SP-4213 THE HUMAN FACTOR: Biomedicine in the Manned Space Program to 1980

 

Appendix D

 

NASA'S LIFE SCIENCES PROGRAMS, 1958-1980: RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, INFLIGHT EXPERIMENTS

 

[281] This appendix consists of three charts Chart 1 surveys the committees whose recommendations have influenced NASA's long-range planning in biomedical research and development Chart 2 outlines the experiment protocols for extended manned flights as embodied in the integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System.

 

Chart 1. Long-Range Planning for Biomedical investigations in Space: Technical Review Committees and Their Recommendations

 

Year

Committee

Sponsor

Members

Recommendations

.

1958

Working Group on Human Factors and Training of the Special Committee on Space Technology

NACA/NASA

W. Randolph Lovelace, II, MD,* Lovelace Foundation for Medical Research

A. Scott Crossfield, North American Aviation

Hubert M. Drake, NASA High-Speed Flight Station

Gen Donald D. Flickinger, M.D., USAF

Col. Edward B. Ciller, USAF

James B. Hardy, Ph.D, Naval Air Development Center

Wright H. Langham, Los [282] Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Ulrich C Luit. MD, PhD, Lovelace Foundation

Boyd C Myers, NASA, Secretary

1. Determine"fine" and 'gross" degradations resulting from acceleration forces in terms of performance, reversible tissue damage, and shortand long-term irreversible tissue damage

2. Determine physiological effects of and countermeasures against high-intensity radiation, cosmic radiation, and solar flares.

3. Determine physio logical effects of "artificial" factors such as leakage from nuclear pro pulsive systems and ionization resulting from f light.

4 . Study requirements for human information pro cessing, displays and controls, and "closed cycle living."

5. Conduct research and development for en vironmental control systems to support men for flights up to six months in duration. 6 Refine procedures for selecting space crews and develop flight systems and simulators for continuing evaluation of selection and training criteria

.

1958-1960

Special Committee on Life Sciences

NASA Administrator

Lovelace*

Capt Norman Barr, M. D., Naval Bureau of Medicine

Lt Cmbr lohn Ebersole, M. D., Naval Fleet Medical Officer

Gen. Donald Flickinger, M. D., USAF Director of Bioastronautics

Lt. Col Robert Holmes, M. D., Army Medical Research and Development Command

Wright Langham, Ph. D., Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Robert Livingston, M. D., NIMH

Orr Reynolds, Ph.D., DoD Office of Research and Engineering

Boyd C Myers, NASA, Secretary

No specific report or recommendations Served as advisory body for selection and training of Mercury astronauts. development, testing, and evaluation of Mercury life-support systems, and formation of Mercury inflight medical monitoring

.

[283] 1960

Biosciences Advisory Committee

NASA Administrator

Seymour Kety, M.D.,* NIH

David Coddard, Ph.D., Dept of Botany, Univ. of Pennsylvania

Donal C. Marquis, Ph.D, MIT

Wallace Fenn, Ph. D., School of Medicine and Surgery, Univ of Rochester

Robert S Morrison, M.D., Rockefeller Foundation

Cornelius Tobias, Ph. D., Univ. of California

Development of broad research program to encompass"basic biology" (search for extraterrestrial life and data related to biogenesis); applied medicine and biology" (physiological effects on man in flight of weightlessness, acceleration forces, radiation, closed environments, changes in circadian rhythm, and toxicity and contamination), and basic medical and behavioral sciences" (respiratory physiology, circulatory physiology, metabolism, neurophysiology, and behavior)

.

1962

Working Croup on Biology, Space Science Board Summer Study to Review Space Research

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

Allan H. Brown, Ph D.. Dept of Botany, Univ. of Pennsylvania*

Colin Pittendrigh, Dept. of Biology, Princeton Univ.

Nine academic biologists

Three government agency biologists

One research foundation biologist

One academic biophysicist

One academic M.D.

One government agency physician

Develop techniques for identifying evidence of extraterrestrial life, steriliaing spacecraft, and preventing backcontamination Conduct research and development on bioregenerative lifesupport systems for manned spaceflights. Conduct inflight and groundbased research to study effects of gravity and nullgravity, alterations in biological rhythms, and radiation on biological systems

.

[284] Working Group on NASA and NAS Space Science Board Space Probe Sterilization of Ibid

.

Allan H. Brown*

Six academic biologists

Three research group bioscientists

One government agency biologist

One military biologist

Conduct research and development to identify best technique or combination of techniques (heat, radiation, chemicals) to sterilize space probes and prevent biological contamination of moon and planets and back-contamination of Earth

.

Working Group on Man as Scientist in Space Exploration, Ibid

NAS Space Science Board

Norton Nelson,M.D., New York University

Five academic biologists

Two academic biophysicists

Two academic bioengineers

Two academic geologists

Two academic astronomers

One academic psychologist

One government agency biologist

Two government agency physicians

One government agency geologist

Three government agency (NASA) bioengineers

One research foundation biologist

One research foundation biophysicist

Two industry enginneers

One industry [285] physician

One military psychologist

1. Train astronauts to conduct scientific investigations (particularly in biology, geology, and astronomy)

2. Plan to establish permanent science laboratory on Moon

3. Plan manned orbital research laboratory with primary emphasis on biomedical experiments

4. Conduct research and development to support manned flight to Mars with primary objective to conduct biological investigations.

5. Develop programs for training space scientists and for selecting scientistastronauts

.

1963

Life Sciences Consultant Report 7

NASA Administrator

Nello Pace, Ph.D., Univ. of California

Conduct research and development to support a program in inflight biological investigations using automated systems, small biological packages, and primates

.

Biomedical Experiments Working Group

NASA Office of Manned Space Flight

Unidentified

Detailed in Chap.4

.

1964

Space Medicine Advisory Group

NASA Office of Manned Space Flight

Sherman P. Vinograd, M.D., NASA*

Andres I. Karsten, M D., USAF Aerospace Medical Division, cochairmen

Six academic physicians

Two government agency physicians

Two military physicians

Four academic biologists

One government agency biologist

One academic pharmacologist

One academic biochemist

Three academic psychologists

Detailed in Chap.4

1965

Working Group on Fundamental Biology for Summer Study, Space Research- Directions for Future

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

Allan H. Brown, Ph.D., Dept of Botany, Univ. of Pennsylvania

[286] Six academic biologists

 

Emphasize research in environmental biology (biological effects of radiation, alterations in biorhythms, variations in gravity) and in human tolerance to variables of space environment Develop exobiology pro gram with emphasis on search for life on Mars. Conduct research and development to improve Biosatellite, refine techniques for spacecraft sterilization, and develop an automated biological laboratory for use in Planetary expIoration

Working Croup on Medicine and Physiology

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

Loren D. Carlson, Ph.D., Dept of Physiology, Univ. of Kentucky

Three academic physicians

One industry physician

One research foundation physician

Two academic biologists

 

Emphasis on development of an orbital research laboratory for medical, physiological, and behavioral investigations in extended-duration flight Enhanced program of ground-based research in fundamental medicine, physiology, and behavior

.

1966

American institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS)

NASA Office of Space Sciences

Robert Lindberg, Ph.D., Northrop Corp Laboratories

Elie A. Schneour, Ph.D., Dept. of Molecular and Genetic Biology, Univ. of Utah

Ralph Baker, Ph.D., Dept of Botany, Colorado State Univ.

Theodore Sudia, Ph.D., AIBS

Gilbert Levin, [287] Ph.D., Biospherics Research, Inc.

George K Davis, Ph.D., Dept. of 8iological Sciences, Univ. of Florida

Support research and development for a manned orbiting research laboratory having primary objective of conducting research into effects of space environment on Earth organisms, the value of bioregenerative life support systems, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the assessment of techniques and technologies for remote sensing life detection.

.

Study Group on Biology and the Exploration of Mars

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

Colin Pittendrigh, Ph. D., Dept of Biology, Univ. of Pittsburgh

Joshua Lederberg, Ph.D.

Thirty-six biological scientists drawn primarily from academia

"Biological exploration" of Mars should be a major program objective of the 1970s, with primary emphasis on automated systems and remote observation and investigation

.

1970

Study to Review NASA Life Science Programs

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

H. Bentley G lass, Ph.D., Dept of Biology, State Univ. of New York*

One academic physician

One government agency physician

Three research hospital physicians

Three academic biologists

1. Make unmanned investigations of exobiology and planetary biology prime objectives of 1970s.

2. Development programs for biological experimentation in Skylab and Shuttle programs

3 Establish strong program of research in clinical medicine, man-oriented biomedicine and animal bioscience to establish baselines and predictive values for extendedduration manned flights

4 Establish a special research group to study requirements in biotechnology and bioinstrumentation for extended-duration manned fIights.

.

Working Group on [288] Infectious Disease in Manned Spaceflight

NASA and NAS Space Science Board

John Spizizen, M D., Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation

Three academic physicians

One military physician

One academic biologist

 

1. Development of a pro gram of preflight quarantine and isolation as "highest priority."

2. Use of immunological and microbiological screening and surveillance tech niques in selection of flight crews

3. Research program to identify critical microorganisms and to evaluate viability, replicability, and mutability in space environment

4. Active research and development program to identify effective countermeasures.

.

1978

Life Sciences Advisory Committee

NASA Advisory Council

G Donald Whedon, M.D., NIH*

Two academic physicians

Two research foundation physicians

One government agency physician

One military physician

One academic biochemist

Two academic geologists

One academic biologist

Three academic engineers

One government agency agronomist

Detailed in Chap.12

* Denotes committee chairman.

 

[289] Chart 2. Biomedical investigations for Extended-Duration (Post-Skylab) Manned Spaceflight Programs

 

Medical/Behavioral Measurement Capability of integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System

 

I. NEUROLOGICAL

 

II. CARDIOVASCULAR

PROVIDE FOR INSTALLATION IF REQUIRED:

 

[290] III. RESPIRATORY

 

IV. METABOLISM AND NUTRITION

tClinical laboratory evaluations-see list under area IX

 

PROVIDE FOR INSTALLATION IF REQUIRED:

 

[291] IV. METABOLISM AND NUTRITION (continued)

 

V. ENDOCRINOLOGY

 

VI. HEMATOLOGY

 

Vll. MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

 

VIII. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS

 

IX. CLINICAL LABORATORY EVALUATIONS

 

[292] IX. CLINICAL LABORATORY EVALUATIONS(continued)

 

 

[293] IX. CLINICAL LABORATORY EVALUATIONS (continued)

 

  • Immunoglobulins and fibrinogen
  • Transferrins
  • Hemoglobin
  • Methemoglobin

On board if have electrophoresis

 

PROVIDE FOR INCLUSIONS IF REQUIRED:

 


+ Government-furnished equipment.
*Pi-postflight evaluation of inflight samples.
**p&p-pre- and postflight


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