Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science


[471-472] Chapter 11 Source Notes


1. Significant Achievements in Satellite Meteorology, 1958-1964, NASA SP-96 (Washington, 1966); William K. Widget, Jr., Meteorological Satellites (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966).

2. Ecological Surveys from Space, NASA SP-230 (Washington. 1970); Richard S. Williams, Jr., and William D. Carter, eds., ERTS-1:A New Window on Our Planet, Geological Survey Professional Paper 929 (Washington: U.S. Geological Survey, 1976).

3. John O'Keefe, "Geodetic Significance of an Artificial Satellite," appendix to the A[merican) R[ocket] S[ociety] Space Flight Committee, "Utility of an Artificial Unmanned Earth Satellite," Jet Propulsion 25 (Feb. 1955): 71-78; John O'Keefe and C. D. Batchelor, -Perturbations of a Close Satellite by the Equatorial Ellipticity of the Earth," Astronomical journal 62 (1957): 183.

4. A. V. Gangnes, L. F. Jenkins, Jr., and J. A. Van Allen, "The Cosmic Ray Intensity above the Atmosphere," Physical Review 75 (Jan. 1949): 57-69.

5. J. A. Van Allen and S. F. Singer, "On the Primary Cosmic Ray Spectrum," Physical Review 78 (June 1950):819; erratum, ibid., 80 (Oct. 1950):116.

6. J. A. Van Allen, "Rocket Measurements of Soft Radiation." in Annals of the International Geophysical Year, 12, pt. 2. ed. Homer E. Newell, Jr., and Leonard N. Cormier (London: Pergamon Press, 1960): 646-50.

7. Paper presented by Van Allen at joint meeting of National Academy of Sciences and American Physical Society on 1 May 1958. See also, Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, and C. E. McIlwain, "The Observation of High Intensity Radiation by Satellites 1958 and," Annals of the IGY , 12, pt. 2 (1960): 671-81.

8. S. K. Mitra, The Upper Atmosphere (Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1947), pp. 27-29.

9. K. Birkeland, Arch. Sci. Phys. 1 (1896): 497; E. Brüche, "Some new theoretical and experimental results on the aurora polaris." Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity 36 (1931):41-52; C. Stormer, "Twenty-five Years' York on the Polar Aurora," Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity 35 (1930): 193-208.

10. P. S. Epstein, "Note an the Nature of Cosmic Rays," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S. 16 (1930): 658-63; G. Lemaitre and M. S. Vellarta, "On Compton's Latitude Effect of Cosmic Radiation," Physical Review 43 (Jan. 1933): 87-91; G. Lemaitre, M. S. Vellarta, and L. Bouckert. "On the North-South Asymmetry of Cosmic Radiation," Physical Review 47 (Mar. 1935): 434-36; G. Lemaitre and M. S. Vellarta, "On the Geornagnetic Analysis of Cosmic Radiation," Physical Review 49 (May 1936): 719-26; R. A. Alpher, "Theoretical Geomagnetic Effects in Cosmic Radiation." Journal of Geophysical Research 55 (Dec. 1950): 437-71.

11. S. F. Singer, "A New Model of Magnetic Storms," Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 38 (1957): 175.

12. Significant Achievements in Particles and Fields, 1958-1964, NASA SP-97 (Washington, 1966).

13. Ibid.; John Naugle, Unmanned Space Flight (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1965).

14. E. N. Parker, "Dynamics of the Interplanetary Gas and Magnetic Fields," Astrophysical Journal 132 (1960): 821-66; idem, "The Hydrodynamic Theory of Solar Corpuscular Radiation and Stellar Winds," Astrophysical Journal 132 (1960): 821-66.

15. K. I. Gringauz et al., "A Study of the Interplanetary Ionized Gas, High-Energy Electrons, and Corpuscular Radiation from the Sun by Means of the Three-Electrode Trap for Charged Particles on the Second Cosmic Rocket," Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 131 (1960):1301; Soviet Phys.-Doklady 5 (1960): 361-64.

16. A. Bonetti, H. S. Bridge, et al., "Explorer 10 Plasma Measurements," Journal of Geophysical Research 68 (1963): 4017-63.

17. M. Neugebduer and C. W. Snyder, "Solar Plasma Experiment: Preliminary Mariner II Observations," Science 138 (1962): 1095-97; Snyder and Neugebauer, "Interplanetary Solar Wind Measurements by Mariner II," in Space Research IV, ed. P. Muller (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1964). pp. 89-113; Snyder, Neugebauer. and U. R. Rao, "The Solar Wind Velocity and Correlation with Cosmic Ray Variations and with Solar and Geomagnetic Activity," Journal of Geophysical Research 68 (1963): 6361-70: H. Bridge et al., "Preliminary Results of Plasma Measurements on IMP-A," in Space Research V, ed. D. G. King-Hele et al. (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1965). pp. 969-78; "Initial Results from the First Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP I)," I. G. Bulletin 84, in Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 45 (1964): 501.

18. S. C. Freden and R. S. White, "Protons in the Earth's Magnetic Field." Physical Review Letters 3 (1959):9.

19. NASA, Particles and Fields, 1958-1964, pp, 17-19.

20. Ibid., pp. 19-29.

21. N. F. Ness, C. S. Scearce, and J. B. Seek, "Initial Results of the IMP I Magnetic Field Experiment." Journal of Geophysical Research 69 (1964): 3531 -69.

22. Bridge et al., "Preliminary Results of Plasma Measurements on IMP-A"; "Initial Results from the First Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP I)," I.G. Bulletin 84.

23. N. F. Ness, "The Magnetohydrodynamic Wake of the Moon," Journal of Geophysical Research 70 (1965): 517-34.

24. NASA, Particles and Fields, 1958-1964, p. 55.

25. Ibid., pp. 52-53.

26. B. J. O'Brien, "Lifetimes of Outer Zone Electrons and Their Precipitation into the Atmosphere," Journal of Geophysical Research 67 (1962): 3687.

27. NASA, Particles and Fields, 1958-1964, pp. 33-34.

28. Singer, "A New Model of Magnetic Storms."

29. Norman F. Ness to Homer Newell, 12 July 1978, comments on draft Newell MS., NF40.

30. Norman F. Ness et al., "Early Results from the Magnetic Field Experiment on Lunar Explorer 35," Journal of Geophysical Research 72 (Dec. 1967): 5769.

31. W. A. Heikinen, "Geodesy," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1967 ed, vol. 10, p. 134. Much of the historical summary of the next few paragraphs is based on Heiskanen's article.

32. Ibid., p. 34.

33. Myron Lecar, John Sorenson, and Ann Eckels, "A Determination of the Coefficient J of the Second Harmonic in the Earth's Gravitational Potential from the Orbit of Satellite 1958 ß2," ibid., pp. 181-97.

34. E. Buchar, "Determination of the Flattening of the Earth by Means of the Displacement of the Node of the Second Soviet Satellite (1957 ß)," Annals of the IGY, 12, pt. 1 (1960): 174-76; Harvard College Observatory Announcement Card 1408, "Oblateness of the Earth by Artificial Satellites, "ibid., 176.

35. S. W. Henriksen, "The Hydrostatic Flattening of the Earth," ibid., pp. 197-98.

36. W. M. Kaula, "The Shape of the Earth," in Introduction to Space Science, ed. Wilmot N. Hess and Gilbert D. Mead (New York: Gordon and Breach, 2d ed., 1968), p. 333.

37. J. A. O'Keefe, Ann Eckels, and R. K. Squires, "Pear-Shaped Component of the Geoid from the Motion of Vanguard I," Annals of IGY, 12, pt. 1 (1960):199-201; Desmond King-Hele, "The Shape of the Earth," Science 192 (25 June 1976): 1293-1300.

38. W. M. Kaula, "Current Knowledge of the Earth's Gravitational Field from Optical Observations," in Significant Achievements in Satellite Geodesy, 1958-1964, NASA SP-94 (Washington, 1966). p. 33.

39. C. A. Wagner, "A Determination of Earth Equatorial Ellipticity from Seven Months of Syncom 2 Longitude Drift," in Satellite Geodesy, 1958-1964, pp. 93-97.

40. H. M. Dufour, "Geodetic Junction of France and North Africa by Synchronized Photographs Taken from Echo I Satellite," ibid., pp. 109-20.

41. Robert R. Newton, "Geometrical Geodesy by Use of Doppler Data," ibid., pp. 121-23.

42. Owen W. Williams, Paul H. Dishong, and George Hadgigeorge, "Results from Satellite (ANNA) Geodesy Experiments," ibid., pp. 129-38.

43. Satellite Geodesy, 1958-1964, p. 155; Wagner, "Earth Equatorial Ellipticity," ibid., p. 96.

44. "Report of the Working Group on the System of Astronomical Constants: Agenda and Draft Reports," International Astronomical Union, 12th General Assembly, 25 Aug.-3 Sept. 1964. reprinted in Satellite Geodesy, 1958-1964, pp. 101-06.

45. John O'Keefe to Homer Newell, 22 June 1978, comments on draft Newell MS., NF40; W. A. Heiskanen and F. A. Vening Meinesz, The Earth and Its Gravity Field (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1958), p. 72.