Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science

[457-458] Chapter 1 Source Notes


1. Homer E. Newell, "NASA's Space Science and Applications Programs, NASA EP-47 (Washington, 20 Apr. 1967), especially app. 9, "What Is Science?" pp. 252-54. The publication is a reprint of statements made to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 28 Feb.-9 Mar. 1967, and to the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 20 Apr. 1967, in support of NASA's FY 1968 authorization requests. The material also appears in the Govt. Printing Office prints of the hearings.

2. E.g., Karl R. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (New York: Basic Books, 1959); James B. Conant, Science and Common Sense (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1951); Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2d ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1970).

3. Conant, Science and Common Sense , p. 25.

4. Ibid., p. 45.

5. Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning (1605). Karl Popper presents one modern view of the role of induction in science; see, for example, Popper, Logic of Scientific Discovery, pp. 27-30, 40-42, 315. Popper points out that induction is not an element in the logic of science. To illustrate, from Newton's law of gravitation (and the accepted theory of mechanics) one can deduce Kepler's laws of planetary motion, in particular that in closed orbits the planets must move in elliptical orbits about the sun. But, even when a planet is observed to move in an elliptical orbit, one cannot conclude that Newton's inverse square law of gravitation holds. Another possibility would be that the planet is attracted to the sun by a force varying directly as the distance. Given such a force field it can be deduced that a planet in a closed orbit would move in an elliptical path. Additional considerations must be applied to choose between the two candidates. Thus, the inductive step from the particular to the general is not unique, forced by the logic of the situation, but rather requires choice among a number of likely possibilities. Of course, to be a potential candidate a proposed theory must imply, by normal deductive reasoning, the original particular the scientist is trying to "explain." This is what is meant by the assertion that whereas deduction is an essential element in the logic of science, induction is not.

6. Conant, Science and Common Sense, p. 71.

7. Kuhn, Scientific Revolutions.

8. E.g., S. K. Mitra, The Upper Atmosphere (Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1947). pp. 141-327; Wilmot N. Hess and Gilbert D. Mead, eds., Introduction to Space Science (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1968), pp. 133-78, and Francis Delobeau, The Environment of the Earth, Astrophysics and Space Library, No. 28 (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1971).

9. E.g., Edward G. Gibson, The Quiet Sun, NASA SP-303 (Washington, 1973).

10. Herbert Butterfield, "Dante's View of the Universe," chap. 1 in Herbert Butterfield et al., A Short History of Science (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., Doubleday Anchor Books, 1959).

11. Douglas McKie, "The Birth of Modern Chemistry," chap. 9, ibid.; Conant, Science and Common Sense, chap. 7.

12. F . K. Richuneyer, E. H. Kennard, and T. Lauritzen, Introduction to Modem Physics (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1955), chap. 2.

13. D. H. Tarling and M. P. Tarling, Continental Drift (London: G. Bell Ik Sons, 1971).

14. See, for example, Margaret Masterman, "The Nature of the Paradigm," in Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, ed. I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press), pp. 59-89; Dudley Shapere, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions," Philosophical Review 73 (1964): 383-94.

15. T. S. Kuhn, Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1957).

16. Lloyd V. Berkner and Hugh Odishaw, eds., Science in Space (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961).

17. Samuel Glasstone, preface to Sourcebook on the Space Sciences (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1965), p. vii.

18. NASA Organization Chart dated 29 Jan. 1959, signed by T. Keith Glennan; 1 Nov. 1966, signed by James E. Webb, 1 Nov. 1963, signed by Webb.

19. Homer E. Newell, Jr., High Altitude Rocket Research (New York: Academic Press, 1953); R. L. F. Boyd and M. J. Seaton, eds., Rocket Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere (Oxford: Pergamon Press; New York: Interscience Publishers, 1954).

20. James A. Van Allen, ed., Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1956).

21. Berkner and Odishaw, Science in Space, p. 19.

22. See, for example, Space Science Reviews (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co.); Astrophysics and Space Science Library (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co.); Wilmot Hess and Gilbert D. Mead, eds., Introduction to Space Science 2d ed. (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1968).