On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978

1. Edgar M. Cortright to Ad Hoc Committee to Name Space Science Projects and Objects, "Revised Suggestions for Lunar and Planetary Program," 18 May 1960.
2. Homer E. Newell. Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science, NASA SP-4211, 1980.
3. R. Cargill Hall, Lunar Impact: A History of Project Ranger, NASA SP-4210 (Washington, 1977), pp. 6-10; Henry L. Richter, Jr., ed., Instruments and Spacecraft, October 1957-March l965, NASA SP-3028 (Washington, 1966), pp. 31-32, 34-35, 45-46, 81, 123-24, 146; and Peter L. Smolders, Soviets in Space, trans. Marian Powell (Guildford, London: Lutterworth Press, 1973), pp. 220-21.
4. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1l960, hearings on S. 1582, 86th Cong. 1st sess. (henceforth 86/1), pt. 1, 7-10 Apr. 1959, p. 26; General Dynamics Corp. (Astronautics) Div., ''Vega, Final Technical Report, Contract NASW-45," report AP6O-0294, 25 May 1960; and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, The Vega Program, report 30-6 ( Pasadena, 1959).
5. Comptroller General of the U.S., "Report to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Review of Cancelled Atlas-Vega Launch Vehicle Development, December 1958-December 1959,'' report B133308, Apr. 1960, pp. 4, 10-12, 29-30, 32-37. See also Homer J. Stewart to T. Keith Glennan, 28 Sept. 1959; Stewart to Glennan, 14 Oct. 1959, box 7, accession 70A5793, Record Group 255, Washington National Records Ctr., Suitland, MD; Paul Means, Vega-Agena-B Mix-up Cost Missions,'' Missiles and Rockets 6(20 June 1960)): 19-20; Evert Clark, ''Vega Study Shows Early NASA Problems." Aviation Week & Space Technology 72 (27 June 1960): 62-68; and George Kistiakowsky, A Scientist at the White House: The Private Diary of President Eisenhower's Special Assistant for Science and Technology (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1976), p. 129.
6. Stewart to Glennan, "Consideration of Vega, Agena B and Centaur," 2 Oct. 1959; and R. Cargill Hall. Project Ranger: A Chronology, JPL/HR-2 (Pasadena, 1971), p. 127.
7. Hall, Lunar Impact, p. 23; Newell, "Trip Report for the Visit to Jet Propulsion Laboratory on 28 December 1959 by Homer E. Newell, Jr., Newell Sanders, J. A. Crocker, Morton J. Stroller, "memo for the record, 30 Dec. 1959 Newell notes, "Meeting at JPL. 28 Dec S9, 0900.
8. Richard E. Horner to William H. Pickering, 16 Dec. 1959. The story of ABMA's transfer to NASA is outlined in Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, (1966), pp. 45-47, 107-14,
9. Homer to Pickering, 16 Dec. 1959; and Rosholt, Administrative History, pp. 115-16.
10. Homer to Pickering, 16 Dec. 1959.
11. Robert Jastrow to Newell, "Report on December 1 Meeting of the Lunar Science Group,'' 11 Dec. 1959; and Abe Silverstein to Pickering, 21 Dec. 1959, roll 614-167, JPLVC. See also Pickering, interoffice memo no. 16, 16 Dec. I959; and J. D. Bruker, memo, Jan. 1959, roll 211-4, JPLVC.
12. Newell. "Trip Report." memo for record, 30 Dec. 1959.
13. Ibid.: and Pickering to Silverstein. 29 Dec. 1959.
14. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Scientific and Technical Programs, hearings, 87/1, 28 Feb., 1 Mar. 1961, pp. 254-65.
15. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Centaur Program, hearings before Subcommittee on Space Sciences, 87/2, 15 & 18 May 1962, p. 63.
16. Ibid pp. 4-5, 63-66; John L. Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel. 1945-1959, NASA SP-4404 (Washington, 1978), chap. 10; and Homer to Cmdr., Air Research and Development Command, 17 Aug. 1959.
17. Silverstein to Ira H. Abbott, "Establishment of Centaur Project Technical Team," 17 Nov. 1959.
18. Stewart to Glennan, ''Considerations of Vega ,Agena B and Centaur,'' 2 0ct. 1959; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space .Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1960, pp. 24-35; Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen, chap. 12: and House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Centaur Program, pp. 7-8.
19. Robert J. Parks, "Presentation of the Planetary Program," in JPL, "Planetary Program Briefing Summary, July 8, 1960, Revised as Presented," 14 July 1960, pp. 1-2.
20. Ibid., p. 3.
21. Ibid., pp. 4, 20-22.
22. NASA, "Planetary Program Chronology," encl. to "Planetary Program Briefing&emdash;October 17, 1962.''
23. JPL, "Mariner B Study Report," TM33-34, March 1961, p. 7; and JPL, "Mariner B Capsule Study, Mars 1964 Mission," Engineering Planning Document 79, 20 Apr. 1962.
24. Ibid.
25. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Instrumentation Laboratory, "A Recoverable Interplanetary Space Probe," rpt. R-235, 4 vols., 1 July 1959.
26. JPL, "Mariner B Study Report," pp. 8, 12.
27. NASA's outlook on Centaur in the spring of 1960 can be followed in: Homer to Herbert F. York (draft retyped), 7 March 1960; Homer to Bernard A. Schriever, 18 March 1960, with encls.; and Alfred J. Gardner, ''Minutes of First Meeting of Centaur Working Committee, Headquarters, NASA, Washington," 4 May 1960.
28. Don R. Ostrander to Glennan, "Centaur Program; Report of Explosion on Vertical Test Stand at Pratt and Whitney," 17 Nov. 1960.
29. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Centaur Program, p. 8.
30. Cortright to Thomas F. Dixon, "Recommendations on the Centaur Program," 17 Jan. 1961. The Able M design is described in Space Technology Laboratories, Inc., "Able Mars Feasibility Study (NASW-246)," 24 July 1961.
31. NASA, "Planetary Program Chronology."
32. Oran W. Nicks to Edward C. Ezell, 6 June l977. For Mariner R experiments, see: Charles P. Sonett to Jack James, 16 Oct. 1961; Paul J. Coleman to Silverstein. Notification for Mariner-A Experimenters of Project Cancellation," 17 Oct. 1961; Sonett to James, 26 Cct. 1961; and Coleman to Newell, "Experiments and Experimenters for the 1962 Mariner-R Mission to Venus,'' 5 Dec. 1961.
33. NASA, "Planetary Program Chronology"; and Mariner-Venus 1962 Final Project Report, NASA SP-59 (Washington, 1965), pp. 11-12.
34. Hall, Lunar Impact, p. 160.
35. Hall, Project Ranger, p. 340; Hail, Lunar Impact. pp. 160-77; Ronald J. Ostraw, "Mariner II's Space Triumph Is Result of $13-Million Battle against Odds,'' Washington Post, 17 Dec. 1962; and Jonathan Spivak, "Mariner Probe of Venus Called a Success; Power Failure Cuts Use of Relay Satellite," Wall Street Journal, 17 Dec. I962.
36. NASA, Mariner-Venus l962 Final Project Report pp. 12-15, 87-120; John E. Naugle, Unmanned Space Flight (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965). p 133: and Marcia Neugebaur et al., "The Mission of Mariner II: Preliminary Observations,'' Science 138 (7 Dec. 1962): 1095-100.
37. NASA, " Planetary Program Chronology'': and Fred D. Kochendorfer to Chairman, Space Sciences Steering Committee, "Scientific Experiments for the 1964 Mariner C Mission to Mars,'' 18 Mar. 1963.
38. NASA, "Membership of Space Sciences Steering Committee and Subcommittees," circular 125, 7 Feb. 1 96 1; and NASA, "Space Science and Applications Steering Committee. " NASA Management Instruction 1152.51, 5 Nov. 1973. See also Space Science Board, "Minutes of the First Meeting, Committee on Chemistry of Space and Exploration of Moon and Planers of the Space Science Board," 13 Nov. 1958; and Space Science Board, ''Ad Hoc Committee on Chemistry of Space and Exploration of the Moon and Planets," interim rpt., 8 Jan. 1959.
39. Newell to Hugh Odishaw, 10 Mar. 1961.
40. Odishaw to Newell, 31 Mar. 1961, with encl., "Mariner B Consideration Planetary Atmospheres Study Croup," 31 Mar. 1961.
41. The best single source on the Apollo decision is John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge, Mass., and London: MIT Press, 1970).
42. Hall, Lunar Impact, p. 120.
43. Rosholt. Administrative History, pp. 197-239; and Hall, Lunar Impact, pp. 121-22,The changes included: 1. All of the centers, including JPL and the new Manned Spacecraft Center to be established in Houston, reported directly to Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamens, Jr., on all matters concerning institutional operations. 2. Headquarters program offices for Advanced Research Programs (Ira H. Abbbott), Space Flight Programs (Abe Silverstein). Launch Vehicle Programs (Don Ostrander), and Life Science Programs (Charles Roadman) were abolished. 3. Those offices were replaced by four new ones&emdash;Advanced Research and Technology (Abbott), Space Sciences (Newell),.Manned Space Flight (D. Brainerd Holmes brought in from RCA), and Applications (vacant). An agency-wide support office for Tracking and Data Acquisition (Edmond Buckley) was also established. These program offices were to supervise the projects run by the field centers in their areas of responsibility.
44. The Mariner B experiment selection process can be followed in the following representative documents: Newell, memo 7 Apr. 1961: Sonett to Pickering. 25 Apr. 1961: Roger C. Moore to Silverstein. ''List of Tentative Experiments and Experimenters Recommended for 1964 Mariner B Mission to Mars (P-70). 18 0ct. 1961; Silverstein to Pickering, 19 Oct. 1961: Moore and Coleman to Sonett, TWX, 18 0ct. 1961; Moore to Silverstein, ''Research Proposal for Mariner B Instrumentation .Support, 25 Oct. 1961; Coleman to Thomas L.. K. Smull, "Disposition of Mariner B Proposals. 2 Nov. 1961; Coleman to Smull, "Additional Rejected Mariner-B Proposals," 29 Nov. 1961; Sonett to Parks. 13 Dec. 1961; Moore to Newell, "Revised List of Experimenters Recommended for 1964 Mariner mission to Mars (P70 and P71)," 3 May 1962; Newell to Pickering, 4 May 1962; .and Newell to Harry J. Goett. ''1964 Mariner B Mission to Mars," 4 May 1962, with encls.
45. Sonett to Nicks, ''Problems Requiring Clarification and/or Decisions," 19 Feb. 1962; and Newell to Pickering, 4 May 1962.
46. Newell to Robert E. Bottrdeau, 4 May 1962.
47. Kochendorfer to Parks. 10 May 1962; and Newell to Goett, "Proposed Project Development Plan for Planetary capsule, " 14 May 1962.
48. Coleman to Nicks, "Status of the Scientific Payloads of the Mariner B Bus and Capsule (as of June 1, 1962),''18 June 1962; Coleman to Newell ,''A Radio Propagation Experiment for the Mariner-B Mission.'' 17 Aug. 1962; and Newell to Goett, ''Electron Experiment for the Mariner-B Program,'' 5 Sept. 1962.
49. NASA, "Planetary Program Chronology"; and NASA, Off. of Space Sciences, Mariner Project, "Administrator's Progress Report,'' 31 Aug. 1962.
50. Glenn A. Reiff, "Mariner for Mars 1964 Meeting," memo, 17 Sept. 1962.
51. Parks to Nicks, 20 Sept. 1962.
52. Ibid.
53. D. L. Forsythe to Newell, "Program Management for Light and Medium Launch Vehicles," 18 Sept. 1962. Also see Erasmas H. Kloman, "Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter; Case Studies of Project Management,'' 30 June 1970, p. 11-5, prepared under contract for the Off. of Space Sciences, MS. In NASA History Off. Archives.
54. Wernher von Braun to Newell. 20 Sept. 1962; and Newell to von Braun. 29 Mar. 1961, in which Centaur payload needs were clearly delineated.
55. Sparks to Newell, 13 Sept. 1962, encl.
56. Ibid.
57. Ibid.
58. Sparks to Newell, 2 Oct. 1962; Thomas F. Dixon to Robert C. Seamans, Jr., "Implementation of Centaur Transfer,'' 4 Oct. 1962; von Braun to Div. Directors and Off. Chiefs, "Centaur Transfer," 16 0ct. 1962: Seamans to Silverstein and von Braun, "Centaur Development Project," 24 Oct. 1962; J. R. Dempsey to ''Full .Supervision'' distr., "Centaur Reorganization," General Dynamics/Astronautics notice l9, 9 Nov. 1962: KIoman, "Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter," pp. II-9,II-l0; and Philip Geddes. Centaur: How It Was Put Back on Track," Aerospace Management 7 (Apr. 1964): 24-29.
59. Newell to Sparks, 23 Oct. 1962.
60. Donald P. Hearth, ''Voyager Mariner B Discussions, 17 December l962," memo for record, 3 Jan. 1963.
61. Newell to Goett, "Study of Capsule Development for Mariner B," 21 Dec. 1962; and Nicks to Parks, 21 Dec. 1962.
62. Kochendorfer to Nicks, "Redirection of Mariner B," 4 Mar. 1963; and Kochendorfer to Nicks, "Redirection of Mariner B, Addendum I," 14 Mar. 1963.
63. Newell interview by Edward C. Ezell. 25 May 1977; and Kennedy Space Center, A Summary of Major NASA Launchings KSC: Historical Rpt. 1, pp. B-6. B-10.