Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science


[480-483] Chapter 20 Source Notes


1. By way of illustration, see Ivan I. Mueller, Introduction to Satellite Geodesy (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1964); William M. Kaula, Theory of Satellite Geodesy (Waltham, Mass: Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1966): G. Marnikunian and M. H. Briggs, eds., Current Aspects of Exobiology (Pasadena: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1965); Colin S. Pittendrigh et al., eds., Biology and the Exploration of Mars (Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1966); Elie A. Shneour and Eric A. Oueson, compilers, Extraterrestrial Life: An Anthology and Bibliography (Washington: National Academy of Science 1966); Robert J. Mackin, Jr., and Marcia Neugebauer. eds., The Solar Wind (Pasadena: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1966); Wilmot N. Hess and Gilbert D. Mead, eds., Introduction to Space Science (New York: Gordon and Breach, 2d ed., 1968); Donald J. Williams and Gilbert D. Mead, eds., Magnelospheric Physics (Washington: American Geophysical Union, 1969); Siegfried J. Bauer, Physics of Planetary Ionospheres (New York. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 1973): Edward G. Gibson, The Quiet Sun , NASA SP-303 (Washington, 1973); Riccardo Giacconi and Herbert Gursky. eds X-ray Astronomy (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974); Stuart Ross Taylor. Lunar Science. A Post-Apollo View (New York: Pergamon Press, 1975). Nicholas M. Short, Planetary Geology (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975): R. Grant Athay, The Solar Chromosphere and Corona: Quiet Sun (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1976).

2. Hess and Mead, eds. Introduction to Space Science. Lloyd V. Berkner and Hugh Odishaw, eds., Science in Space (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1961).

3. Horner E. Newell, "A New Laboratory-How to Work in It," address before American Physical Society, Washington. 29 Apr. 1965.

4. Newell, "NASA's Space Science and Applications Program." statement to Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 20 Apr. 1967.

5. Homer E. Newell and Leonard Jaffe, "Impact of Space Research on Science and Technology," Science 157 (7 July 1967): 29-39.

6. George Gamov, One Two Three-Infinity (New York: The New American Library, 1947). pp. 253-314; idem, The Birth and Death of the Sun (ibid., 1952): Fred Hoyle, Frontiers of Astronomy (ibid., 1955); D. W. Sciama, The Unity of the Universe (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1959).

7 . Giacconi and Gursky, X-ray Astronomy.

8. Pittendrigh et al., Biology and the Exploration of Mars.

9. Bernard H. Chovitz, "Geodesy," in Collier's Encyclopedia, 10 (New York: Crowell-Collier Educational Corp., 1972):629-38.

10. John O'Keefe to Newell. 22 June 1978, comments on draft Newell MS., NF40; Chovitz. "Geodesy," p. 638, Short; Planetary Geodesy, pp. 72-75.

11. Charles Y. Johnson, "llasic E and F Region Acrononly," presented at Defense Nuclear Agency Symposium, Stanford Research Institute, Aug. 1971; A. P. Willmore, "Exploration of the Ionosphere from Satellites," Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 36 (Dec. 1974): 2255-86.

12. S. A. Bowhill, "Investigation of the Ionosphere by Space Techniques "Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 36 (Dec. 1974): 2240.

13. H. Friedman, "Solar Ionizing Radiation," ibid., p. 2252.

14. Willmore, "Exploration of the Ionosphere from Satellites," p. 2279.

15. Batter. Physics of Planetary Ionospheres, p. 6.

16. W. R. Bandeen and S. P. Maran, eds., Possible Relationships between Solar Activity and Meteorological Phenomena, GSFC symposium, 74 Nov. 1973, NASA SP-366 (Washington, 1975).

17. Significant Achievements in Space Science 1965, NASA SP-136. (Washington, 1967). pp. 40-42.

18. Gerard P. Kuiper, ed., The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, 2d ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pressi. 19.52); Gerard P. Kuiper and Barbara Middlehurst, eds., Planets and Satellites (ibid.. 1961).

19. Short, Planetary Geology, pp. 249, 282-87.

20. Ibid., p. 285.

21. Ibid p. 292.

22. Bauer, Physics of Planetary Ionospheres, pp. 194-203.

23. Short, Planetary Geology, p. 291.

24. Robert L. Carovillano et al.. eds., Physics of the Magnetosphere (Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1968); B. M. McConnac. ed., Earth's Magnetospheric Processes (ibid.. 1972); idem, Magnetospheric Physics (ibid., 1974): V. Formisano. ed., The Magnetospheres of the Earth and Jupiter (ibid., 1975); Syun-Ichi Akasofu, Physics of Magnelospheric Substorms (ibid., 1977).

25. Forinisano, Magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter; K. Knott and B. Battrick. eds., The Scientific Satellite Programme during the International Magnetospheric Study (Dordrecht- Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1976).

26. E. N. Parker, "Solar Wind Interaction with the Geomagnetic Field," in Magnetospheric Physics, ed. Williams and Mead. pp. 3-9; idem, "Dynamical Properties of the Magnetosphere." in Physics of the Magneosphere, ed. Carovillano etal., pp. 3-64.

27. Formisano. Magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter.

28. Zdenck Kopal. The Solar System (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972).p. 15.

29. Significant Achievements in Planetology. 1958-1964, NASA SP-99 (Washington, 1966), p.13.

30. Ibid- pp. 14-46; Significant Achievements in Space Science 1965, pp. 139-10.

31. N. F. Ness et al., "The Magnefic Field of Mercury," pt. 1, Journal of Geophysical Research 80 (July 1975): 2708-16.

32. Y. C. Whang. "Magnetospheric Magnetic Field of Mercury," Journal of Geophysical Research 82 (Mar. 1977): 1024-30.

33. Short, Planetary Geology, p. 291.

34. Formisano, Magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter.

35. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff, Mariner Mission to Venus (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963).

36. Short, Planetary Geology, pp. 2.12-81; Stewart A. Collins. The Mariner 6 and 7 Pictures of Mars, NASA SP-263 (Washington. 1971); William K. Hartmann and Odell Raper. The New Mars: The Discoveries of Mariner 9, NASA SP-337 (Washington, 1974).

37. Short, Planetary Geology, p. 284; Hartmann and Raper. The New Mars, pp. 48-12.

38. Short, Planetary Geology, pp. 284-90.

39. Ibid.,p. 285; NASA release 76-153. 10 Sept. 1976.

40. Paul D. Lowman, Jr., "The Geologic Evolution of the Moon," The Journal of Geology 80 (Mar. 1972): 125-126; Taylor, Lunar Science; Short, Planetary Geology, pp. 196-210.

41. Yosio Nakamura et al., "Deep Lunar Interior Inferred from Recent Scismic Data." Geophysical Research Letters (July 1974): 137-40.

42. Short, Planetary Geology, pp. 287-89.

43. Ibid., pp. 255-59.

44. Paul D. Lowman, Jr., "Crustal Evolution in Silicate Planets: Implications for the Origin of Continents," Journal of Geology 84 (Jan. 1976): 1-26.

45. Short, Planetary Geology, p. 292.

46. Ibid., pp. 231-32.

47. Viking I: Early Results, NASA SP-408 (Washington, 1976), pp. 59-63; American Geophysical Union, Scientific Results of the Viking Project. collection of reprints from the Journal of Geophysical Research (Washington, 1977).

48. Hartmann and Raper, The New Mars, p. 65.

49. Robert J. Davis, William A. Deutschman, and Katherine L. I Haramundanis, The Celescope Catalog of Ultraviolet Stellar Observations (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1973).

50. Bruno Rossi, "X-ray Astronomy," in "Discoveries and Interpretations: Studies in Contemporary Scholarship." 2, Daedalus, Fall 1977 (issued as vol. 106, no. 4, of the Proceedings of the Academy of Arts and Sciences), pp. 37-58.

51. Riccardo Giacconi, introduction to X-ray Astronomy, ed. Giacconi and Gursky., p. 6.

52. Ibid., pp. 8-11.

53. Ibid- pp. 11-12.

54. T. A. Chubb and H. Friedman, "Glimpsing the Hidden X-ray Universe," and Astronautics and Aeronautics 7 (Mar. 1969): 50-55.

55. Giacconi, introduction to X-ray Astronomy, pp. 15-19.

56. Giacconi, "X-ray Sky," chap. in X-ray Astronomy, pp. 155-68.

57. Ricardo, Giacconi, "Progress in X-ray Astronomy," talk presented at Thirty-fourth Richmeyer Memorial Lecture of American Association of Physics Teachers, Anaheim, Calif., .30 Jan. 1975, Preprint Series No. 304, Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 8-19.

58. Ibid., p. 21.

59. Gursky and Ruffini, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and Binary X-ray Sources, app. 1, pp. 259-317.

60. Henry Norris Russell, Raymond Smith Dugan, and John Quincy Stewart, Astronomy, 2 vols. (New York: Ginn and Co., 1927); Edward G. Gibson, The Quiet Sun, NASA SP-303 (Washington, 1973).

61. Giuseppe Vaiana and Wallace Tucker, "Solar X-ray Emission," chapter in X-ray Astronomy, ed. Giacconi and Gursky. pp. 171-78; Gibson The Quiet Sun, pp. 7-30.

62. Leo Goldberg, in a foreword to Gibson's The Quiet Sun.

63. Richard Tousey. "Some Results of Twenty Years of Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Research." The Astrophysical Journal 149 (Aug. 1967): 239-52 plus plates: Kenneth G. Widing, "Solar Research from Rockets and Satellites," Astronautics and Aeronautics 7 (Mar. 1969): 36-13.

64. Tousey, "Twenty Years of Ultraviolet Solar Research." plates 19-28.

65. Vaiana and Tucker, "Solar X-ray Emission."

66. Ibid., p. 197.

67. Ibid., pp. 183-84.

68. Ibid., pp. 187-90.