SP-4213 THE HUMAN FACTOR: Biomedicine in the Manned Space Program to 1980

 

[227-253] Source notes

 

CHAPTER 1

1. Eloise Engel and Arnold Lott, Man in Flight: Biomedical Achievements in Aerospace (Annapolis: Leeward, 1979), pp 74, 76, 212-15. See also Martin Coland, "Men and Machines: Perspectives from the History of Flight," in Theodore C. Bedwell and Hubertus Strughold, eds. 8ioastronautics and the Exploration of Space (Brooks AFB, Tex: Aerospace Medical Division, 1964), pp. 417-19.

2. Engel and Lott, Man in Flight, pp 33-34.

3. ibid, pp. 212-15.

4. ibid, pp. 34-37.

5. ibid., pp. 38-41.

6. ibid, pp. 41-61 See also Mae Mills Link, Space Medicine in Project Mercury, NASA SP-4003 (Washington, 1965), pp. 13-14.

7. Mae Mills Link and Hubert A. Coleman, Medical Support of the Army Air Force in World War II (Washington: Office of the Surgeon General of the Air Force, 1955), pp. 230-51.

8. Link, Space Medicine, pp. 14-18.

9. Engle and Lott, Man in Flight pp. 112-16.

10. Official biography, Office of information, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), Brooks AFB, Tex, 1962, copy in Biography files, NASA History Office (hereafter NASA HO). Biographies of Strughold are numerous.

11. Harry C Armstrong, "Origins of Space Medicine," U.S Armed Forces Med J. 10 (1959): 390-9S, "Historical," in Harry C. Armstrong, ed., Aerospace Medicine, pp 1-17. The general lines of research conducted at, or sponsored by, the school are reflected in Lectures in Aerospace Medicine, published annually from 1948 under various editors and containing papers presented at the school's annual symposia in aerospace medicine, and in published reports of papers presented at special symposia sponsored by the school in 1951, 1958, 1964, and 1968. The first collection was published as Physics and Medicine of the Upper Atmosphere; the later collections all have the title Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space.

12. Strughold's articles include "Basic Environmental Problems Seen by a Biologist," and "Atmospheric Space Equivalence," both in J. Aviat. Med. 25 (1954): 420-24.

13. Link and Coleman, Medical Support, pp 230-40.

14. Otto Gauer and Heinz Haber, "Man under Gravity-Free Conditions," in U S Air Force, German Aviation Medicine, World War II (Washington: Office of the Surgeon General of the Air Force, 1950), pp. 641-45.

15. James H. Hanrahan and David Bushnell, Space Biology: The Human Factors in Space Flight (New York: Basic Books, 1960), pp 76-77. See also Engel and Lott, Man in Flight pp. 200-202.

16. Interview, Stanley C. White, June 14, 1979

17. David G. Simons, "Use of V-2 Rockets to Convey Primates to Upper Atmosphere," Air Force Techn. Rpt. SB21, Air Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, May 1959, copy in Files, HQ AFSC, Andrews AFB, Md; James P Henry, "Animal Studies of the Sub-Gravity State during Rocket Flight," J. Aviat. Med. 23 (1952): 421 -23; Hanrahan and Bushnell, Space Biology, pp. 139-49.

18. A complete survey of research undertaken at Holloman during this period is in David Bushnell, History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics, 1948-1958 (Holloman AFB, N.M.: Air Force Missile Development Center. 1958).

19. Bushnell, History of Research, pp. 10-13; Hanrahan and Bushnell, Space Biology, pp. 86-88, 93-94; John P. Stapp, "Biodynamics of Space Flight," in Kenneth F Gantz, Man in Space Program of the U.S. Air Force (New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1959), pp. 63-68.

20. Engel and Lott, Man in Flight pp. 18-27, David G. Simons, "Observations in High-Altitude, Sealed-Cabin Balloon Flights," in Gantz, Man in Space, pp. 133-160.

21. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Space Research in the Life Sciences, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (henceforth 8612), July 15, 1960, pp. 128-65.

22. Ibid., pp. 173-88.

23. W. Randolph Lovelace II, chairman, "Report of the Working Group on Human Factors and Training to the Special Committee on Space Technology," Oct. 27, 1958; copies in various locations including Administrator's (Glennan) Correspondence and Files, NASA HO.

24. The many sources that describe the state of biomedicine and the principal biomedical problems are listed in the bibliography. Significant sources include the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Space Medicine Research, 86/2, June 15-16, 1960; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Project Mercury: Man in Space Program of the NASA, 86/1, Dec. 1959, pp 30-51; S B Sells and Charles A. Berry, "Human Requirements for Space Flight," in Gantz, Man in Space, pp. 161-77.

25. Sells and Berry, "Human Requirements," p. 161; Robert Voas, "Project Mercury Astronaut Training Program," in Bernard Flaherty, ed., Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight (New York: Columbia Univ. Press,1961), p. 96; Senate, Project Mercury, pp. 44-45.

26. Senate, Project Mercury, pp. 35-36; Sells and Berry, "Human Requirements," p. 161.

27. Charles A. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparation," in Mercury Project Summary, NASA SP-45 (Washington, 1963), p 199.

28. Lovelace, "Report of Working Group on Human Factors"; similar concerns were expressed by members of the Armed Forces-National Research Council (AF-NRC) Committee on Bioastronautics, which included representatives from the academic community Complete minutes of this group are in the archives of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS); minutes of some meetings are in NASA HO files.

29. Senate, Space Research in the Life Sciences, pp. 59-60, 69, 128-29, 173.

30. Gen. Thomas D. White, "The Inevitable Climb to Space," in Gantz, Man in Space, p. xv.

31. Gen. Donald G. Flickinger, "The U.S. Air Force Human-Factors Program," and Gen. Homer A. Boushey, "Blueprints for Space," both in Gantz, Man in Space, pp 238-58; "Outline History of the USAF Man-in-Space Research and Development Program," Missiles and Rockets 10 (1962): 145-50; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Missile Development and Space Sciences, 86/1, Feb.-Mar 1959.

32. "MER Il: Navy Manned Satellite Study," Dec. 1958, contract prepared by Convair Division, General Dynamics Corp. tech rpt extracted from NASA RECON. See also Loyd S. Swenson, Jr. James M Grimwood, and Charles C Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 100-01.

33. "Project Adam Chronology" and "Development Proposal for Project Adam," undated manuscripts in Manned Spaceflight files, NASA HO; Gerathewohl interview; Link, Space Medicine, pp. 26-27; Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 99-100.

34 Details of the evolution of NACA's interest in astronautics are given in Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 55-106.

35. The politics of these decisions is discussed in several studies, including Swenson, et al, This New Ocean, and John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965).

36. Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 96-106.

 

CHAPTER 2

 

1. Charles A. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," in Project Mercury Summary, NASA SP-45 (Washington, Oct. 1963), p. 199.

2. Staff lists are in the Administration, Project Mercury, and Office of Manned Space Flight files, NASA HO. Biographical details on NASA Headquarters and Space Task Group personnel are in Biography files, NASA HO, and in Loyd S. Swenson, lames M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966), pp. 109-14.

3. For congressional and military opposition to a buildup in in-house biomedical capabilities, see House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration, Astronautics and Space Exploration, 85th Cong., 2d sess (hereafter 85/2), April 15-30 and May 1-12, 1958, pp. 1216-33.

4. Glennan interview.

5. Ibid.

6. For a survey of the patterns of organization and management within NACA and their relationship to NASA organization and management, see Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, p 55-108.

7. W. L. Hjornevik, memo to Glennan, "Biomedical Interests of NASA," Jan. 2, 1959, copy in Administrator's Correspondence and Files&emdash;Glennan, NASA HO

8. Mae Mills Link, Space Medicine in Project Mercury, NASA SP-4003 (Washington, 1965), p 44; Stanley C. White interview, June 14, 1979.

9. This is based on information provided during interviews with Randt Glennan, Vinograd, Naugle, Reynolds, and others. Biographical details on Lovelace are in the Biography files, NASA HO. He is also discussed by Link, in Space Medicine, pp. 3-7.

10. The other members of the committee are identified in the appendixes

11. See "Report of the Working Group on Human Factors." Oct. 1958, in Administrator's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO

12. Hjornevik, "Bio-medical Interests of NASA."

13. Glennan interview This was implemented via Special Orders A-1157 (DAF), Apr. 1, 1959, "Agreements between the Departments of Defense, Army, Navy, and Air Force, and the NASA Concerning the Detailing of Military Personnel for Service with NASA," signed by Glennan on Feb. 24, 1959, and approved by Eisenhower on Apr. 13, 1959.

14. Link, Space Medicine, p. 63.

15. Ibid., p 44; White interview.

16. White interview and Biography files, NASA HO. See also Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 25-28; Link, Space Medicine, pp. 24-25.

17. Augerson interview and Biography files, NASA HO. See also Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 160-61; Link, Space Medicine, pp. 28-29, 45-46.

18. Politics was a factor, but its significance should not be exaggerated Augerson said his command pushed him toward special training to ensure that the Army had qualified space medical personnel available. This is substantiated by several pieces of correspondence in his personal files, which he allowed the author to read.

19. Augerson's biography is in Biography files, NASA HO.

20. Voas interview and Biography files, NASA HO. See also Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 161-63; Link, Space Medicine, pp. 45-46.

21. Robert Voas, "Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program," in Bernard Flaherty, ed., Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1961), p.97

22. Ibid. and interviews with White, Augerson, and Voas. See also Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Project Mercury: Man in-Space Program of the NASA, 86/1, Dec. 1959, pp. 42-45; Voas, "Astronaut Training," in Project Mercury Summary; Charles L. Wilson, Project Mercury Candidate Evaluation Program, Wright Air Development Center (WADC) Tech Rpt. S9-505, Dec. 1959.

23. Voas, "Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program," p. 97.

24. Ibid. and Voas interview, See also Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 161-63.

25. Voas, "Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program," p. 97; Senate, Project Mercury, pp. 40-44; William K. Douglas, "Selection and Training of Space Crews," in Lecture in Aerospace Medicine (Brooks AFB, Tex: School of Aviation Medicine, 1960), pp. 32-41; Voas interview. Voas said very few were actually rejected; most of those who did not participate declined to volunteer for fear that their regular careers would suffer.

26. Senate, Project Mercury, p. 42.

27. Ibid, pp. 42-55; W. Randolph Lovelace II et al., "Selection and Maintenance Program for Astronauts for the NASA," Aerosp. Med. 33 (1962): 667-84. Link, Space Medicine, pp. 45-58, includes a detailed summary of these tests.

28. Senate, Project Mercury, pp. 45-49; Link, Space Medicine, pp. 45-58.

29. Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 161-66.

30. Extracts of articles describing these clinical, psychological, and psychiatric evaluations are appendixes to this study.

31. These changes are documented in Space Task Croup records, Project Mercury files, NASA HO, and are also described in Link, Space Medicine, p. 70.

32. "Project Mercury Animal Program, Status Report of July 10, 1959," document in personal files of William S. Augerson, author and distribution unknown; testimony of Donald Flickinger, in Senate, Project Mercury, p. 36; Flickinger interview.

33. White interview.

34. Ibid.

35. White and Flickinger interviews; Senate, Project Mercury, pp. 40-41; White et al., "Review of the Biomedical Systems for the MR-3 Flight" in Conference on the Medical Results of the First U. S. Manned Suborbital Flight (Washington: NASA, 1961), pp. 29-46; Frank H Samonski, "Project Mercury Environmental Control System Technical History," draft, undated, Project Mercury files, NASA HO.

36. White interview; White, "Present Status in Major Systems; Environmental Systems," Feb. 1959, in Project Mercury files, NASA HO, Richard S Johnston and Edward Michel, ,"Mercury Life Support Systems", in Life Support for Space Vehicles (New York, IAS, 1960).

37. White interview See also Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp. 125-26.

38. Augerson interview and unpublished report, "Medical and Biological Research Aspects of Project Mercury." drafted by Augerson and Voas, Sept 8, 1960. Those who cooperated with Augerson in the development of the medical operations plan included White. William K. Douglas, James P. Henry, George Knauf, and Rufus Hessberg&emdash;all on detail from the military services Later, Charles A Berry and William R. Turner, Air Force physicians, joined the team.

39. Engel and Lott, Man in Flight, p. 78.

40. Augerson interview; Augerson to project director, "Medical Monitoring for Project Mercury," Oct. 3, 1959, in personal files of Augerson; Charles A Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," p. 199-209. See also Link, Space Medicine, pp. 85-111.

41. Voas and Augerson interviews.

42. Augerson, "Medical Monitoring".

43. ibid.

44. Augerson, "Medical and Biological Research Aspects of Project Mercury".

45. Augerson interview; Berry, ''Aeromedical Preparations," p. 204. TV cameras were included in the final two Mercury flights, but their value was minimal due to ineffective placement within the capsule.

46. Augerson interview; Augerson, "Medical Monitoring"; Berry, "Aeromedical Prepara-tions," p.206.

47. Transcripts of many of these runs and simulations, in Augerson's personal files, were made available for the author's review Medical aspects of astronaut training are described by Voas in ''Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program" and "Astronaut Training."

48. These procedures are reviewed in Augerson and L Patrick Laughlin,"Physiological Response of the Astronaut in the MR-3 Flight," in Conference on Medical Results, pp 47-59, 71-86; Duane Catterson et al, "Aeromedical Observations," in Mercury Project Summary, pp 299-326; Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," 199-209.

49. Augerson, "Medical Monitoring."

50. Voas interview; Voas, "Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program."

51. Voas interview; Voas, "Project Mercury: Astronaut Training Program."

52. Voas interview; Voas, "Astronaut Training."

53. interviews with White, Augerson, and Randt Problems of communication between biomedical personnel at Space Task Group and the larger biomedical community were cited in many critical reports of NASA's biomedical programs, including ''Report of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biosciences Advisory Committee," Jan. 25, 1960; copies are in many locations, including the Administrator's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO.

54. White, Augerson, Randt, and Reynolds interviews; report of Biosciences Advisory Committee.

55. NASA Director for Space Science, memo for general distribution, "National Space Science Program," Apr. 10, 1959, in "Papers of Dr. Homer Newell," NASA HO.

56. Glennan interview; Hjornevik,"BioMedical interests."

57. For a summary of these developments, see House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Defense Space interests, 87/1 Mar. 17-23, 1961, pp. 93-96, 211-19. See also John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970), pp. 46-48.

58. House, Defense Space interests, pp. 9-11.

59. The President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) was the focus of scientific opposition to military control of the space program. See Logsdon, Decision, pp. 18-19; PSAC, Introduction to Outer Space (Washington: Executive Office of the President, 1958)

60. See Abelson's comments in Senate Committee on Aeronautics and Space Science, Scientists Testimony on Space Goals, 88/1, June 10-11, 1963, pp. 3-24, which are representative of views he expressed in various contexts and at various times between 1958 and 1960.

61. Flickinger interview.

62. NASA Director for Space Science, "National Space Science Program," and 1959 and 1960 "Estimates of Appropriations," in Budget files, NASA HO.

 

CHAPTER 3

 

1. "Interview with Dr. Clark T Randt," conducted by Dr. Eugene Emme, Mar. 30, 1961. Transcript in files of NASA HO.

2. ibid., Randt biography in Biography files, NASA HO.

3. Glennan interview Randt's commitment to the manned space program is evident in a letter to Glennan, Dec. 16, 1958, in Administrator's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO

4. Randt, memo to Glennan, "Development of a Life Sciences Program,'' Feb. 25, 1960, and draft of notes for authorization hearings, dated Feb. 25, 26, and 29, 1960, both of which are in Life Sciences Program files, NASA HO See also Randt, letter to Glennan, Dec. 16, 1958.

5. Glennan interview; Glennan, "Memorandum for Headquarters Staff," July 7, 1959, in "Staff Meetings and Reports," Administrator's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO.

6. The members of the committee are identified in Appendix C.

7. Glennan, "Memorandum for Headquarters Staff," July 7. 1959, and "Proposed Charter for an Advisory Committee on NASA BioTechnical-Bio-Science Programs," June 30, 1959, both in "Staff Meetings and Reports," Administrator's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO.

8. "Report of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Bioscience Advisory Committee," Jan. 25, 1960, p. 1.

9. Ibid., pp. 7-12.

10. Ibid., pp. 22-27.

11. Ibid, pp. 14-15.

12. "Report of Biosciences Advisory Committee," pp. 16-20.

13. Glennan interview; Randt interview, Aug. 2, 1979.

14. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1960 NASA Authorization, 86/1, Apr. 20-29 and May 4, 1959, pp. 185-201.

15. Glennan interview; Randt interview, Aug. 2, 1979.

16. Reported in Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961, 86/2, Apr. 29, 1960 pp. 26, 28

17. Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961, 86/2, Mar. 28-30, 1960, p. 36.

18. Ibid., pp. 36-38, 548-49.

19. House Special Investigating Committee on Science and Astronautics, Space Medicine Research, 86/2, June 15-16, 1960; Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Space Research in the Life Sciences, 86/2, July 15,1960; Senate Committee on Government Operations, Coordination of Activities in Biomedical Research, 86/2, Aug. 11, 1960

20. Daddario comments in House, Space Medicine Research, pp. 16-17 Daddario would continue for many years to be the chief congressional proponent of a strong military manned program and a consistent critic of NASA's efforts to develop internal capabilities in the life sciences.

21. Senate, Coordination of Biomedical Research, pp. 169-70.

22. See, e.g., questions posed to Randt by Daddario and Congressman Moeller in House, Space Medicine Research, pp. 2-19.

23. Senate, Coordination of Biomedical Research, pp. 168-72.

24. This statement appeared in various contexts, including Senate, Space Research in the Life Sciences, pp. 33-34.

25. Ibid.; House, Space Medicine Research; Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961.

26. Randt to Richard E. Horner, "Grant and Contract Management in the Office of Life Sciences," Mar 16, 1960; Glennan interview.

27. Randt, correspondence with author, Sept. 24,1979; Randt to Glennan, "NASA Relationship to the Armed Forces-National Research Council Committee on Bioastronautics," Mar 28, 1960; Randt interview, Aug. 2, 1979.

28. Glennan to Homer Joe Stewart, June 6, 1960; Glennan to Smith J. DeFrance, Mar. 15, 1960.

29. Randt interview, 1979.

30. Randt, "Office of Life Science Programs Ten Year Plan," Sept. 15, 1960, pp. 21-23; copy in Life Sciences Program files, NASA HO.

31. Ibid, pp. 18-20.

32. Ibid., pp. 1-17.

33. Ibid., pp. 24 27.

34. Ibid., unnumbered page attached to front of file copy and dated Oct. 13, 1960.

35. Randt interview, 1961.

36. House, Space Medicine Research, pp. 12-18.

37. Glennan interview.

38. Ibid.

39. Glennan to Stewart, June 6, 1960; Glennan to DeFrance, Mar. 15, 1960.

40. Ibid.; Randt to Glennan, "Proposed Establishment of a NASA Biotechnology Laboratory," June 3, 1960; Homer J. Stewart to Glennan, June 15, 1960; Randt interview, 1979.

41. Glennan to Stewart, June 6, 1960

42. Bruce Lundin and Donald Heaton, "Report of the Special Working Croup on Location of the Manned Space Flight Activity," Oct. 14, 1960.

43. Glennan interview.

44. Randt interview, 1979.

45. "Report of Biosciences Advisory Committee," p. 15.

46. Randt interviews, 1961, 1979; Randt and Silverstein to Horner, "Biomedical Aspects of Project Mercury," Mar. 23, 1960.

47. Senate, Space Research in the Life Sciences, pp. 27-36.

48. Randt interview, 1979.

49. Randt interview, 1961; White interview.

50. PSAC, "Report of the Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space," Nov. 14, 1960, and "Report of the Ad Hoc Mercury Panel," Apr. 12,1961; copies of both reports are in many different locations.

51. Trevor Gardner, "Air Research and Development Command Bioastronautics Capability and Requirements for Manned Space Operations, Dec. 15, 1960, Gen. Bernard Schriever to Trevor Gardner, Oct. 11, 1960, and to Glennan, Jan. 11, 1961, USAF Historical Div., "Chronology of USAF Man-in-Space Activity," Feb. 1965.

52. Randt to Glennan, Sept 12, 1960; Randt to Seamans, Dec. 6, 1960.

53. Silverstein to Seamans, "Recommended Reorganization of the Life Systems Branch, Space Task Group," Jan. 3, 1961.

54. Jack Young to Seamans, "Organization of the Life Systems Activities in the Space Task Group," Jan. 30, 1961.

55. "Report to the President-Elect of the Ad Hoc Committee on Space" (Wiesner report), Jan. 1961.

56. Randt interview, 1979; Randt to Seamans, "NASA-Air Force Relationships," Feb. 9, 1961; Randt to Lt. Gen. Roscoe C Wilson, Feb. 10, 1961

57. Randt, "A Proposal to Consolidate the Total Life Sciences Program," Feb. 2, 1961

58. Randt interview, 1979.

59. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1962 NASA Authorization, 8711, Mar. 13-23, and Apr. 10-24, 1961, pp. 151-56.

60. Swenson, Grimwood, and Alexander, This New Ocean, pp 209, 325.

61. Charles Roadman to Seamans, May 10, 1961; Roadman, "Redirection of the NASA Life Science Programs," Nov. 22, 1961; Roadman biography, Biography files, NASA HO.

62. "Report of the Ad Hoc Mercury Panel," Apr. 12, 1961; Conference on the Medical Results of the First U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight (Washington: NASA, June 6, 1961).

63. Explanations appear in many different contexts, e.g., W. L. Hjornevik, "A Summary Look at the Headquarters Organization Problem," staff rpt. for James Webb, Feb. 27, 1961, and "Report of a Life Sciences Study Task Croup," Apr. 18, 1968.

 

CHAPTER 4

 

1. For the decision to make manned lunar landing the focus of the space program, see John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon; Amitai Etzioni, The Moon-Doggle (Garden City, N Y: Doubleday, 1964); Barton C Hacker and James M Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 (Washington, 1977); Courtney C. Brooks, James M. Grimwood, and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr, Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205 (Washington, 1979)

2. House, Authorizing Appropriations for NASA, report of the Committee on Space Science and Astronautics, 88/1, July 25, 1963, pp 46-47; comments of George Knauf, in Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Projects Mercury, Gemini and Apollo, staff rpt. of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Science, 87/2, Sept. 4, 1962, pp. 17-18; Charles Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," in Mercury Project Summary, NASA SP-45 (Washington, 1963), p. 199; Stanley C. White, "Biomedical Data Collection for Space Programs." speech at the Manned Spacecraft Center in 1963, copy in the bibliography files, Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC) history archives.

3. White, "Biomedical Data Collection," p. 7.

4. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," p. 199; Berry interview, Mar 18, 1968, in JSC history archives.

5. Berry, "Space Medicine in Perspective: A Critical Review of the Manned Space Program," presented to the American Medical Association Clinical Convention, Nov. 28, 1966, p. 3.

6. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," pp. 201-03; Howard A. Minners et al, "Aeromedical Preparations and Results of Postflight Medical Examinations," in Manned Spacecraft Center, Results of the First United States Manned Orbital Space Flight (Washington: NASA, Feb. 20, 1962), pp 83-92; Howard A Minners et al., "Clinical Medical Observations," and Earnest P McCutcheon et al, "Physiological Responses of the Astronaut," both in Manned Spacecraft Center, Results of the Second United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, NASA SP-6 (Washington, May 24, 1962), pp 43-62; Charles Berry et al, "Aeromedical Analysis," in Manned Spacecraft Center, Results of the Third United States Manned Orbital Space Flight, NASA SP-12 (Washington, Oct. 3, 1962), pp 23-36; A. D. Catterson et al, "Aeromedical Observations," in Mercury Project Summary, pp. 310-21.

7. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," p. 201; R. S. Johnston et al, "Life Support Systems and Biomedical Instruments," in First Manned Orbital Results, pp. 41-43; J. H. Boynton, E. M. Fields, and D. F. Hughes, "Spacecraft Systems Development and Performance," in Mercury Project Summary, pp. 38-52.

8. White, "Biomedical Data Collection," p. 6.

9. Berry interview, Oct. 30, 1967; Johnston interview, Apr. 17, 1968, in JSC history archives; Lawrence Dietlein interview, Aug. 19, 1980.

10. Johnston et al, "Life Support Systems and Biomedical Instruments," pp 41-43; Johnston interview, Apr. 17, 1968, JSC history archives; Johnston interview, Aug. 18, 1980.

11. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," p. 203.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid, p 202; Catterson et al, "Aeromedical Observations," p. 315.

14. White, "Biomedical Data Collection," p. 7.

15. Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," pp. 206-07; Catterson et al, "Aeromedical Observations," pp. 299-326; Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs, pp 17-30; Berry interviews, Oct. 30, 1967 and Mar 18, 1968, and Dietlein interview, Mar. 22, 1968, all in JSC history archives

16. Berry and Dietlein interviews, Oct. 30, 1967 and Mar. 18 and 22, 1968, in JSC history archives; Dietlein interview, Aug. 19, 1980

17. Ibid.

18. Berry interview, Mar 18, 1968.

19. White, "Biomedical Data Collection," pp 9-11.

20. Ibid.; Berry, "Aeromedical Preparations," pp 201-07.

21. Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs, p. 115.

22. Ibid.

23. Dietlein interview, Mar. 22, 1968; Charles Berry and A. D. Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions versus Gemini Flight Results," in Gemini Summary Conference, NASA SP-138 (Washington, 1967) pp 197-99.

24. Charles Berry et al., "Man's Response to Long-Duration Flight in the Gemini Spacecraft," in Manned Spacecraft Center, Gemini Mid-Program Conference, NASA SP-121 (Washington, Feb. 25, 1966), pp 235-40.

25. Lawrence F. Dietlein and W. V. Judy, "Experiment M-1, Cardiovascular Conditioning," ibid., pp 381-91

26. Dietlein and Rita M Rapp, "Experiment M-3, Inflight Exercise&emdash;Work Tolerance," ibid, pp. 393-94.

27. Dietlein and Carlos Vallbona, "Experiment M-4, Inflight Phoniocardiogram," ibid, pp. 397-402.

28. Berry interviews, Oct. 30, 1967 and Mar 18, 1968; Dietlein interviews, Mar 22, 1968 and Aug. 19, 1980; Johnston interview, Aug. 18, 1980.

29. Dietlein and E. Harris, "Experiment M-S, Bioassays of Body Fluids," in Gemini Mid-Program Conference, pp. 403-06.

30. Pauline B. Mack et al., "Experiment M-6, Bone Demineralization," ibid., pp. 407-15.

31. C. D. Whedon et al., "Experiment M-7, Calcium and Nitrogen Balance", ibid, pp. 417-21.

32. Peter Kelloway, "Experiment M-8, Inflight Sleep Analysis," ibid, pp. 423-29.

33. Eaerl Miller, "Experiment M-9, Human Otolith Function," ibid, pp. 431-35.

34. James Waggoner interview, July 8, 1966, in JSC history archives.

35. Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs, pp. 21-23.

36. Richard S. Johnston interview, Aug. 18, 1980; Dietlein interview, Aug. 19, 1980.

37. Berry and Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions," pp 209-10.

38. R. L. Frost, I W. Thompson, and L. E Bell, "Environmental Control System, in Gemini Mid-Program Conference, pp. 71-77; R. S. Johnston interviews, Apr. 17, 1968 and Aug. 18, 1980.

39. James Waggoner interview, July 8, 1966; Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs, pp. 24-28

40. Senate, Manned Space Flight Programs, pp. 25-26.

41. Ibid, p. 26; R. S Johnston. "Performance of Gemini Spacecraft Systems," in Gemini Summary Conference, pp. 29-31 For a detailed discussion of engineering problems of waste management, see Norman Belasco and Donald M. Perry, "Waste Management and Personal Hygiene for Extended Spacecraft Missions," presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference, Apr. 26-30, 1964.

42. Berry, "Space Medicine in Perspective," p. 14; Berry and Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Predictions," pp. 215-61; George E. Ruff and Edwin Z. Levy, "Psychiatric Evaluation of Candidates for Spaceflight," Am. J. Psychiat. 116 (Nov. 1959): 385-91.

43. Berry and Catterson, "Man's Response to Long-Duration Flight," p. 244. Specific drugs included cyclizine HC1, dextro amphetamine sulfate, APC, meperidine HC1, tripolidine HC1, pseudoephedrine HC1, diphenoxylate HC1, atropine sulfate, tetracycline HC1, methylcellulose solution, parenteral cyclizine, and parenteral meperidine HC1.

44. The essential NASA position is contained in a letter from D. Brainerd Holmes, director of the Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF), to Christian Lambertsen, a prominent academic life scientist, Nov. 20, 1962.

45. Berry interviews, Oct. 30, 1967 and Mar. 18, 1968; Holmes to Associate Administrator Robert Seamans,''OMSF Position on Animal-Biological Experiments in Space," Nov. 22, 1962; Robert Gilruth to Charles Roadman and Holmes, "The Role of Animal Experiments," Jan. 18, 1962.

46. House, Authorizing Appropriations for NASA, 1963, p. 48; Charles E. Campbell. "Project Development Plan: Biological Investigations of Space," planning document prepared at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Sept. 1961.

47. Smith J. DeFrance to Charles Roadman, Feb. 21, 1962; Roadman to DeFrance and Thomas Dixon, "Policy Statement Regarding Animal Experiments,,, Feb. 28, 1962.

48. Gilruth to Roadman and Holmes, "Animal Experimental Work Supporting Manned Space Flight," Jan. 18, 1962.

49. For details concerning the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), see MOL folders in Skylab files, NASA HO.

50. Reports of meetings related to the Apollo Extension System, space station, and Mars flight are in Skylab files, NASA HO.

51. The working group was established by OMSF Inst. M-IA 8115 281, Oct. 10, 1963.

52. See "Report of the Orbital Research Laboratory Biomedical Experiment Working Group," June 1, 1964, in NASA HO. An earlier study, "A Program for the Study of the Effects of Prolonged Weightlessness on Man," was prepared in July 1963 by the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Team at Ames. Life sciences aspects of an orbiting laboratory were also considered by Alfred Mayo, director of biotechnology and human research as reflected in a draft manuscript, "Requirements for NASA Activity in the Life Sciences," Feb. 2, 1962, in the "Mayo Folders," Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) files, NASA HO.

53. Background to and recommendations of the SPAMAC report are in Medical Aspects of an Orbiting Research Laboratory, NASA SP-86 (Washington, 1966). Also, Sherman P. Vinograd interview, May 10, 1979.

54. Eugene Konecci, " Human Research," in Life Sciences Program Review Document, 1963, pp. 95-105; Frank Voris, "Medical Aspects of Manned Space Flight," 1963, pamphlet published by the NASA Office of Scientific Information.

55. Alfred M. Mayo and James P. Nolan, "Bioengineering and Bioinstrumentation," in K. E Schaefer, ed., Bioastronautics, (New York: Macmillan, 1964), pp 227-73.

 

CHAPTER 5

 

1. For details of this reorganization, see NASA Circ. 233, "Informational Material on Assignment of Responsibilities in NASA Headquarters," June 15, 1962; NASA release 61-213, Sept. 24, 1961; "Organizing to Achieve Objectives in an Accelerated Civilian Space Program," Aug. 7, 1961, a staff study prepared for NASA Administrator James Webb. Details and analysis of this reorganization and other relevant citations are in Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 (Washington, 1966), pp. 209-27. See also Webb's introduction to the book

2. See Elizabeth A. Muenger, Searching the Horizons: Ames Research Center, 1940-1976, NASA SP-4304 (Washington, D C, 1985).

3. Interviews with Reynolds, Nov. 14, 1979; Naugle, Feb. 21, 1980; Gerathewohl, July 6, 1979; Randt, Aug. 14, 1979.

4. D. Brainerd Holmes to Seamans, "Responsibilities of a Directorate of Aerospace Medicine," Nov. 20, 1961; Charles Roadman, "Aerospace Medicine Briefing for Dr. Holmes," Nov. 13, 1961.

5. Interviews with Newell Naugle and Reynolds.

6. Newell Naugle, and Reynolds interviews; Robert Gilruth to D. Brainerd Holmes, "Manned Spacecraft Center Expected Effort in Aerospace Medicine," Dec. 15, 1961; Newell and Holmes to Seamans, "Redirection of NASA's Life Science Programs," Nov. 22, 1961; Alfred Mayo, "Management of Advanced Research and Technology Programs," Jan. 22, 1962.

7. Smith J. DeFrance to Seamans, Aug. 22, 1961.

8. Thomas Dixon to project directors,"Formulation of a NASA Aerospace Biology and Life Support (Aerospace Medicine) Program," Jan. 9, 1962.

9. "Report of the NASA Working Croup on the Life Sciences," Mar 1962, unpublished study prepared under direction of Bernard Maggin for Seamans, pp 36-41; R. F. Bohling to Maggin, "Comments Regarding Report of Working Croup on the Life Sciences," Feb. 26, 1962; Richard S. Johnston, "MSC Comments on Report of NASA Working Croup on the Life Sciences," Feb. 1962.

10. Seamans to Maggin, "Report of the Working Croup on Life Sciences," Apr. 12, 1962; Thomas Dixon to multiple addressees, Mar. 20, 1962.

11. Johnston, "MSC Comments," Feb. 1962; interviews with Newell, Maggin, and Naugle.

12. This is brought out in a number of internal reviews, including Jack Bollerud, "Staff Study of the Structuring of the Life Sciences within NASA," 1966, and Bernard Maggin and Robert Bell, "Management of the Life Sciences," Oct. 1967.

13. W. Fred Boone to Seamans, June 17, 1964; Twelfth Semi-Annual Report of the NASA to the President, 1963.

14. Reynolds interview; Orr Reynolds, "Bioscience Programs,'' in Life Sciences Program Review Document, 1963, transcript of presentations made to associate administrator.

15. interview with Eugene Konecci, Aug. 14, 1964; Konecci biography in Biography files NASA HO.

16. Eugene Konecci, "Biotechnology and Human Research," in Life Sciences Program Review Document, 1963; Konecci, "Human Factors in Electronics," paper presented to the 5th Annual Conference on Human Factors in Electronics May 5,1964.

17. "Budget History for Fiscal Year 1964," pp. 4, 14, 38, in Budget files, NASA HO.

18. Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1964, report of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Sciences, 8811, Aug. 2, 1963, pp. v, 49, 116.

19. interviews with Reynolds and Naugle.

20. "Biosciences" and "Human Factor Systems," in "Budget History for Fiscal Year 1964," pp. RDO 12-1 to 12-5 and RDO 17-1 to 17-6.

21. See Bollerud, "Staff Study," 1966, Maggin and Bell, "Management of Life Sciences " 1967.

22. See NAS, Space Science Board, "Report on the Organization of the Life Sciences in NASA," Aug. 7,1962; Nello Pace, "Report Nr. 6 of the Special Life Sciences Consultant to the Administrator," Nov. 1963.

23. J. W Dyer, Project Biosatellite: Historical Summary Report (Moffet Field, Calif.: NASA Ames Research Center, 1969)

24. Jones interview.

25. Newell and Raymond Bisplinghoff to Seamans, "Establishment of a Joint OSS/OART Committee on Biosatellite," Jan. 1963, Newell to Bisplinghoff, Jan. 17, 1963; Benny B. Hall to Seamans, "Minutes of the First Meeting of the Joint OSS/OART Biosatellite Working Croup," Jan 24, 1963.

26. Hall to Seamans, Newell, and Bisplinghoff, Apr. 9, 1963

27. Naugle, Newell, and Jones interviews. Jones claims that the failure of the joint effort was due to unwillingness of Office of Space Science (OSS) personnel to cooperate.

28. Eugene Konecci to Bisplinghoff, Oct. 25, 1962; Konecci to Smith DeFrance, "Headquarters Survey of Life Sciences Activities," June 1 1963 Gerathewohl interview.

29. Gerathewohl interview; Ralph W. Gerard to DeFrance, Feb. 28, 1963, enclosing Gerard's "Report on the Life Sciences at Ames," Feb. 20, 1963.

30. Clark Randt to Keith Glennan, "A Bio Technology Laboratory at Ames," June 6, 1960.

31. Gerathewohl interview; Gerard, "Report on the Life Sciences at Ames"; Thomas Dixon to Seamans, Jan. 17, 1963.

32. Earl D Hilburn to John F Parsons, Sept. 10 1964- Edwin P. Hartman Adventures in Research: A History of the Ames Research Center, NASA SP-4302 (Washington, 1970) pp. 321-23, 441-44.

33. Gerard, "Report on the Life Sciences at Ames"; DeFrance to Seamans, Mar. 21, 1963.

34. Fern Pickens to Seamans, July 18, 1962.

35. Richard S. Johnston. "Comments on Report of the NASA Working Group on Life Sciences," Feb. 1962.

36. Interviews with Charles Berry, Oct. 30, 1967 and Lawrence Dietlein, Aug. 19,1980.

37. "Aerospace Medicine," in 1963 NASA Budgetary History, p. 14.

38. Berry interview, Oct. 30, 1967

39. PSAC, Life Sciences Panel, "Report of the Bioastronautics Panel," Feb. 15, 1962; NAS, Space Science Board, "Report on the Organization of the Life Sciences in NASA," Aug. 7, 1962.

40. Seamans to Maggin, Apr. 12, 1962; Thomas Dixon to multiple addressees, Mar 20, 1962.

41. George Knauf to 1. S. Brown,''Discussion with Congressman Daddario'' and attached "Coordination of Space Medicine Programs," Sept. 10, 1963; interview with George Knauf, undated, transcript in NASA HO.

42. "A Proposed Plan to implement NASA/AF Coordination of the FY 1964 Space Medicine Bioastronautics Design, Development and Test Program to Support Approved Flight Program Requirements," signed by John M. Talbot and George Knauf, Aug. S,1963, and endorsed by George Mueller and Gen. Roscoe C Wilson, Aug. 7, 1963.

43. Konecci, letter to DeFrance, June 1, 1963; memo to Knauf, Jan. 3, 1964; memo to Seamans, "Coordination in the Life Sciences Field," Aug. 12, 1964; letter to Paul F. Bilke, Apr. 22, 1964.

44. PSAC, "Report of Bioastronautics Panel," Feb. 1962; NAS-Space Science Board "Organization of Life Sciences in NASA," Aug. 7, 1962; Norton Nelson letter to James Webb, Nov. 27, 1962; Robert Seamans, memo to Newell, "Special Assistant for LifeSciences," Sept. 18, 1962; Nello Pace, report of the special consultant to the Administrator, No. 6, "Reorganization of NASA Life Sciences Activities," Oct. 4, 1963.

45. George Knauf, memo to I S. Brown, Sept. 10, 1963; Congressman Emilio Q. Daddario, letter to James Webb, Aug. 29, 1962; comments and testimony, in House, 1964 NASA Authorization, Hearings before Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, Committee on Science and Astronautics, 88/1, Mar. 6-27, Apr. 1-29, May 1-21, June 6, 1963, pp. 1037-1189, passim.

46. "Program Review Life Sciences,'' transcript of presentations to Seamans, Apr. 6, 1963.

47. George Low, memo to Seamans, July 1, 1963; Charles Roadman, memo to Seamans, Biological Program," Aug. 3, 1963.

48. Seamans, memo to Raymond Bisplinghoff, Apr. 21, 1964.

49. Seamans, memo to program administrators, "Life Sciences Coordination," July 9 1964. Because the management issuance system was in the process of revision, the formal instruction establishing the LSDG, NASA Management issuance 1152, was not issued un-til June 24, 1965.

50. James Webb, letter to Norton Nelson, Nov. 14, 1962.

51. Interviews with Naugle, Jones, and Newell.

52. NASA Management issuance M 9000002, "Establishment of a Manned Spaceflight Experiments Board," Feb. 10, 1964.

53. Ibid.; "George Mueller-Homer Newell Correspondence," in Manned Space Flight Experiment Board files, NASA HO.

54. NASA Management issuance MM 7000.026, "Establishment of Medical Experiments Panel of Manned Space Flight Experiments Board," June 1, 1964; George Mueller, memo to Randolph Lovelace, "Medical Experiments," May 8 1964; interviews with Sherman P. Vinograd; Lawrence Dietlein, Aug. 19, 1980; and James Waggoner, July 8, 1966.

 

 

CHAPTER 6

 

1. Newell and Naugle interviews.

2. Charles M Atkins, "NASA and the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences," Historical Note 62, Sept. 1966, unpublished manuscript, NASA HO See also United Research, Inc., "A Pilot Study to Determine the Patterns of Communication between NASA and Groups within the Scientific and Professional Communities," Feb. 1961, unpublished study prepared for NASA Committee on Long-Range Studies under contract NASA-168; Pamela Mack, "NASA and the Scientific Community: NASA-PSAC Interactions in the Early 1960s," May 4, 1968, unpublished paper, NASA HO.

3. Meg Greenfield, "Science Goes to Washington," The Reporter, Sept. 26,1963, p. 26. See also Mack, "NASA and the Scientific Community"; John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National interest (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970), pp. 1-87.

4. Logsdon, Decision to Go to Moon, passim.

5. George Alexander, "Panel to Probe Bioastronautics Effort," Aviation Week, Aug. 21, 1961; editorial. Aviation Week, Mar. 6, 1961; comments of Emilio Q. Daddario, NASA Authorization for FY 1962, Hearings before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 87/1, Mar. 6- Apr. 27, 1961.

6. PSAC, Life Sciences Panel, "Report of the Bioastronautics Panel," Feb. 15, 1962, pp. 11-13.

7. R W. Hale to Vice-President Johnson, "Bioastronautics Crisis," Feb. 28, 1962.

8. Charles Roadman, comments in NASA Authorization for FY 1963, Hearings before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 87/2, Mar 6-29 and Apr. 2-10, 1962, p. 954

9. Edward C. Welsh to Robert Seamans, "Bioastronautics," June 29, 1962.

10. Seamans to Albert Siepert, NASA Office of Administration, July 6, 1962; Siepert to Seamans, "Coordination of NASA's interests in Bioastronautics," July 19, 1962. Seamans's reply to Welsh could not be located; Siepert's memo contains recommend-ed points that Seamans should include in his reply.

11. NAS, Space Science Board, "Report on the Organization of the Life Sciences in NASA," Aug. 7, 1962.

12. ibid.; W. W. Kellog to Norton Nelson, "Some Expressions on NASA Life Sciences Management," Aug. 5, 1962.

13. Nelson to James Webb, Aug. 9, 1962; Homer Newell to the Administrator, Aug. 29, 1962; Seamans to Newell, "Special Assistant for the Life Sciences," Sept. 18, 1962; Nelson to Seamans, Oct. 2, 1962.

14. Webb to Nelson, Nov. 14, 1962.

15. David B. Vinson to Vice President Johnson. Oct. 11, 1962, conveying "An Opinion in Regard to a Recommended Aerospace Medical Association Expression"; Johnson to Webb, Oct. 16, 1962; Seamans to Webb, "Use of Consultants," Oct. 30,1962; Raymond Romatowski to Bernard Maggin, Oct. 24, 1962; Eugene Konecci to Maggin, Oct. 26, 1962; Orr Reynolds to Maggin, Oct. 26, 1962; Charles Roadman to Maggin, Oct. 25, 1962.

16. Edward C. Welsh to Seamans Nov. 9 1962; Seamans to Welsh, Nov. 20, 1962.

17. Ralph W. Gerard "Report on the Life Sciences at Ames", Feb. 20, 1963; Gerard to Smith DeFrance, Feb. 18, 1963; DeFrance to Seamans, Mar. 3, 1963; Gerathewohl interview, July 3, 1979.

18. Webb to Nello Pace, Apr. 30, 1963

19. Pace, "Establishment of a Bioastronautics Training Program," rpt. 1, July 17, 1963.

20. Pace, "Ames Life Sciences Research Laboratory," rpt 3, Sept. 17. 1963.

21. Pace, "Reorganization of NASA's Life Sciences Activities." rpt. 6, Oct. 4, 1963.

22. Albert Sipert to Seamans, July 19, 1962.

23. "National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958," sec 102(c)(8).

24. For this background, see Loyd S. Swenson, James M Grimwood, and Charles Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 (Washington, 1966).

25. George Knauf interview, undated, transcript in NASA HO.

26. Daddario to Webb, Aug. 29, 1961.

27. D. Brainerd Holmes to Seamans, "Aerospace Medical Support for the Manned Lunar Landing Program " Nov. 20 1961; John Rubel to Seamans, Oct. 20, 1961; Seamans to Rubel, Dec. 14, 1961; Rubel to Robert McNamara, "Planning for Support of the NASA Manned Lunar Landing Program," Nov. 1961; Rubel to Assistant Secretary for R&D of the Army, Air Force, and Navy, "Bioastronautics Planning," Jan. 18, 1962.

28. Rubel to Seamans, Feb. 12, 1962.

29. "Agreement between DoD and NASA Relating to Bioastronautics Research, Development, Test and Evaluation in Support of the Manned Lunar Landing Program,'' signed by James Webb and Robert McNamara, Feb. 10, 1962.

30. Seamans to Rubel, Mar. 23, 1962; Seamans and Rubel to Charles Roadman and John Talbot, "Joint DoD/NASA Bioastronautics Planning," Feb. 12, 1962.

31. G. Dale Smith to Smith DeFrance, Jan. 18, 1962; DeFrance to Seamans. Jan 19, 1962; Fern Pickens to Seamans, July 18, 1962; George Low to Seamans, July 1, 1963

32. House, NASA Authorization for FY 1963, pp. 171-79.

33. Seamans to Brockway McMillan, assistant secretary of the Air Force, Sept. 5, 1962.

34. Daddario comments, in 1964 NASA Authorization, Hearings before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 88/1, Mar. 6-27, Apr. 1 -29, May 1 -21, June 6,1963, pt 2(b), pp. 1037-89.

35. Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1964, report of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Sciences, 88/1, Aug. 2, 1963, pp. v, 49, 116. See also Senate, NASA Authorization 1964, Hearings before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 88/1, June 12-18, 1963, pp. 909-13.

36. Edward C Welsh to Webb, "National Aeronautics and Space Council Meeting, August 3, 1962," Aug. 6, 1962; Franklyn Phillips to Hugh Dryden, ''Request of the Vice President for a Written Statement of Bioastronautics Programs," Aug. 7, 1962.

37. John Rubel to Welsh, Aug. 13, 1962; Dryden to Welsh, Aug. 15, 1962.

38. Welsh to Seamans, Nov. 9, 1962.

39. Comments of George Knauf, in NASA Authorization, Hearings before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 8812, Feb. 18-26 and Mar 3-10, 1964, pt 2, pp. 705-31 Knauf says, "This action occurred I must say, in response to some rather positive urging . . [from] this committee."

40. "A Proposed Plan to implement NASA/AF Coordination of the FY 64 Space Medicine Bioastronautics Design, Development, and Test Program to Support Approved Flight Program Requirements," signed by John M. Talbot and George Knauf on Aug. 5, 1963, by D. Brainerd Holmes and Roscoe Wilson on Aug. 7,1963, and by Robert Seamans and John Rubel on Feb. 10, 1964.

41. Eugene Konecci to George Knauf,''Recommendation for Utilization of U S Air Force Aerospace Medical Divison Manpower and Facilities at Brooks Air Force Base," Jan. 3, 1964; Knauf, draft of statement prepared for the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight Committee on Science and Astronautics, House, Feb. 26, 1964; Harold Klein to Konecci, "Coordination of Ames Life Sciences and the School of Aerospace Medicine Research Programs," Feb. 28, 1964; Konecci to Paul F. Bikle, "Memorandum of Understanding Between USAF-SAM and NASA-Flight Research Center," Apr. 3, 1965; Knauf to multiple addressees, "NASA-DoD Agreement on Research and Technology Information Exchange," Aug. 5, 1964.

 

CHAPTER 7

 

1. Charles A. Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," in Charles Roadman, Hubertus Strughold, and Roland B. Mitchel, eds., Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium, June 24-27, 1967 (Brooks AFB, Tex.: Aerospace Medical Div., 1968), p. 196.

2. Ibid.; Berry and Allen D. Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions versus Gemini Flight Results," in NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Gemini Summary Conference, NASA SP-138 (Washington, Feb. 1967), pp. 201-15; Berry and others, "Man's Response to Long-Duration Flight in the Gemini Spacecraft," in NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Gemini Mid-Program Conference, NASA SP-121 (Washington, Feb. 1966), pp. 235-44.

3. Ibid, pp. 203-04; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," pp. 200-01; Berry interview, Peter Kelloway, "Experiment M-8, Inflight Sleep Analysis," and Earl Miller, "Experiment M-9, Human Otolith Function," in Gemini Mid-Program Conference, pp. 423-29, 431-35.

4. Berry and Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions," p 213; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," pp. 197-99.

5. Berry and Catterson, "Pre Gemini Medical Predictions," pp. 204-08; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," p. 199.

6. Berry interview

7. Berry and Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions," pp. 204-08.

8. Ibid, pp. 208-09; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," p. 199; Berry interview.

9. Berry and Catterson, "Pre-Gemini Medical Predictions," pp. 201, 211-13.

10. Harold I. McCann, et al., "Life Support Systems for Extravehicular Activity," in Gemini Summary Conference, pp. 67-68.

11. Ibid., pp. 70-73.

12. Ibid, p. 74; see also R. M Machell and others, "Crew Station and Extravehicular Equipment," in Gemini Mid-Program Conference, pp. 57-70.

13. G. Fred Kelley and D. Owen Coons, "Medical Aspects of Gemini Extravehicular Activities," in Gemini Summary Conference, pp. 107-17; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," pp. 200-03; Berry interview.

14. Kelly and Coons, "Medical Aspects of Gemini Extravehicular Activities."

15. Richard S Johnston. "Introduction," in R. S. Johnston. L. F. Dietlein, and C A. Berry, Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP-368 (Washington, 1975), pp. 4-S; see also interviews with Berry, Johnston (Mar. 21, 1968), and Dietlein.

16. W. Royce Hawkins and John F. Zieglschmid, "Clinical Aspects of Crew Health," and Bernard C. Wooley and Gary W. McCollum, "Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 43-57, 141-43.

17. Johnston, "Introduction," and Michael A. Carson, et al., "Extravehicular Mobility Unit," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 19, 561-66.

18. Background and details of committee meetings are in file, lnter-Agency Committee on Back-Contamination, NASA HO.

19 Richard S. Johnston, et al., "The Lunar Quarantine Program," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 407-24; Johnston interview, Aug. 18, 1980.

20. Carolyn S. Leach and W. Carter Alexander, "Endocrine, Electrolyte, and Fluid Volume Changes," Stephen L. Kimzey and Craig L. Fisher, "Hematology and Immunology Studies," G W Hoffler and Robert L. Johnston. "Apollo Flight Crew Cardiovascular Evaluations," Paul C. Rambaut, Malcolm C. Smith, Jr. and Harry O. Wheeler, "Nutritional Studies," and J. L Homick and Earl F. Miller, "Apollo Flight Crew Vestibular Assessment," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 161-340.

21. Johnston. "Introduction," Biomedical Results of Apollo; House, NASA Authorization for FY 1966, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight, Committee on Science and Astronautics, 8911, Apr. 1965, pp. 298-300.

22. Horst Bucker, "Biostack," W Zachary Osborne, L S Pinsky, and I Vernon Bailey, "Apollo Light Flash Investigations," Gerald R Taylor, "The Apollo 16 Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment," and Webb Haymaker and others, "The Apollo 17 Pocket Mouse Experiment (BIOCORE)," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 241 -404.

23. Berry, "Orbital Flight Results"; NAS-NRC, Space Research: Directions for the Future, report of a study by the Space Science Board, 3 vols. (Washington, 1966), vol. 3, pp. 161-63.

24. Robert Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations," in Bioastronautics and Exploration of Space, pp. 153-77.

25. Ibid; Berry, "Orbital Flight Results," pp. 206-10.

26. NAS-NRC, Space Research, vol. 3, p. 164.

27. Ibid, vol. 3, pp. 164-66, 169-70.

28. Ibid, vol. 3, pp. 166-67.

29. Ibid., vol. 3, pp. 167-69. Views of individual members of the NAS relative to post-Apollo programs are in Senate, National Space Goals for the Post-Apollo Period, Hearings before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 89/1, Aug. 23-25,1965.

30. J. W Dyer, Project Biosatellite: Historical Summary Report (Moffet Field, Calif.: NASA Ames Research Center, 1969).

31. Vinograd interview; Vinograd, "Aim of Medical Experiments Program: To Better Know Earth&emdash;Man in Space," Aerosp. Manage. 5 (1970): 64, 67-68; N. Belasco and S. L. Pool, "The NASA Program for an Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measure ment System" undated pamphlet prepared for public distribution by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center; miscellaneous documents in IMBLMS Project file, JSC history archives.

 

CHAPTER 8

 

1. Robert Seamans, memo to program office associate administrators, "Coordination in the Life Sciences Field," July 9, 1964; NASA Management Instruction 1152 18, "NASA Life Sciences Directors Group," June 24, 1965.

2. This was not specifically stated in early management issuances, but it was implicit as indicated in NASA Management Instruction 1152.18A, "NASA Life Sciences Directors Group," Aug. 1966.

3. This is implicit in many documents and was made explicit in William Rieke's memo to Seamans, "Life Sciences Coordination and Related Matters," Aug. 3, 1966 and in Seamans's memo to program office associate administrators, "Life Sciences Directors Group," Sept. 14, 1966.

4. The fundamental problems underlying this ongoing dispute are detailed in Chap 5.

5. The group's deliberations are documented in the minutes of the Life Sciences Directors Group (LSDG), 1st through 14th meetings, Aug. 1964-Aug. 1967, on file in the Life Sciences Program files, NASA HO.

6. For a thorough analysis of the problem, see reports and correspondence in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group to J.W. Humphreys," Mar 1968, in the Life Sciences Program files, NASA HO; Humphreys interview.

7. For example see Harold B Klein, memo to Charles A. Berry, "Liaison between the Manned Spacecraft Center and the Ames Research Center in the Life Sciences Area," Sept. 1, 1966.

8. For a comparison of the life sciences R&D budget and R&D budgets for other areas, see Chap 7 This disparity is also discussed in Nello Pace, "Report Nr. 6 of the Life Sciences Consultant to the Administrator," Oct. 1963 Pace contends that the life sciences receive less than 2 percent of the total R&D funds.

9. Details in Chap 7.

10. Refer to Seamans memo, "Coordination in the Life Sciences Field,'' July 9, 1964, and NASA Management Instruction 1152 18, June 24, 1965.

11. Refer to reports and correspondence in the Biosatellite files, NASA HO.

12. Ibid.

13. Nello Pace, "Report Nr. 7 of the Life Sciences Consultant to the Administrator," Nov. 1963.

14. Daddario first insisted on this during the FY 1962 authorization hearings. See House, NASA Authorization for FY 1962, Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 8711, Mar./Apr. 1961.

15. Senate, Authorizing Appropriations for NASA, report of the Committee on Space Science and Astronautics, 88/2, June 2, 1964, p. 2; Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1966, report of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Science, 89/1, p 4; Senate, NASA Authorization for FY 1967, report of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Sciences, 89/2, May 23, 1966, p. 4.

16. See, e.g., Senate, NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1964, report of the Committee on Aeronautics and Space Science, 88/1, Aug. 2, 1963, pp. 48-49, 113-16.

17. Ibid.

18. Though apparently never a formal commitment, this future role is implicit in numerous documents in the Biosatellite files and the Biomedical Experiments Working Group files, NASA HO.

19. This is referenced in many documents, e.g., ''Administrator's Program Review," June 22, 1966, pp. 59-62, a transcript of presentations made by the life sciences directors to Administrator Webb. According to Walton Jones. former director of biotechnology and human research, this experiment was originally proposed for inclusion in the Biosatellite flights, but received no support from the Biosciences Division. The experiment was eventually flown in 1972.

20. The MSC position on animal research is recorded in numerous documents. See, e.g., testimonies of J. W. Humphreys and Charles A Berry in House, Future of the Bioscience Program of the NASA, report of the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 91/1, Dec. 24, 1969.

21. These concerns are expressed in memos and correspondence in the Life Science Working Group files (record group 255, accession 71A3309) and in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group to Major Gen. Humphreys," Apr. 1968 (copy in NASA HO). They are also addressed by Reynolds and Jones in their respective interviews.

22. Reynolds interview.

23. Background on these individuals and representative samples of their writings are in Biography files, NASA HO.

24. Jones interview. Jones and others express these views in assorted memos in Life Sciences Working Group files and in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group." For example, see Jones to J. W. Humphreys, "Life Sciences Working Group," Mar 1, 1968.

25. This is evident in memos from the program office administrators to Seamans in response to Seamans's request for "thoughts" on the life sciences program, dated Feb. 3, 1966 Copies of these responses are in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group. "

26. Knauf interview; Roadman to Brainerd Holmes, 'Redirection of NASA's Life Science Programs," Nov. 1961.

27. Knauf interview.

28. Responsibilities of the director of this office are summarized in "Administrator's Program Review: Life Sciences," June 22,1966, a copy of which is in the Life Sciences Program files, NASA HO Assorted documents are in the Center History Files, JSC history archives. The organization of this office is also discussed in the Berry interview.

29. Vinograd interview; assorted documents in personal files in possession of Vinograd.

30. Space Medicine Advisory Group, Medical Aspects of an Orbiting Research Laboratory, NASA SP-86, (Washington, 1966).

31. Vinograd interview; OMSF Management Instruction MM-7000 026A, "Establishment of the Medical Experiments Panel of the Manned Space Flight Experiments Board," Feb. 18, 1965.

32. Deitlein interviews.

33. "Minutes of the Life Science Directors Group Tenth Meeting," Feb. 7, 1966, in LSDG files, RG 255.

34. H. S. Brownstein to Life Sciences Directors, Mar 10, 1966.

35. "Agreement for the Management of an Integrated Life Sciences In-Flight Experiments Program," draft copy, Mar 9, 1966, copy in LSDG files, RG 255.

36. Copies of minutes of all meetings are in LSDG files, RG 255 Lovelace's frequent absences were discussed in a number of memos and are referenced in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group "

37. For example, PSAC, "Report of the Bioastronautics Panel " 1962

38. Jones and Reynolds interviews Also cited by Col. Jack Bollerud, "Staff Study of the Structuring of Life Sciences Activities Within NASA," 1966, and "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group"

39. Seamans to program office associate administrators, "Life Sciences Directors Group," Feb. 3, 1966.

40. Homer Newell to Seamans, "Life Science Directors Group," July 11, 1966, with at-tached memo from Reynolds to Newell, "Life Sciences Directors Group," July 8, 1966 and "Life Sciences Coordination and Related Matters," Aug. 3, 1966.

41. George Mueller to Seamans, "Briefing Memo re LSDG," June 23, 1965; Mac Adams to William Rieke, "Life Sciences Directors Group," July 22, 1966; Raymond Romatowski, "Life Sciences Coordination and Related Matters," Aug. 5, 1966.

42. Mueller to Seamans, "Life Sciences Directors Group," July 6, 1966; Romatowski to Seamans, Aug. 5, 1966.

43. Rieke to Seamans, 'Life Sciences Coordination and Related Matters," Aug. 3 1966; Romatowski to Seamans, Aug. 3, 1966; Seamans to program office associate ad-ministrators, "Life Sciences Directors Group," Sept. 14, 1966; NASA Management Is-suance 1152 18A, "NASA Life Sciences Directors Group," Aug. 1966.

44. Bollerud, "Staff Study of the Structuring of Life Sciences Activities within NASA," 1966.

 

CHAPTER 9

 

1. PSAC, The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period, report of the Joint Space Panels (Washington: Executive Office of the President, Feb. 1967), p. 13.

2 ibid., p. 14

3. Ibid., pp. 21-23, 65-69.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., pp. 24-25.

6. J. W Humphreys to George Mueller, "Findings and Recommendations of the PSAC Space Science and Technology Panel," Sept.18, 1967. This view was expressed in many different contexts throughout the 1960s.

7. The MSC position on animal research had the endorsement of NASA's top management and the OMSF associate administrator; however, some of NASA's life scientists held other views. Those in the Biosciences Division tended to favor animal research for purely scientific purposes; those in the Biotechnology-Human Research Division tended to support the position that animal research should be an adjunct to human research in support of advanced manned programs. A good summary of these three positions is in Robert Bell, "A Method for Distinguishing between Two Life Sciences Missions or Objectives," draft of an oral presentation given to the NASA Life Sciences Study Task Group, Feb. 13, 1968; a copy is in "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group to Maj. General I. W Humphreys," unpublished report prepared for the NASA associate administrator and dated Apr. 17, 1968.

8. The documentary history of the Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) is in the MOL files, NASA HO. Problems and deficiencies in the MOL are cited in many documents e.g. "Fund Cuts Force 2-Year Stretch in MOL," Aviat. Week and Space Technol., Nov. 27, 1967, p 22; "Coming: A Lesson in Russian," Journal of the Armed Forces, Dec. 1967, p. 9; Robert F. Frietag, memo for general NASA distribution, "AAP Workshop/MOL Problem," Aug. 25, 1967.

9. PSAC, "Preliminary Report," draft of a report prepared by Ad Hoc Panel on Space Biology and Medicine, dated Sept. 12, 1967, p. 1; copy in PSAC files, NASA HO.

10. Ibid., pp. 2-3.

11. Ibid., p. 4.

12. W. H. Close to Homer Newell, "Dr. Seamans' October 9 Meeting with Dr. Bennett Relative to the Draft Biomedical Sub-Panel Report," Oct. 12, 1967.

13. Humphreys to Mueller, Sept. 18, 1967; Seamans to Mueller, "Informal Summary of Space Science and Technology Panel Meeting," Aug. 17, 1967.

14. Eugene Stead to Newell, Dec. 1, 1967.

15. Willis Shapley to William Lilly, "NASA Use of Medical Manpower," June 26, 1968.

16. Stead to Lewis Branscomb, Feb. 21, 1968, transmitting copy of report of Biomedical Working Group.

17. PSAC, "Informal Summary of the Space Science and Technology Panel Meeting," Mar. 7-8, 1968.

18. Milton Rosen to Stead, Mar. 1, 1968.

19. James V. Warren interview, June 12, 1979.

20. Humphreys to NASA associate administrator and program office associate administrators. "Life Sciences Management," Apr. 23, 1968, covering,"Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group," Apr. 17, 1968.

21. The exact circumstances and precise dates are not evident in extant documents Several transcripts of the presentation exist, but none bears the exact date or cites authorities None of the persons interviewed recalls the specific presentation. Humphreys, in a memo to Mueller dated Sept., 18, 1967, refers to this study as being in process.

22. Bernard Maggin and Robert Bell, "The Management of the Life Sciences,'' transcript of an oral presentation to NASA management on an unspecified date in 1967, pp.1, 8, 8a (note: p 8a is marked "NOT TO BE REPRODUCED," and is deleted from all but one copy of transcript).

23. Ibid., pp. 8, 8a, 13.

24. Ibid, pp. 2, 8, 8a, 9-10.

25. Ibid., pp. 11-12.

26. Ibid, p. 14.

27. Bell to Raymond Romatowski, "Progress in Resolving Problems in the Management of the Life Sciences,'' Nov. 6, 1967. See also Maggin to Humphreys, Nov. 8, 1967, and Maggin and Humphreys interviews, Nov. 1979 and May 2. 1979.

28. Program office associate administrators to chairman, LSDG,"Life Sciences Responsibilities and Coordination," Nov. 30, 1967.

29. "Terms of Reference for the NASA Life Sciences Program Responsibilities and Coordination Study Task Group." Dec. 6, 1967, app. F, Enclosure 1 of the "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Group to j W Humphreys."

30. "Report of the Life Sciences Study Task Croup." p. 3.

31. Ibid, pp. 5-6.

32. Ibid., pp. 6-7.

33. Ibid, pp. 5-10.

34. Ibid., p. 11.

35. Ibid.

36. Humphreys, "Talking Notes for Presentation to the Management Council," Mar. 1,1968.

37. Gilruth to Maggin, "Life Sciences Program," Jan. 22, 1968; Berry to Maggin,"Further Explanation of the MSC Proposal on NASA Life Sciences Organization," Feb. 15,1968. Berry to Webb, " Life Sciences Program," Mar. 1,1968: Maggin to Gilruth, Jan. 29, 1968; Webb to Gilruth, Mar 16, 1968, in "Report of Life Sciences Study Task Group," app. G.

38. John Naugle to chairman, NASA Management Council, "Reorganization of Life Science Programs," June 18, 1968.

39. Reynolds interview His opposition is also evident in the fact that he prepared a report opposing integration of life science programs on eve of first Life Sciences Study Task Group meeting. See Reynolds to Naugle, "NASA Life Science Programs," Nov. 21,1967. See also Naugle to chairman, Management Council, Jan. 18,1968; Reynolds to Naugle, "Organization and Management of NASA's Life Science Programs, Apr. 22, 1968; Reynolds to chairman, Planning Steering Group, "Life Sciences Program Memorandum,'' Aug. 30,1968; Naugle to Walton Jones, "Establishment of a NASA Life Sciences Missions Advisory Board," Sept. 6, 1968.

40. H. S. Brownstein, unspecified memo, "Notes for the Record, Mar. 1, 1968 Meeting of NASA Management Council."

41. Naugle to Harry Hess, Dec. 18, 1968; Allen Brown to Naugle, Dec. 23, 1968; Brown to Newell, June 19, 1968.

42. Jones to Humphreys,"Life Sciences Working Group," Mar. 1, 1968; Humphreys to Newell, Sept. 4, 1968, and Reynolds, Sept. 6, 1968.

43. Newell to Humphreys, "Life Sciences Management," May 10, 1968. In this memo, NewelI notes his opposition to giving an of f ice "responsible f or technology and applied research" responsibility for "fundamental research." Newell was interviewed as part of this study; however, because the interview transcript was rife with transcription errors, he prefers that his views expressed in this interview not be cited in this study.

44. Humphreys to Newell, "Management of Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Pro grams within the Agency," May 3, 1968; Newell to program office associate administrators (draft), "Life Sciences Management," May 8, 1968; Humphreys, memo for the record, "Aerospace Medicine and Space Biology Board," Aug. 9, 1968; Newell to Reynolds, Humphreys, and Jones, "Draft Memo and Proposed Directive on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Board," June 17, 1968.

45. The history of the biosatellite flights is in Biosatellite Project files, NASA HO; and J.W. Dyer, project manager, Project Biosatellite: Historical Summary Report (Moffet Field, Calif., NASA Ames Research Center, 1969).

46. ibid. Scientists' concerns over the status of the project and NASA's support for the biosciences are contained in many letters and memos in the Biosatellite files, NASA HO.

47. House Committee on Science and Astronautics, The future of the Bioscience Program, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, 91/1, Nov. 12-18 1969, pp. 1-6. See also Naugle to Harry Hess, Dec. 18, 1968.

48. See, e.g., Brown to Naugle, Dec. 23, 1968 Similar sentiments are contained in many letters and reports, copies of which are in the Biosatellite files, NASA HO.

49. See testimony in Future of Bioscience Program. See also letters from Brown to Naugle, Dec. 23, 1968 and Brown to Newell, June 19, 1968.

50. See Karth's introductory comments in Future of Bioscience Program, pp. 1-2.

51. PSAC, Biomedical Foundations of Manned Space Flight, report of the Biomedical Working Group (Washington: Executive Office of the President, Nov. 1969), pp. 3-4.

52. ibid, pp. 3, 20-25.

53. Future of Bioscience Program, p. 2.

54. Ibid.

55. See Adey's testimony in Bioscience Hearings, pp. 71-101, especially pp. 84-87. See also testimonies of Nello Pace, J. P Meehan, Lamont C. Cole, Loren Carlson, and Donald W. Farner.

56. Refer to testimony of Adey and Pace.

57. Humphreys, testimony in Bioscience Hearings, pp. 132-34; Humphreys interview.

58. Humphreys and Charles. A. Berry, testimonies in Bioscience Hearings, pp. 148-51 in this they were reaffirming a position originally articulated by Brainerd Holmes in a memo to Seamans, "OMSF Position on Animal-Biological Experiments in Space," Nov. 22, 1962.

59. These sentiments were implicit rather than explicit in the bioscience hearings. These views were expressed in many memos, letters, and reports issued between Dec. 1967 and Dec. 1969, many of which have been cited.

60. "Recommendations of the Committee," in Future of Bioscience Program, p. 39.

61. Karth to George Low, Feb. 2, 1960; Low to Karth, Jan. 28, 1970.

62. Senator Clinton B. Anderson to Thomas Paine, Nov.14,1969; Paine to Anderson, Jan. 8, 1970. Inquiries were also made by Congressmen Olin Teague and Overton Brooks.

63. This assessment is shared by Newell, Naugle, Reynolds, and Humphreys, as expressed in their interviews.

 

CHAPTER 10

 

1. Testimony of George Low in House of Representatives, 1952 NASA Authorization. Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 87/1, Mar. 13-23, and Apr. 10-17, 1961, pt. 1, p. 344.

2. NAS-NRC, Space Research: Directions for the Future, report of a summer study by the Space Science Board, 3 vols. (Washington: NAS-NRC, 1965), vol. 3, and A Review of Space Research, report of a summer study by the Space Science Board (Washington: NAS-NRC, 1962).

3. The evolution of NASA's plans for post-Apollo space programs is documented in the Manned Space Flight and Skylab files, NASA HO Orbital laboratories and space stations had been viewed as logical objectives of manned flight programs since the mid-1950s in both the military services and NACA. Early studies include Emmanual Schnitzer (a Langley Research Center engineer), "Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory," 1960, and "A Report on the Research and Technological Problems of Manned Rotating Spacecraft," prepared by the staff of Langley Research Center and published as NASA Tech Note D-1504, Aug. 1962. Among the earliest reports to pro pose a manned space station as the post-Apollo objective was "The Needs and Requirements for a Manned Space Station," prepared by the Space Station Requirements Steering Committee, Nov. 15, 1966.

4. For documentation see Manned Space Flight files, NASA HO Particularly useful documents include FY 1967 Advanced Mission Study Program Proposed by Program Offices, published by NASA Office of Programs and Special Reports, Aug. 3, 1966; Marshall Space Flight Center, "Requirements for a Manned Space Station," Nov. 4, 1966; Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), "Preliminary Technical Data for an Earth Orbiting Space Station," Nov. 7, 1966.

5. See, e. g., "Post-Apollo Earth Orbital Manned Space Flight Program Options to the Post-Apollo Advisory Group,'' prepared by the MSC staff, Feb. 15, 1968; ''Earth Orbital Manned Space Flight," prepared for NASA Planning Steering Group, Mar. 21. 1969.

6. Office of Manned Space Flight, Advanced Missions Office, "Status Report on Integrated Manned Space Flight Program,'' undated; "Advanced Study&emdash;Five Year Program," Sept. 9, 1969.

7. "Status Report on Integrated Manned Space Flight Program," pp. 1-14; "Apollo Lunar Exploration Program," prepared for Apollo Lunar Explorations Off ice by MSC management, Sept. 9, 1969; "Position Paper on Manned Planetary Missions," prepared by the Manned Planetary Working Group of the Planetary Exploration Planning Panel, undated.

8. Charles A Berry, "Perspectives on Apollo," in R. S. Johnston, et al., Biomedical Results of Apollo, NASA SP-368 (Washington, 1975), p. 591.

9. Ibid, pp. 591-92.

10. L. F. Dietlein, "Summary and Conclusions," and W. R. Hawkins and 1. F. Zieglschmid, "Clinical Aspects of Crew Health," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, p. 579 and pp. 43-82, respectively.

11. Berry, "Perspectives on Apollo," p. 585.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid, pp. 588-89; Hawkins and Zieglschmid, "Clinical Aspects of Crew Health," pp. 52-53: Bennie C. Wooley and Gary W. McCollum, "Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 141-49.

14. J.L. Homick and E F. Miller, II, "Apollo Flight Crew Vestibular Assessment," Dietlein "Summary and Conclusions," and Berry, "Perspectives," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 329-31.

15. Berry, "Perspectives" p. 586.

16. Homick and Miller, 'Apollo Flight Crew Vestibular Assessment," pp. 330-31, 339.

17. Ibid, pp. 332, 338-39.

18. Dietlein, "Summary and Conclusions," p. 576.

19. Ibid, p. 577; Berry, "Perspectives on Apollo", pp. 587-88; G W Hoffler and R L. Johnson, "Apollo Flight Crew Cardiovascular Evaluations," in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 262-63.

20. Horst Bucker, "Biostack&emdash;A Study of Biological Effects of HZE Galactic Cosmic Radiation," and Webb Haymaker, et al., "The Apollo 17 Pocket Mouse Experiment (BIOCORE)," Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 343-54 and 381-403, respectively.

21. G. R Taylor, "The Apollo 16 Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment,'' in Biomedical Results of Apollo. pp. 367-79.

22. W Z Osborne, et al, "Apollo Light Flash investigations,'' in Biomedical Results of Apollo, pp. 355-65.

23. These changes are revealed in several articles and in "Life Sciences," in House, 1972 NASA Authorization, Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 92/1, Mar. 4 and Apr. 2-5, 1971, pt. 1, pp. 101-17.

24. Space Medicine Advisory Group, Medical Aspects of an Orbiting Research Laboratory, NASA SP-86 (Washington, 1966).

25. "Medicine and Physiology" and "Role of Man in Space," in Space Research: Directions for the Future. vol. 3, pp. 162-68.

26. Berry, "Introduction," p 2, "A Biomedical Program for Extended Space Missions," prepared by the staff of the MSC Directorate of Medical Research and Operations, May 1969 (pages not numbered sequentially).

27. Ibid., p.1.

28. "General Concepts," in "Biomedical Program for Extended Space Missions," pp. 1-2.

29. Ibid, pp. 3-8.

30. Ibid, p. 5; "Overall Positions and Objectives," in "Biomedical Program for Extended Space Missions," p. 1, ibid.

31. "Overall Positions and Objectives," pp. 1-8.

32. "Table of Contents" in Biomedical Program; see also "Status Report on integrated Manned Space Flight Program."

33. "Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurements System," in Biomedical Program, pp. 1-3; see also Sherman Vinograd, "Medical/Behavioral Experiments Program," paper presented to the NAS, Sept.11, 1969; Vinograd interview; N. Belasco and Sam L. Pool, "The NASA Program for an integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurements System,''1970; IMBLMS files, JSC history archives.

34. Vinograd, "Medical/Behavioral Experiments Program," pp. 10-11.

35. "Life Sciences,''1972 NASA Authorization, pp. 101-102.

36. Ibid, pp. 102-03, 106.

37 .ibid., p 103; "Human Factors Systems," House, 1971 NASA Authorization, Hearings before Committee on Science and Astronautics, 91/2, Feb. 17-26, 1970, pt. lIl, p 1404.

38. "Human Factors System," 1971 NASA Authorization, p. 1404.

39. Interview, Walton Jones. 1979.

40. "Human Factors Systems," 1971 NASA Authorization, p. 1404.

41. "Life Sciences," 1972 NASA Authorization, pp. 108-09.

42. "Human Factors Systems," 1971 NASA Authorization, pp. 1392-93.

43. Ibid.; McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corp., "Test Results of Operational Ninety Day Manned Test of A Regenerative Life Support System," prepared for Langley Research Center under contract NAS1 8997 and published as NASA CR-111881, May 1971, pp. 1 -4. The earliest study of this type of system identified during this historical analysis is Ames Research Center, The Closed Life Support System, NASA SP-134 (Washington, 1967). See also I F. Foster, ed., "Waste Management for Manned Space Operations," papers presented at a workshop sponsored by the Off ice of Manned Space Flight, Oct. 29-30, 1968.

44. McDonnell Douglas, "Test Results of Operational Ninety Day Manned Test of A Regenerative Life Support System," 501-02, 521-23, 631-32.

45. For a subsequent assessment, see Noel C Willis, Ir., and John M. Neel, "The Space Station Prototype Program: The Development of a Regenerative Life Support System for Extended-Duration Missions," MSC Tech Document MSC-07290, Oct. 1972.

46. "AAP-Biomedical Experiments," 1971 NASA Authorization, pp. 1302-07.

47. Ibid.

 

CHAPTER 11

 

1. Homer Newell to Acting Administrator, "Organizational Alternatives for NASA's Life Science Activities," Nov. 9, 1970.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid; Naugle interview.

4. Naugle interview.

5. Reynolds's arguments are detailed in Chap 5.

6. Naugle interview.

7. Humphreys's and Jones's views are discussed in detail in Chap 9.

8. Documents related to the agency's decision to develop the Space Shuttle are in the Space Shuttle files, NASA HO, and in Senate and House reports of hearings on NASA authorizations for FY 1972, 1973, and 1974.

9. "Summary and Major Recommendations," Study Committee to Review NASA Life Science Programs, Sept. 1970; Milton W Rosen to Newell, "Status Report on NASA Response to the National Academy of Sciences Study," Nov. 12, 1970.

10. George Low (Acting Administrator) to program office associate administrators, "Establishment of a NASA Director of Life Sciences in the Office of Manned Space Flight," Dec. 3, 1970.

11. Low, memo to program office associate administrators, "Biomedical and Bioscience Programs in NASA," July 20, 1970.

12. Newell to Low, "Organizational Alternatives," Nov. 9, 1970. For a dissenting view see Harold Klein, letter to Newell, Aug. 31, 1970.

13. Naugle interview; Newell interview.

14. Reynolds interview, Oct. 1979; Naugle interview.

15. NASA Management Issuance 1138 14, "Duties and Responsibilities of the Director of Life Sciences," May 28, 1971.

16. Ibid.

17. Shields Warren, chairman, Life Science Committee, to Newell, July 27, 1972; William Barry, "The Life Sciences Program of NASA," report for the Administrator, Feb.1,1974, pp. 2-3.

18. "Review of the Integrated Life Sciences Program," Feb. 12, 1973, contained in Administrator Fletcher's Correspondence and Files, NASA HO.

19. Warren to Newell, July 27, 1972 and Nov. 28, 1972; Barry, "Life Sciences Program of NASA," p. 3.

20. Barry, "Life Sciences Program of NASA," pp. 6-7.

21. Information derived from biographical files, NASA and JSC history archives.

22. Warren to Newell, July 27, 1972; Barry, "Life Sciences Program of NASA," p. 5.

23. Newell, memo to Low, Nov. 9, 1970.

24. Barry, "Life Sciences Program of NASA," p. 5 These comments should not be taken as a criticism of the performance of JSC Life Sciences Director Richard S. Johnston, whose many important contributions to the space program in various capacities during his 20 years with the agency are beyond question. Rather, Barry was questioning the wisdom of placing responsibility for biomedical research in the hands of one who was not a life scientist.

25. George Low to Administrator Fletcher, "NASA's Biomedical Activities," Nov. 2, 1972.

26 Barry, "Life Sciences Program of NASA," p. 1.

27. Ibid, p. 5.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid, pp. 16-17

30. Ibid, pp. 7-8

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid, pp. 13-14.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid, pp. 18-19.

35. Ibid, pp. 20-21.

36. Ibid., pp. 22-23.

37. For example, Warren to Newell, July 27, 1972 and Nov. 28, 1972.

38. For example, Low to Fletcher, "NASA's Biomedical Activities," Nov. 2, 1972.

39. Winter and Humphreys interviews.

40. "NASA Realigns Two Major Program Offices," NASA news release, Sept. 23, 1975.

41. Ibid.

 

CHAPTER 12

 

1. R. S Johnston, "Skylab Medical Program Overview," and L. F. Dietlein, "Skylab: A Beginning," in R. S. Johnston and L F. Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, NASA SP-377 (Washington, 1977), pp. 4, 408.

2. These matters are detailed in the essays in Johnston and Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab. Medical findings from Skylab are also discussed in W. David Compton and Charles D. Benson, Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab, NASA SP-4208 (Washington: 1983), pp. 339-341.

3. J. K. Ferguson, et al., ''Analysis of the Skylab Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program," in Johnston and Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, p 45.

4. Ibid.

5. C. R. Taylor, et al, "Skylab Environmental and Crew Microbiology Studies," ibid., pp. 53-63.

6. Ashton Graybiel and others, "Experiment M131: Human Vestibular Function," and J. L. Homick, et al., "The Effects of Prolonged Weightlessness on Postural Equilibrium," ibid., pp. 74-113.

7. Dietlein, "Skylab: A Beginning," pp. 415-16.

8. C. D. Whedon, et al. "Mineral and Nitrogen Metabolic Studies, Experiment M071," in Johnston and Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, pp. 164, 166, 174.

9. W. E. Thornton, "Physiological Mass Measurements in Skylab," M C. Smith, et al., "Bone Mineral Measurement&emdash;Experiment M078," W E Thornton, "Muscular Deconditioning and Its Prevention in Space Flight," in Johnston and Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, pp. 175-98.

10. Dietlein "Skylab: A Beginning," p. 414.

11. C. S. Leach and P. C. Rambault, "Biochemical Responses of the Skylab Crewmen," and P. C Johnson. et al, "Blood Volume Changes," ibid., pp. 204-15, 235-41.

12. Dietlein, ibid, p. 414.

13. C. E. Mengel, "Red Cell Metabolism Studies on Skylab," and S. L. Kimzey, "Hematology and Immunology Studies," ibid, pp. 242-82.

14. Dietlein, ibid., pp. 414-15.

15. R. L. Johnson. et al., "Lower Body Negative Pressure," C W Hoffler, et al., "Experimental M092 Lower Body Negative Pressure," W E Thornton, "Hemodynamic Studies of the Legs under Weightlessness," R F Smith, et al., "Vectorcardiographic Changes during Extended Space Flight (M093)," S A Bergman, et al, "Evaluation of the Electromechanical Properties of the Cardiovascular System after Prolonged Weightlessness," in Johnston and Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, pp. 284-366.

16. Dietlein, "Skylab: A Beginning," pp. 412-13.

17. L. E. Day, "The Space Shuttle: A New Approach to Space Transportation," paper presented at the 21st International Conference on Aeronautics, Oct.9,1970, p 1 Copy in Shuttle documentation files, NASA HO.

18. Ibid, pp. 9-13; House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Space Shuttle-Skylab, status report for Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, 9212, Jan. 2, 1972; Senate, Space Shuttle Payloads, Hearings before Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 93/1, Oct. 30-31,1973; House, Space Shuttle Space Tug, status report for Committee on Science and Astronautics, 93/2, Feb. 1974.

19. Space Science Board, Scientific Uses of the Space Shuttle (Washington: NAS, 1974), p.154.

20. Ibid, pp. 154-SS; "Final Report of the Space Shuttle Payload Planning Working Groups&emdash;Life Sciences." May 1973, pp. xi-xii.

21. Harold Sandler and David L Winter, Physiological Responses of Women to Simulated Weightlessness, NASA SP-430 (Washington, 1978), pp. 1-2, 40-48; Winter interview.

22. "Final Report Working Groups&emdash;Life Sciences," pp. C-1 to C-5.

23. Ibid. pp. A-1 to A-19, B-1 to B-3.

24. Ibid. p xi and appendixes A, B, C, and D.

25. "Final Report. Working Groups&emdash;Life Sciences," p. xi; "Space Opportunities, 1973-1991: The NASA Payload Model," Oct. 1973, pp. 36-38 Copy in Shuttle documentation files, NASA HO.

26. Biography files, NASA HO; Winter interview; William Barry, "The Life Sciences Program of NASA," a report for the Administrator, Feb. 1, 1974.

27. The character of the office is described in Barry, "The Life Sciences Program of NASA."

28. At the time of his appointment, Noel Hinners was the space sciences program office administrator and John Naugle was the office's chief scientist. The sentiments mentioned in the text were expressed by Naugle and Newell in their respective interviews.

29. Winter interview.

30. Naugle interview.

31. This is the author's interpretation based on his background understanding of the two traditions. The view is implied in interviews with Reynolds, Naugle, and Winter.

32. Naugle and Soffen interviews.

33. Biography files, NASA HO and JSC history archives. The author's interpretation of the significance of backgrounds is supported by findings in Barry, "The Life Sciences in NASA" See also Soffen interview.

34. Winter interview.

35. Ibid., "Press Briefing with David Winter," Feb. 21, 1965, a transcript of which is in the Biography files, NASA HO.

36. Naugle interview.

37. "Future Directions for the Life Sciences in NASA," draft of a report prepared by Life Sciences Advisory Committee, Aug. 1978.

38. Naugle and Soffen interviews.

39. Biography files, NASA HO; Soffen interview.

40. Soffen interview


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