Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978
- SOURCE NOTES FOR INTRODUCTION
AND CHAPTER 1
- 1. This introductory
section is based on notes taken by the authors during the mission
and tape recordings of communications audio circuits. See Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), "Viking Status Report," 2:00 a.m.
PDT, 20 July 1976; and Roy Calvin. "Viking: Intellect and
Ingenuity Triumphant, " Martin Marietta Today, no. 3 (1976):
- 2. Calvin. "Viking:
Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant, "pp. 3-4; and "Viking Status
Report," 4:15 a.m. PDT, 20 July 1976.
- 3. Calvin, "Viking:
Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant," p. 4.
- Chapter 1
- 1. A recent treatment of
Lowell's work is William Graves Hoyt, Lowell and Mars (Tucson:
Univ. of Arizona Press, 1976). See Brian W. Aldiss, Billion Year
Spree: The True History of Science Fiction (Garden City, N.Y.:
Schocken Books, 1973); and Robert M. Philmus, Into the Unknown:
The Evolution of science Fiction from Francis Godwin to H.G. Wells
(Berkeley, Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Press, 1970).
- 2. Robert Philmus and
David Y. Hughes, eds., H. G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and
Science Fiction (Berkeley, Los Angeles: Univ. of Calif. Press,
1975), pp. 175-78.
- 3. Willy Ley and Chesley
Bonestell, The Conquest of Space (New York: Viking Press, 1949),
pp. 105-15; and Alfred Wallace, Is Mars Habitable? (London:
Macmillan and Co., 1907). Wallace (1823-1913), best known for his
independent anticipation of Darwin's work on the origin of
species, developed a cogent and amazingly accurate description of
the climatic conditions on Mars. He argued that the average
temperature would be about-40°C and that few life forms could
survive such temperatures. He also predicted that the surface
would be cratered and that the polar caps consisted of frozen
- 4. Ernst Stahlinger et
al., eds., Astronautical Engineering and Science: From
Peenemünde to Planetary Space, Honoring the Fiftieth Birthday
of Wernher von Braun (New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill,
1963), p. 371; and Wernher von Braun, "Des Marsprojekt: Studie
einer interplanetarischen Expedition," Weltraumfahrt, special
issue, 1952, trans. as The Mars Project (Urbane, III.: Univ. of
Illinois Press, 19S3).
- 5. Von Braun, The Mars
Project, pp. 2-5, 65-66, 75-76.
- 6. Ibid. p. 78.
- 7. See von Braun.
"Crossing the Last Frontier," Collier's 22 (March 1952): 22-29,
one of a series of articles: von Braun et al.. Across the Space
Frontier. ed. Cornelius Ryan (New York: Viking Press, 1952); and
von Braun. F[red] L. Whipple, and W[illy] Ley, Conquest of the
Moon, ed. Ryan (New York: Viking Press. 1953).
- 8. Von Braun, with Ryan,
''Can We Get to Mars," Collier's 30 (April 1954): 22-29.
- 9. Ibid.. p 23. Von
Braun's plans for a Mars venture were elaborated in Ley and von
Braun. The Exploration of Mars (New York: Viking Press.
- 10. House Select
Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, The Next Ten
Years in Space, 1959-l969 staff .rpt., H., doc. 115, 86th Cong.,
1st sess. (henceforth 86/1), 2 Jan. 2 1959, p. 211.
- 11. Army Ballistic
Missile Agency, Development Operations Div., "Proposal: A National
Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program," rpt.
D-R-37, 10 Dec. 1957, JSC History Archives.
- 12. Lloyd S. Swenson.
Jr.. James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This
New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp.
- 13. NACA, Special
Committee on Space Technology, Working Group on Vehicular Program,
"A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development
Program, " 18 July 1958, JSC History Archives.
- 14. Robert L. Rosholt,
An Administrative History of NASA, l958-l963, NASA SP-4101
(Washington, 1966). pp. 19-70.
- 15. Eli Ginzberg et
al., Economic Impact of Large Public Programs: The NASA Experience
(Salt Lake City) Olympus 1976), p. 83.
- 16. William D. Metz,
''Report on Astronomy: A New Golden Age,'' Science 177 (21 July
- 17. Ginzberg et al.,
Economic Impact, pp. 81-86 ff; J. Tuzo Wilson, I.G.Y.:The Year of
New Moons (New York: Knopf, 1961), pp. 9-10; and Homer E. Newell
interview by Edward C. Ezell, 25 May 1977.
- 18. Leo Goldberg,
"Research with Solar Satellites," Astrophysical Journal 191 (1
July 1974): 1-37.
- 19. Ginzberg et al.,
Economic Impact, p. 90.
- 20. Singer's role in
the IGY satellite project is detailed in Homer E. Newell's
the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211, 1980; and Constance McLaughlin Green
and Milton Lomask, Vanguard:
A History, NASA SP-4202
- 21. Green and Lomask,
Vanguard, p. 23.
- 22. Newell discusses
the satellite race in chap. 7 of his Beyond the Atmosphere.
- 23. Charles M. Atkins,
"NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of
Sciences," NASA HHN-62, Sept. 1966, p. 13; Hugh Odishaw to Detlev
Bronk, 24 Dec. 1957, "Space Science Board" file, NASA History
Off.; and Lloyd V. Berkner and Odishaw, eds., Science in Space
(New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1961), p. 429. Unless
otherwise stated. all unpublished Space Science Board materials
are in the NASA History Off. Archives.
- 24. Newell, Beyond the
Atmosphere, chap. 8.
- 25. Ibid.
- 26. Ibid.
- 27. Space Science
Board, "Minutes of the Second Meeting," 19 July 1958, pp.
- 28. Douglas Aircraft
Co., Inc., Missile and Space Systems Div., "The Thor History,"
Douglas rpt. SM-41860, May 1963, pp. 1-6; and Space Technology
Laboratories, "Interplanetary Probes, Tracking, and
Communications," proposal 26-17, 27 June 1958, pp. 1-8.
- 29. Space Science Board
ad hoc Committee on Interplanetary Probes and Space Stations,
"Minutes," 13 Sept. 1958, pp. 2-3.
- 30. Odishaw`` to F.
Krith Glennan, 2 Dec. 1958, with encl., Odishaw to Admin. NASA,
Dir. NSF, and Dir. ARPA, "Memorandum Report," I Dec. 1958, p.
- 31. R. Cargill Hall,
Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), p. 15; Harold C.
Urev, The Planets: Their Origin and Development(New Haven: Yale
Univ. Press, 1952); and Robert Jastrow, Red Giants and White
Dwarfs: The Evolution of Stars, Planets and Life (New York,
Evanston, London: Harper and Row, 1967), pp. 3-4.
- 32. William H.
Pickering to James R. Killian, 9 July 1958, NASA History Off.
Archives; and Pickering, "The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the
U.S. Space Program," draft [ca. 1958], box 15, House Off., Off. of
Science and Technology, Eisenhower Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Library, Abilene, Kans.
- 33. R. Cargill Hall,
Project Ranger: A Chronology, JPL/HR-2 (Pasadena, 1971),pp. 14,
46-47,56,60; and Clarence R. Gates, "Mars Proposal," JPL, 19 Sept.
- 34. John F. Froehlich,
"Minutes of Meeting on N.A.S.A. Space Program of October 27,
1958," memo, 28 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
- 35. Froehlich, "Minutes
of Meeting No. 2 on N.A.S. A. Space Program Held October 28, 1958,
" memo, 29 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
- 36. Froehlich, "Minutes
of Meeting No. 3 on N.A.S.A. Space Program Held 29 October 1958,"
memo, 30 Oct. 1958, JPL Library Archives.
- 37. V. C. Larsen, Jr.,
to Abe Silverstein, 7 Nov. 1958, with encl., JPL, "Proposal for
Space Flight Program Study," JPLHF-2-260,7 Nov. 1958; Homer J.
Stewart interview, no. 13, 20 Sept. 1972, by J. H. Wilson, JPL
Library Archives; Ralph Green to G. W. Green, TWX, 18 Nov. 1958;
Hall, Project Ranger, p. 73; and J. D. McKenney, "Minutes of
Meeting of the NASA Program Study Committee with the Senior Staff,
Held Dec. 12, 1958," memo, l 5 Dec. 1958, roll 21 B2, JPL Vellum
- 38. Newell, "Conference
Report," memo for record, 18 Dec. 1958.
- 39. McKenney, "Minutes
of the Meeting of the NASA Program Study Committee and the JPL
Senior Staff with Dr. Silverstein, Dr. Stewart, Dr. Newell, and
Mr. Rosen of NASA....January 12-13, 1959," memo, 16 Jan 1959 and
"Meeting of JPL," 12 Jan. 1959, in Newell, "Conference Notes,"
notebook, box 28. Newell papers.
- 40. Newell to
Silverstein, ''Hiring of Zavasky, Schilling, Berning, Mange, and
Bordean," 11 Dec. 1958, with encl., "Objectives of Space Science
Program.'' 11 Dec. 1958. The disciplinary approach continued to be
reflected in the documents prepared by Newell's office for several
years. See NASA, Off. of Asst. Dir for Space Sciences, ''The NASA
Space Sciences Program." 16 April 1959; and NASA, Off. of Space
Flight Programs. ''Space Flight Programs,'' 1 Apr. 1960.
- 41. McKennev, ''Minutes
of the Meeting, '' 16 Jan. 1959.
- 42. Glennan to Hugh L.
Dryden, 24 Dec. 1958; arid Glennan to Homer J. Stewart, 16 Jan.
- 43. Rosholt,
Administrative History, pp. 130-31, details some of the agency's
reluctance to release even the confidential version. See JPL.
Exploration of the Moon, the Planets, and Interplanetary Space,
ed. Albert R. Hibbs, JPL report 30-1 (Pasadena, 1959); NASA,
"Minutes of Meeting of Research Steering Committee on Manned Space
Flight," 25-26 May 1959; and NASA, Off. of Program Planning and
Evaluation, "The Ten Year Plan of the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration," 18 Dec. 1959.