "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 378/2-390/2, 405/1-422/2.

18. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 426/1-428/2; "Charge of Shift Briefing," 6 Aug.1973, 8:05 p.m., pp. 39A/1-39A/3.

19. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 429/1-431/4, 436/3-437/1, John N. Wilford, "2 Skylab Astronauts Set Record for 'Space Walks,"' New York Times, 7 Aug. 1973, pp. 1-2.

20. "Skylab III Change of Shift Briefing," 4 Aug. 1973, 4:54 p.m., pp. 34C/1-34C/2, Russell Schweickart interview, 8 July 1975.

21. "Change of Shift Briefing," 7 Aug. 1973, 3:53 p.m., p. 41A/I; also 9 Aug. 1973, 5:33 p.m., pp. 44A/1-44A/2; "Solar Events Briefing," 10 Aug. 1973, 4:02 p.m., pp. 45A/1-45C/I; "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 591/1-596/1.

22. Leland F. Belew and Ernst Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, NASA EP-107 (Washington, n.d.), pp. 123-35; "Skylab 3 Channel B Transcripts," Z05-5-000142, pp. 1216-18.

23. Belew and Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, pp. 122-23, "Skylab 3 Channel B Transcripts," Z05-5-000142, pp. 1216-17.

24. "Change of Shift Briefing," 21 Aug. 1973, 4:25 p.m., pp. 60D/2-60G/2, "Giant Sun Bubble Filmed by Skylab," New York Times, 22 Aug. 1973, p. 1.

25. "Solar Events Briefing," 10 Aug. 1973, 4:02 p.m., pp. 45C/1-45C/2.

26. "Skylab III EREP Review," 15 Aug. 1973, pp. 52A/1-52A/2; JSC, "Skylab FAO Daily Status Report, SL-3 Mission"; "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 624/1-624/2; Belew and Stuhlinger, Skylab: A Guidebook, p. 147; JSC, "Skylab Mission Report: Second Visit," pp. 10-44.

27. "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. SOS/1-506/2; "Skylab III-EREP Review," 15 Aug. 1973, pp. 52A/1-52F/I.

28. "Skylab 3 Channel B Transcripts,"Z05-5-000142, pp.887-88, 919-21, JSC,"SL-3 Mission As Flown Flight Plan, Day 209 thru 268"; JSC, "FAO Daily Report, SL-3 Mission."

29. JSC, "FAO Daily Status Report"; NASA, Skylab News Reference, pp. 111-39-111-42.

30. JSC, "Change of Shift Briefing," 20 Aug. 1973, 4:33 p.m., pp. 59A/1-69B/I, also 21 Aug. 1973, 4:25 p.m., pp. 60A/2-60B/I; "SL-3 Mission As Flown Flight Plan."

31. John N. Wilford, "2 Skylab Astronauts Set Record for Space 'Walks,"' New York Times, 7 Aug. 1973, p. 2.

32. Robert E. Pace, "Repair of Major System Elements on Skylab, " presented to the American Astronautical Society, 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974, pp. 18-19.

33. JSC, "Change of Shift Briefing," 16 Aug. 1973, 4:30 p.m., p. 55D/I, also 21 Aug. 1973, 4:25 p.m., pp. 60C/1-60D/2; 11 Aug. 1973, 4:30 p.m., p.46C/I; and 24 Aug.1973,4:54 p.m., pp. 66A/1-66B/I; Pace, "Repair of Major System Elements," p. 19; Schultz, Kain, and Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular," pp. 14 30, "Skylab 111-Rate Gyro 6-Pack Installation Demo Press Conference," pp. 63A/1-36G/1.

34. W. M. Anderson and T. W. Holloway, "Skylab Flight Plan Development," presented to the American Astronautical Society 20th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974, pp.7-8, Henry S. F. Cooper, Jr., A House in Space (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976), pp. 6-12, "Skylab 3 Channel B Transcriptions," Z05-5-000142, pp. 706-07,721,866.

35. Cooper, House in Space, pp. 25-33; JSC, "Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing," p.23-33; Owen Garriott interview, 27 June 1977; "Skylab 1/3 Technical Crew Debriefing," p. 6-2. 36.

36. Cooper, House in Space, p. 38, JSC, "Skylab 1/2 Technical Crew Debriefing," pp. 23-4-23-12, Skylab 3 Channel B Transcriptions," Z05-5-5000142, pp. 700-04, 716-18, 816-17;JSC, "SL-3 Mission As Flown Flight Plan"; Owen Garriott interview, 27 June 1977; Paul J. Weitz interview, 6 July 1977.

37. Anderson and Holloway, "Skylab Flight Plan Development," pp. 2,7-8; JSC, "SL-3 Mission As Flown Flight Plan"; JSC, "SL-3 Mission Daily Status Report."

38. Anderson and Holloway, "Skylab Flight Plan Development," pp. 2, 7; NASA, Skylab News Reference, p. 11-67.

39. "Skylab 1/3 Air to Ground Transcript," 12/2544, p. 10.

40. "Skylab 1/3 Technical Crew Debriefing," pp. 6-13-6-27.

41. "Skylab 3 Channel B Transcriptions," Z05-5-000142, pp. 641, 1066, 1149; JSC, Skylab: Film Resources Catalog, Nov. 1974, pp. 41-42.

42. Garriott interview; JSC, Skylab: Film Resources Catalog, pp. 43-46.

43. Jack Lousma interview, 20 Aug. 1975; Alan Bean interview,13 Aug. 1975; Garriott interview; "Skylab 3 Mission Commentary," pp. 683/1, 692/1-692/2.

44. JSC, "Skylab FAO Daily Status Report: SL-3 Mission"; JSC, "Skylab 1/3 Technical Crew Debriefing," pp. 0-1-0-5.

 

Chapter 17

 

1. JSC Public Affairs Off., "Skylab IV Prime Crew Press Conference," 3 Oct. 1973; George Alexander, "If You've Always Wanted a Comet for Christmas," Washington Post, I 5 Apr. 1973; Thomas O'Toole, "Skylab Likely to See Comet," Washington Post, 24 July 1973; Schneider to MSFC and JSC, "Compatibility Assessment for Conducting a Study of Comet Kohoutek (1973f) on SL-4 Mission," TWX, 3 July 1973.

2. JSC Public Affairs Off., "Skylab 3 and Overview of Skylab 4," transcript of press briefing at JSC, 2 Oct. 1973

3. JSC Public Affairs Off., "Skylab 4 Launch Delay Press Conference," transcript of press conference at KSC, 7 Nov. 1973; idem, "Skylab 4 Announcement of Second Launch Slip," transcript of press conference at KSC, 12 Nov. 1973; "Skylab 4 Launch Status Report," transcript of press conference at KSC, 13 Nov. 1973; "Close Teamwork Pays in Repairs," Spaceport News, 21 Nov. 1973; Thomas O'Toole, "Skylab 111 [sic] Countdown Running," Washington Post, 14 Nov. 1973.

4. Kenneth S. Kleinknecht to Skylab Prog. Dir., "Medical Action Items," 6 Nov. 1973; George M.Low to assoc. adm. for MSF, "Use of Scop-Dexon Skylab 4," 2 0ct. 1973; Dale D.Myers to dep. adm., "Anti-Motion Sickness Medication on Skylab 4," 11 Oct. 1973; Schneider to Kleinknecht, "Action Items from Administrator's Skylab Medical Review of August 22, 1973," TWX, 31 Aug. 1973, Edward G. Gibson interview, 5 July 1977.

5. JSC "Skylab Mission Report, Third Visit," JSC-08963 (July 1974), p. 2-1; JSC Public Affairs Off., "Skylab 4 Postlaunch Press Briefing," transcript of press conference at KSC, 16 Nov. 1973, JSC, "Skylab 1/4 Technical Air-to-ground Voice Transcription," JSC-08652 (hereafter cited as "Air-to-ground"), pp. 4, 36; JSC, "Skylab I /4 Onboard Voice Transcription," JSC-08809 (hereafter cited as "Onboard"), pp. 2, 28-35.

6. Onboard, pp. 42-52; Air-to-ground, pp. 42-43.

7. Onboard, pp. 60-81, Air-to-ground, pp. 44-48.

8. Onboard, pp. 96-103; Air-to-ground, p.54. Henry S. F. Cooper, A House in Space (New York, 1976), p. 37, reports this incident somewhat differently. We have attributed the quotes as they are in Onboard. The transcript made by the JSC Public Affairs Office attributes "between you me, and the couch" to Pogue and the final quote to Carr. We did not listen to the tapes to attempt to settle the matter. For one other discrepancy between these transcripts, see n. 48. Gibson, interviewed 5 July 1977, recalled that he and Carr could imagine the consternation Pogue's illness would cause and the delay their mission would suffer as a result of the doctors' determination to do something about it. In view of their desire to get on with the mission, they concluded that their best course was to save the bag, process it, and report the affair after the mission was over-assuming that Pogue had recovered by the morning of 17 November. None of this, however, is reflected in the transcripts of tapes from the onboard recorder. A memo filed with the Right director's handover notes (prepared by each retiring flight director for his relief) records that the astronauts' "feeling of undue concern about what reactions the report of the emesis would generate resulted in the report delay. The emesis was saved contrary to earlier deliberations to dismiss the significance of the emesis." Jerry R. Hordinsky, "Mission Surgeon's Daily Report on Crew Health," 17 Nov. 1973. Later that day, the flight director (Neil Hutchinson) of the Silver team noted the discovery of the incident in the channel B transcripts, commenting that the crew "have been chastized [sic] at privacomm med [private communication, medical] & I get to tell the press about the entire incident tonight." Unsigned undated notes, "Handover, Silver [to] Bronze," in "Skylab Flight Directors' Handover Notes, Day 316 to 340," from JSC Flight Operations Directorate.

9. Onboard, pp. 106-57. 9.

10. Air-to-ground, pp. 105-06; JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4 Change of Shift Briefing," transcript of press briefing at JSC, 17 Nov. 1973. Similar briefings were held daily (with few exceptions) throughout the mission. They are cited hereafter as "COS," with date. "Astronauts Try to Make Up Time," New York Times, 19 Nov. 1973.

11. Interviews with Gerald P. Carr, 5 Aug. 1975; Neil B. Hutchinson, 9 June 1977; Edward G. Gibson, 25 Aug. 1975.

12. COS, 16, 17, 18 Nov. 1973; Air-to-ground, pp. 85-89, 93.

13. Air-to-ground, pp. 201-15; Alton Slagle, "Skylab PiIot Makes Air-Conditioning Repair," Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 Nov. 1973.

14. Schneider to JSC Skylab mar., "Additional Activities for SL-4," 12 Nov. 1973, Onboard p. 439, 520-21; William B. Lenoir interview, 7 Aug. 1975.

15. Air-to-ground, pp. 271, 277.

16. Onboard, pp. 203-20.

17. Ibid., pp. 236-66, 281 -312.

18. Ibid., pp. 325-400; COS, 22 Nov.1973. For details of this repair job, see Robert E. Pace, Jr., "Repair of Major System Elements on Skylab, " and David C. Schultz, Robert R. Kain, and R. Scott Millican, "Skylab Extravehicular Activity," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, Los Angeles 20-22 Aug. 1974.

19. Air-to-ground, p. 424; Onboard, p. 410.

20. JSC, "Skylab Mission Report, Third Visit," p. 9-5, COS, 23 Nov. 1973.

21. Carr Hutchinson interviews.

22. Onboard, pp. 429-31, 440-41.

23. COS, 25 Nov. 1973.

24. COS, 23 Nov. 1973; MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Mission Report-Saturn Workshop," NASA TM X-64814 (Oct. 1974), pp. 6-12, 6-19.

25. COS, 23, 25 Nov.1973; JSC Public Affairs Off., "Skylab 4 Status Briefing," transcript of press conference at JSC, 28 Nov. 1973; E. Liebman, "Skylab Propellant Savings during Earth Resource Experiments via Momentum Conservation Following Loss of One CMG," AIAA Houston Section Mini-Symposium, undated.

26. COS, 26 Nov. 1973; Onboard, pp. 445, 447, 448.

27. Onboard, pp. 484, 493; Air-to-ground, pp. 694-97, 730.

28. Air-to-ground, p.699; Onboard, pp. 485-87,494,497; John E. Naugle to chairman, MSFEB, "Observations of the Barium Shaped-Charge Plasma Jet during SL-4," 15 Oct. 1973.

29. Onboard, pp. 491 -92,495,500,525; Schneider to JSC Skylab mar., "Additional Activities for SL-4," 12 Nov. 1973.

30. Air-to-ground, pp. 708, 732; COS, 27 Nov. 1973.

31. Air-to-ground, pp. 745-52.

32. COS, 2, 4 Dec. 1973.

33. Onboard, p. 550, for the quotations; Hutchinson interview.

34. COS, 5 and 6 Dec. 1973; Air-to-ground, pp. 782-85.

35. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4, Mission Day 28 Review," transcript of press conference at JSC, 13 Dec. 1973.

36. Ibid.

37. Onboard, pp. 1050-52, 1129-30, 1293-95.

38. Robert A. R. Parker interview, 20 Oct. 1975; John R. Sevier and Robert A. Parker, "Experiment Planning during the Skylab Missions," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, Los Angeles, 2022 Aug. 1974; "Skylab Crew, Mission Control Have Settled Their Differences," New York Times, 19 Dec. 1973.

39. William C. Snoddy and Richard J. Barry, "Comet Kohoutek Observations from Skylab, " 20th Annual AAS Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974.

40. COS, 26 Nov., 17 Dec. 1973 Snoddy to colleagues, 12 Nov. 1973, with encl., "Kohoutek Photometric Photography," change to Kohoutek Viewing Requirements Document (19 Sept. 1973); MSFC, "Kohoutek Viewing Requirements Document," p. 4-3; JSC, "Skylab FAO End of Mission Status Report SL-4 Mission," 15 Feb. 1974, pp. 61-72.

41. "Kohoutek Viewing Requirements Document," app. A; Air-to-ground, pp. 2008-15; Onboard, pp. 1263-67, 1363-66, 1473-76, 1507-11, 1752-55, 1761-63, 1772-73; COS, 19, 20, 21 Dec. 1973.

42. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4 Christmas Day EVA Briefing," transcript of press briefing at JSC, 24 Dec. 1973; Air-to-ground, pp. 2133-41, 2253-57.

43. Onboard, PF. 1543-1642, 1657-79.

44. Ibid., pp. 1679-1711, 1723, COS, 25 Dec. 1973.

45. Air-to-ground, pp. 2591-95; JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4, Dr. Lubos Kohoutek Briefing, NASA Headquarters," transcript of press briefing 27 Dec.1973; "SL-4, Kohoutek Briefing," transcript of briefing at JSC, 28 Dec.1973; Charles J. Bierbauer, "Lubos Kohoutek: His Mail Suggests Comet May Cause End to Earth," Huntsville Times, 2 Dec.1973; "The Man Behind the Comet," Philadelphia Inquirer, 13 Dec. 1973.

46. Onboard, pp. 1819-941 "FAO End of Mission Status Report, SL-4 Mission," pp. 67-79.

47. Onboard, p. 1496; "Christmas Tree Built in Skylab," Philadelphia Inquirer, 23 Dec. 1973; Hutchinson, Carr, Gibson interviews; Skylab 1/4 technical debriefing, pp. 22-2 to 22-8.

48. Air-to-ground, p. 2559, JSC Public Affairs Off., transcript of dump tape 362-01, time 362:04:04 to 362:04:10 GMT, 28 Dec. 1973. This entire recording is missing from the compilation of onboard tape recordings published by the JSC Test Office in March 1974 (JSC08809, "Skylab 1/4 Onboard Voice Transcription").

49. Carr, Gibson interviews; William R. Pogue, "Three Months in Space," XVIII Symposium Proceedings, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Los Angeles, 25-28 Sept. 1974.

50. Parker interview.

51. Air-to-ground, pp. 2607-08, 2726-27; COS, 30 Dec. 1973.

52. Air-to-ground, pp. 2798-801.

53. Ibid., pp. 2803-05.

54. Ibid., p. 2805.

55. Ibid., p. 2807.

56. Ibid., pp. 2808-09.

57. Ibid., p. 2810.

58. Parker interview; C. C. Kraft, Jr., interview, 25 Feb. 1977; Skylab 1/4 technical debriefing, p. 22-7.

59. COS, 1 Jan. 1974.

60. Air-to-ground, pp. 3101-02.

61. COS, 10 Jan. 1974; "FAO End of Mission Status Report, SL-4 Mission," p. 151.

62. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4 56-Day Mission Review," transcript of press conference at JSC, 11 Jan. 1974.

63. COS, 21 Dec. 1973; "SL-4 56-Day Mission Review."

64. Air-to-ground, pp. 3089-91, 3147-48, 3216-17, 3283-85, 3507-13.

65. Ibid. pp. 1874-89, 2465-70, 3514-27, 4040-54, 4539-50.

66. "FAO End of Mission Status Report, SL-4 Mission," pp. 156-59; Air-to-ground, pp. 4003, 4011; COS, 7, 10, 12-18 Jan. 1974.

67. Air-to-ground, pp. 4159, 4165-67, 4174-78, 3435-38, 3598-3605.

68. Ibid., pp. 4223-27, 4261-69; Carr, Gibson interviews; Onboard, pp. 3098-102.

69. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4 Press Briefing," JSC, 22 Jan. 1974; COS, 22, 23 Jan. 1974; Ed Prickett, "Live Coverage of Return Vetoed by TV," Today, 23 Jan. 1974; Joel N. Shurkin, "Skylab 3 [sic] Prepares to Return," Philadelphia Inquirer, 3 Feb.1974; Thomas O'Toole, "Astronauts Returning to Earth," Washington Post, 8 Feb. 1974; Robert Unger, "Astronauts Greeted by Apathy," Chicago Tribune, 9 Feb. 1974.

70. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4, Inflight Press Conference," transcript, 31 Jan. 1974, Air-to-ground, pp. 4935-36.

71. Onboard, pp. 3607-38, 3696-909, COS, 1 Feb. 1974.

72. COS, 3 Feb. 1974; Air-to-ground, pp. 4955, 5009-10, 5055.

73. COS, 4, 5 Feb. 1974; Onboard, pp. 3920-46.

74. Air-to-ground, pp. 5240-41, 5261-65.

75. COS, 5, 6, 7 Feb. 1974.

76. Onboard, pp. 4043-45, 4050-65.

77. Skylab 1/4 technical debriefing, p p. 10-4, 10-5.

78. JSC Public Affairs Off., "SL-4, Skylab 4 Post Recovery Briefing," transcript, 8 Feb. 1974.

79. MSFC, "MSFC Skylab Mission Report-Saturn Workshop," TM X-64814, pp. 3-29, 3-30,

 

Chapter 18

 

1. A. R. Morse, "MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Summary Mission Report," NASA TM X-64815, p. 3-10; JSC, "Skylab Earth Resources Data Catalog," JSC-09016, p. vii Richard S. Johnston, "Skylab Medical Program Overview," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, NASA TM X-58154, p. 18.

2. Richard S. Johnston interview, 21 Oct. 1975.

3. Ashton Graybiel, Earl F. Miller II, and J. L. Homick, "Experiment M-131, Human Vestibular Function," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 169-94.

4. Ibid.

5. G. Donald Whedon et al., "Mineral and Nitrogen Metabolic Studies, Experiment M071," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 353-71; John M. Vogel and M. W. Whittle, "Bone Mineral Measurement-Experiment M078," ibid., pp. 387-401.

6. E. L. Michel et al., "Results of Skylab Medical Experiment M171-Metabolic Activity," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 723-55; see also J. A. Rummel et al., "Exercise and Long Duration Spaceflight through 84 Days," Journal of American Medical Women's Association 30 (1975): 173-87; and E. L. Michel et al., "Skylab Experiment M-171, 'Metabolic Activity'-Results of the First Manned Mission," Acta Astronautica 2 (1975): 36-165.

7. R. L. Johnson et al., "Skylab Experiment M-092: Results of the First Manned Mission," Acta Astronautica 2 (1975): 265-96; Charles A. Berry interview, 10 Apr. 1975; Johnson et al., "Lower Body Negative Pressure: Third Manned Skylab Mission," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 545-95.

8. Lawrence F. Dietlein, "Skylab: A Beginning," in Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 796-814; see also Carolyn S. Leach, W. Carter Alexander, and P. C. Johnson, "Endocrine, Electrolyte, and Fluid Volume Changes Associated with Apollo Missions," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, Richard S. Johnston, L. F. Dietlein, and C. A. Berry, eds., NASA SP-368 (Washington, 1975), pp. 163-84.

9. Dietlein, "Skylab: A Beginning."

10. Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, pp. 818, 831-32, 834-35, 842-44.

11. G. S. Vaiana et al., "X-Ray Observations of Characteristic Structures and Time Variations fromtheSolarCorona:PreliminaryResultsfromSkylab,"AstrophysicalJournall85(1973): L47-L51; R. M. MacQueen et al., "The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results," ibid. 187 (1974): L85-L88; E. M. Reeves et al., "Observations of the Chromospheric Network: Initial Results from the Apollo Telescope Mount," ibid. l 88 (1974): L27-L29; R. Tousey et al., "A Preliminary Study of the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliograms from Skylab," Solar Physics 33 (1973): 265-80.

12. Leo Goldberg, "Research with Solar Satellites," Astrophysical Journal 191 (1974): 1-37.

13. E. M. Reeves, "A Solar Observatory in Space: Initial Results and Mission Assessment," in The Skylab Results, vol. 31, part 2, of Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, ed. by William C. Schneider and Thomas E. Hanes (Tarzana, Cal., 1975), pp. 965-95.

14. E. Hildner, "The Solar Corona as Seen from Skylab, " AIAA paper 74-1232, presented at the AIAA/AGU Conference on Scientific Experiments of Skylab, Huntsville, Ala., 30 Oct.-l Nov. 1974.

15. V. E. Scherrer and R. Tousey, "Flares Observed by the NRL-ATM Spectrograph and Spectroheliograph during the Skylab Missions," Proceedings of the International Conference on X-Rays in Space, University of Calgary, 14-21 Aug. 1974, pp. 986-95.

16. R. Tousey, "The NRL Solar Experiments in the Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: Historical, Operational, and Results," preprint of a report to be published in Report of NRL Progress, I July 1975, pp. 10-11.

17. Joe R. Eagleman and Fawwaz T. Ulaby, "Soil Moisture Detection from Skylab S193 and S194 Sensors," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, Los Angeles, 20-22 Aug. 1974, paper AAS74-146; Robert S. Houston and Robert W. Marrs, "Results of the Use of S190A and S190B Skylab Sensors for Photogeologic Studies in Wyoming," ibid., paper AAS74-142.

18. L. L. Biehl and L. F. Silva, "An Analysis of a Visible and Infrared Multilevel Multispectral Data Set," ibid., paper AAS74-143; F. J. Thompson, R. K. Vincent, and R. F. Nalepka, "Recent Processed Results from the Skylab S192 Multispectral Scanner," ibid., paper AAS74-144, A. E. Coker, R. H. Rogers, and A. L. Higer, "Automatic Geometric Land-Water Cover Types of the Green Swamp, Florida, from Skylab S192 Data," ibid., paper AAS74-145.

19. R. I. Welch, L. R. Pettinger, and C. E. Poulton, "A Comparison of Skylab and ERTS Data for Agricultural Crop and Natural Vegetation Interpretation," AIAA/AGU Conference on Scientific Experiments of Skylab, Huntsville, Ala., 30 Oct.-1 Nov. 1974, paper 74-1219; V. Klemas, D. Bartlett, and R. Rogers, "Skylab and ERTS-1 Investigations of Coastal Land Use and Water Properties in Delaware Bay," ibid., paper 74-1220; L. Kirvada and M. Cheung, "Automatic Land Use Classification Using Skylab S-192 Multispectral Data," ibid., paper 74-1224;J. T. McGoogan et al., "Skylab Altimeter Applications and Scientific Results,"ibid., paper 74- 1221.

20. JSC, abstracts of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium, 8-12 June 1975.

21. Verl C. Wilmarth, Skylab Review, press conference at JSC, 21 Feb. 1974, transcript; Robert E. Pace, Jr. "Repair of Major System Elements on Skylab," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AASi4-122;JSC, "Skylab I/4 Earth Resources Experiments Debriefing,"JSC-08813, pp. 55-65.

22. William B. Lenoir et al., "Visual Observations from Space," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-124.

23. Ibid.; see also JSC, "Skylab 4 Visual Observations Project Report," NASA TM X-58142.

24. C. C. Johnson, "Skylab Experiment M487, Habitability/Crew Quarters," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-133; JSC, "Skylab 1/2 Corollary Experiments Debriefing," JSC08082-3, pp. 52-70; "Skylab 1/3 Corollary Experiments Debriefing," JSC-08482, pp. 1-35; "Skylab 1/4 Earth Resources Experiments Debriefing," JSC-08813, pp. 66-105.

25. "Skylab 1/4 Earth Resources Experiments Debriefing," p. 70.

26. JSC, "Skylab 1/4 Onboard Voice Transcription," JSC-08809, p. 3169.

27. C. C. Johnson, "Skylab Experiment M487."

28. Ibid.; "Skylab 1/4 Earth Resources Experiments Debriefing," pp. 66-105; "Skylab 1/4 Onboard Voice Transcription," p. 512.

29. C. E. Whitsett, Jr., and B. McCandless II, "Skylab Experiment M509, Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment, Orbital Test Results and Future Applications," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-137.

30. Ibid., Donald E. Hewes, "Skylab Experiment T020, Preliminary Results Concerning a Foot-Controlled Maneuvering Unit," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-138.

31. William C. Snoddy and G. Allen Gary, "Skylab Observations of Comet Kohoutek,' AIAA/AGU Conference on Scientific Experiments of Skylab, Huntsville, 30 Oct.-l Nov 1974, paper 74-1248; G. A. Gary, ea., Comet Kohoutek: A Workshop Held at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, June 13-14, 1974, NASA SP-355 (Washington, 1975)

32. Lee B. Summerlin, ed., Skylab, Classroom in Space, NASA SP-401 (Washington, 1977) pp. 95-105. Summerlin was chairman of the selection board for the Southeast.

33. Ibid., pp. 37-65.

34. Ibid., pp. 175-76; John B. MacLeod, "Operational Aspects of Skylab Student Project Experiments " 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-153; Lee Summerlin, "The Skylab Student Project, A Science Educator's Appraisal," ibid., paper AAS74-155; Jeanne Leventhal, "The Skylab Student Science Program from a Student Investigator's Point of View," ibid., paper AAS74- 156.

35. E. M. Reeves, "A Solar Observatory in Space: Initial Results and Mission Assessment," 20th Annual AAS Meeting, paper AAS74-169; Richard Tousey interview, 20 Apr. 1976; JSC, Skylab Explores the Earth, NASA SP-380 (Washington, 1977).

 

Chapter 19

 

1. Marshall Space Flt. Ctr., "MSFC Skylab Mission Report: Saturn Workshop," NASA TMX-64818 (Oct. 1974), p. 3-30.

2. Ibid., p. 3-31.

3. Joseph P. Loftus, Jr. (JSC), "Skylab Reboost Mission on Early OFT Flight," 3 Jan. 1977; Loftus to mar., Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Off. (JSC), "Skylab Reboost Study Activities," with encl., "Summary of Telecon Concerning Skylab Reboost," 28 Feb. 1977.

4. John H. Disher (NASA Hq.) to JSC and MSFC, "Skylab Revisit Project Go/No Go Decision," 5 Apr. 1977.

5. NASA release 77-220, 22 Nov. 1977.

6. "Sunspot Activity Threat to Skylab Predicted," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 Dec. 1977, p. 18.

7. R. Jeffery Smith, "The Skylab Is Falling and Sunspots Are Behind It," Science, 7 Apr. 1979, p. 28.

8. Richard D. Lyons, "Soviet Spy Satellite with Atomic Reactor Breaks Up in Canada," New York Times, 25 Jan. 1978, "Cosmos 954: An Ugly Death," Time, 6 Feb. 1978.

9. Peter Reich "Skylab to Orbit 21 More Months: NASA," Chicago Tribune, 3 Feb. 1978; NASA release 78-19, 6 Feb. 1978.

10. Patsy T. Mink, asst. sec. of state, to Frosch, 14 Feb. 1978.

11. NASA Daily Activities Report, 27 Feb. 1978; NASA 78-35, 3 March 1978.

12. Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1979, hearings, part 1, pp.45-46,88-90,190-92.

13. Everly Driscoll, "Skylab Nears Its Reentry from Orbit in a Race with Time and the Sun," Smithsonian Magazine, May 1979.

14. Charles S. Harlan interview, 14 Sept. 1979.

15. Ibid.; NASA Daily Activities Report, 18, 21, 26 July, 25 and 26 Sept., 10 Oct. 1978.

16. W. G. Bastedo to dir., International Affairs, "Skylab Final Report," 17 Aug. 1979.

17. "Effort to Save Skylab to Go On but Official Believes It Is Doomed," New York Times, 22 July 1978; Jim Maloney, "Cosmos Crash, Skylab Effort Link Suggested," Houston Post, 22 July 1978.

18. Maloney, "Cosmos Crash."

19. Bastedo, "Skylab Final Report"; idem, "Pegasus I-Final Report," 4 Oct. 1978.

20. Harlan interview.

21. NASA Release78-191, 19 Dec. 1978; Skylab press conference transcript, 19 Dec. 1978; John J. Fialka, "NASA Gives Up Effort to Stop Fall of Skylab," Washington Star, 19 Dec. 1978; "President Decided to Abandon Efforts to Rescue Skylab, " Wall Street Journal, 20 Dec.1978.

22. Bastedo, "Skylab Final Report."

23. Thomas O'Toole, "'Chicken Little' Is Looking Up," Washington Post, 20 Jan. 1979.

24. Bastedo, "Skylab Final Report."

25. NASA release 79-03, 1 Feb. 1979; Harlan interview.

26. Jim Maloney, "JSC Engineer Projects Time Skylab to Fall," Houston Post, 21 Apr. 1979; John J. Fialka, "NASA Plans Test Run for Skylab Fall," Washington Star, 25 Apr. 1979; Harlan interview.

27. Harlan interview; Harlan, "Summary of Real Time Considerations to Tumble the Skylab Spacecraft for an Entry Target in the Indian Ocean," memo for record, 10 Aug. 1979.

28. Harlan interview; Harlan, "Summary."

29. Harlan interview; Robert Frosch, transcript of testimony prepared for the House Subcommittee on Government Operations and Transportation, 4 June 1979.

30. NASA Daily Activities Reports, 28, 29 June, 2, 3, 5 July 1979.

31. Harlan interview.

32. Bastedo, "Skylab Final Report"; Lee D. Saegesser, "Memo for Record," NASA Historical Office files, 10 July 1979.

33. Harlan interview; Harlan, "Summary."

34. Harlan interview.

35. Richard D. Lyons, "Skylab Debris Hits Sea and Australia; No Harm Reported," New York Times, 12 July 1979.

36. "Solitary Contestant Waits for Skylab Piece Prize," Washington Post, 15 July 1979.

37. Harlan, "Summary."

38. NASA release 79-74, 13 July 1979; J. M. Jones, "Marshall Skylab Team Returns from Australia," JSC Roundup, 10 Aug. 1979.

39. Kevin Klose, "2 Cosmonauts Break Record for Endurance," Washington Post, 15 July 1979; "Salyut Crew Hailed for Record in Space," New York Times, 4 Mar. 1978.

 

Appendix F

 

1. This section is based on a summary by John E. Naugle, associate administrator for space science, in hearings before the House Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 1975 NASA Authorization, 93/2, pt. 3, pp. 396-406. See also G. A. Gary ed., Comet Kohoutek: A Workshop Held at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, June 13-14, 1974, NASA SP-355 (Washington, 1975); "Comet Kohoutek-Prospects and Plans," Sky and Telescope 46 (Aug. 1973): 91-93.

2. John P. Donnelly to Fletcher, 20 Nov. 1973, with attachment, "Kohoutek Plan."

3. Thomas O'Toole, "Skylab Likely to See Comet," Washington Post, 24 July 1973.

4. Dale F. Mead, "Comet on Way," San Jose Mercury, 9 Aug. 1973.

5. "Comet Kohoutek-Prospects and Plans," Sky and Telescope 46 (Aug. 1973): 91-93.

6. "Skylab III Launch Set for Nov. 9," Washington Post, 17 Aug. 1973.

7. Joel N. Shurkin, "Spectacular New Comet Awaited," Philadelphia Inquirer, 13 Aug. 1973; "The Christmas Comet Begins Yielding Data," Science News, 27 Oct. 1973; "Giant New Comet's Tail Seen," Washington Post, 7 Oct. 1973, Thomas O'Toole, "NASA to Make Study of Giant Comet," ibid., 19 Oct. 1973; Joel N. Shurkin, "Comet Flashes toward Sun Tryst," Philadelphia Inquirer, 29 Oct. 1973.

8. "New Comet to Hove [sic] in Sight Soon," Baltimore Sun, 10 Nov. 1973; Anthony Tucker "Will Kohoutek Live Up to Expected Brilliance?" Louisville Courier-Journal and Times 24 Nov. 1973; "Kohoutek Visible Now," Today, 16 Nov. 1973.

9. "Comet and Camera" and "Sailing after a Comet," Washington Star-News, 2 Dec. 1973, "A Comet's Arrival Produces Some Economic Offshoots," Wall Street Journal, 6 Dec. 1973, "A Brilliant Visitor Is Heading Our Way," Miami News, 29 Nov. 1973; "KILLER COMET? Planetarium's New Show Focuses on Celestial Visitors, "Miami Herald, 7 Dec.1973, Sherwin D. Smith, "The Comet Is Coming!" New York Times Magazine, 11 Nov. 1973.

10. "Watchers of Skies Are Disappointed in Comet Kohoutek," New York Times, 13 Dec. 1973; "Clouds, Seasickness Spoil Comet Cruise," Chicago Tribune, 13 Dec.1973, Tom Shales, "Out of This World: Pinning Some Tales on the Comet," Washington Post, 10 Dec. 1973.

11. Frank Gannon to Fletcher, "NASA Christmas TV Special," 5 Nov. 1973; John P. Donnelly to admin., "The Gannon Paper," 6 Nov. 1973; Donnelly to Fletcher, 14 Nov. 1973, Gannon to Ken Cole, "The Space Program: The President's Domestic Policy and the President's Domestic Image," 22 May 1973; [Donnelly], unsigned "Memo for My File," [Nov. 1973].

12 . "Kohoutek's Tail to Be Very Long," Orlando Sentinel-Star, 20 Dec. 1973; Stuart Auerbach, "Comet Brilliance Re-Assessed," Washington Post, 28 Dec. 1973, "Kohoutek Fades Out as Star Attraction: Too Clean to Shine," Wall Street Journal, 28 Dec. 1973; "Clouds Foil Area's Search for Comet," Chicago Sun-Times, 16 Dec. 1973.

13. "Kohoutek: The Flop of the Century?" Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 Jan. 1974; Thomas O'Toole, "Never Very Flashy, Kohoutek Is Dimming," Washington Post, 10 Jan. 1974; Joel N. Shurkin, "Millions Squint, but Only a Few See Comet," Philadelphia Inquirer, 9 Jan. 1974.

14. Tom Jacobs, "Why We Couldn't See Comet," Chicago Tribune, 15 Jan. 1974; Russell Baker, "The Cosmic Flopperoo," New York Times, 15 Jan. 1974; Art Buchwald, "The Sad Tale of Kohoutek," Washington Post, 13 Jan. 1974.

15. "A Scientists' Comet," Sky and Telescope 47 (Mar. 1974): 153-58.


previousindexnext