SP-4218 To See the Unseen

 

- Index -

[289-296]

 

Introduction: pp. vii-xiii

Chapter 6: pp.149-176

Chapter 1: pp.1-26

Chapter 7: pp.177-204

Chapter 2: pp.27-53

Chapter 8: pp.205-224

Chapter 3: pp.55-85

Chapter 9: pp.225-257

Chapter 4: pp.87-115

Conclusion: pp.259-265

Chapter 5: pp.117-147

.

 

- A -

 

Air and Space Museum. See under Smithsonian Institution.
American Astronomical Society (AAS), 61;
Division for Planetary Science (DPS),123, 203, 244, 251, 254.
Abell, George, 50.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 46, 58, 62, 65, 87, 88, 89, 90, 94, 95, 96, 97;
Defender Program, 88-89, 97.
Albee, Arden L., 226.
Aller, Lawrence, 50.
Almond, Mary, 16.
American Geophysical Union, 177, 203.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 255.
Anderson, Clinton R, 80-82.
Apollo, 9, 83, 85, 92, 108 135, 149, 153, 169, 177, 183. Appleton, Edward, 12, 13.
Arecibo Observatory, 67, 74, 75, 77, 83, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, 121, 127, 129, 133, 135, 139, 143, 147, 150, 151 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 177, 180, 183, 190, 191, 195 197, 203, 205, 265;
design and building of, 88-91;
DoD ionospheric Research Facility, 90;
line feed problems and research, 96-97;
formation of NAIC, 101;
becomes NSF National Research Center, 94-101;
S band upgrade, 94, 96-97, 101-105;
"Arecibo Message," 104;
NASA-NSF agreement, 101-103, 203;
second upgrade, 225, 230-235, 260;
Gregorian feed/reflector, 96, 231-233;
impact of second upgrade on radar astronomy, 260;
Arecibo and Goldstone compared, 265.
Ash, Michael E., 122, 125, 150.
Aspinall, Arnold, 20.
Asteroids, 221-224, 259-260;
rapid rate of discovery, 246-247;
growth of literature, 222, 260-261;
and Big Science, 222, 247;
as radar targets, 248;
near-Earth and Earth-crossing, 121, 247;
contact-binary, 249, 250-251;
composition of, 249;
ephemerides, 256-257;
range-Doppler imaging of, 250;
modelling shapes of, 222-223, 250-252, 254-255;
potential Earth collision of, 255-256;
Spaceguard, 255-256, 259;
Spacewatch, 222;
Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS), 222;
1989 AC (4179 Toutatis), 252, 254, 255;
Apollo, 248;
1580 Betulia, 224;
Ceres, 224; 1986 DA, 249, 250, 256; 1982 DB, 256;
Eros, 46-47, 222 224, 250;
1989 FC, 255;
243 Gaspra, 255;
1620 Geographos, 254, 255;
Icarus, 121-123, 213, 221;
Icarus discovery poem, 122;
951 Ida, 255;
IRAS Araki-Alcock, 111;
Iris, 248;
1627 Ivar, 250, 256;
1986 JK, 256;
216 Kleopatra, 249;
Metis, 224;
2201 Oljata, 249;
1980 PA, 250; 2 Pallas, 249;
1989 PB (4769 Castalia), 250-255;
Psyche, 248;
Quetzalcoatl, 248;
2100 Ra-Shalom, 250;
1972 Toro, 213, 250;
4 Vesta 111, 223, 224, 248;
Victoria, 250-251.
Astronomical Unit: measured by radar, 42-46, 124;
radar value adopted by International Astronomical Union, 46-49.
Auroras, 20-21.
 
 
- B -
 
 
Badgley, Peter C., 169.
Baker, Lynn A., 232.
Barrett, Alan H., 141.
Barsukov, Valery L., 190, 191, 194.
Barth, Charles A., 186.
Barthle, Robert C., 58.
Basilevsky, Alexander, 190, 194, 197.
Bateman, Ross, 22.
Bay, Zoltan, 10-12, 32.
Big Science, viii-xii, 87, 112;
and Little Science, ix-xii
and radar astronomy, 106. See also Radar astronomy.
Billingsley, George, 195.
Bindschadler, D. L., 242-243.
Bistatic radar, 206, 214, 259;
Goldstack, 206, 111-112
Goldstone-VLA, 236-238, 239-241, 243, 259;
NEROC-VLA, 236; Arecibo-Goldstone, 259;
observations of asteroid Toutatis, 252;
observations of Moon, 245.
Blackett, Patrick M. S., 13.
Bok, Bart J., 96.
Booker, Henry, 88, 89, 90, 99.
Boot, Henry A. H., 4.
Bowen, Dr. Edward G. 'Taffy", 5, 31.
Bowles, Ken, 88.
Boyce, Joseph, 194.
Bracewell, Ronald N., 31, 109.
Bradley, Lames, 77, 78.
Breit, Gregory, 3.
Brenner, Norman, 120.
Briggs, Geoff, 235.
Brouwer, Dirk, 47, 48.
Brown, Harrison, 244.
Brown, Walter, 172.
Brown University, 186, 190, 191, 194, 196, 197. See also Microsymposia.
Browne, lan C., 44.
Brunk, William, 71, 102, 103, 106.
Burke, Bernard F., 75.
Burns, Barbara Ann, 115, 181 195 196-197.
Butler, Bryan J., 237, 239, 240 242-243, 244, 245, 246, 261,
Butman, Stan, 226.
 
 
- C -
 
 
Cain, Dan L., 150, 151.
California Institute of Technology (Caltech), 36, 40-41, 61, 72, 105, 205-206, 261;
relations with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 110. See also Owens Valley Observatory,
Callisto. See under Galilean moons.
Callon, Michael, x.
Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee. See CAMROC.
Campbell, Donald B. "Don", 60, 93,102, 105,115, 124, 145-147, 150, 151, 154, 158, 161, 162, 174, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 186, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 215, 213-214, 216, 218, 219, 220, 221, 224, 226, 229, 234, 235, 237, 239-241, 242, 245, 261.
CAMROC (Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee), 63, 71-74. See also NEROC.
Carpenter, Roland L., 50, 51, 52, 61, 106, 119, 135, 138.
Cassini project, 203, 230, 238.
Center for Radiophysics and Space Research (CRSR). See under Cornell University.
Chandler, John F, 125, 201, 212.
Chapman, Clark, 255.
Chisholm, James, 59.
Chodas, Paul, 256.
Clark, P E., 243.
Clarke, Arthur C. 255.
Clegg, John A., 14, 15, 20.
Clemence, Gerald, M. 47.
Clementine spacecraft, 245, 254.
Colombo, Giuseppe "Bepi", 119.
Comets, 215-221;
as radar targets, 215;
International Halley Watch, 220-221;
Austin, 217, 218;
Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 217, 218;
d'Arrest, 216;
Encke, 216, 217, 218;
Grigg-Skjellerup, 216, 217, 218;
Halley, 220-221;
Honda-Mrkos-Pajddusakova, 221;
IRAS-Araki-Alcock, 218-220;
Kohoutek, 216;
Shoemaker-Levy, 256;
Sugano Saigusa-Fujikawa, 220.
Communications: CODORAC, 36-37;
NOMAC (NOise Modulation And Correlation), 30-31, 32;
meteor burst, 20;
Rake, 30-31;
Moon-bounce, by ham radio operators, 146.
COMPLEX (Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration). See under National Academy of Sciences.
Cook, Allan F, 214.
Cornell University, 58, 61,62, 74, 75, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 109, 152;
Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research (CRSR), 89, 90, 98, 100;
Cornell-University of Sydney agreement, 99-101.
COSPAR (Committee on Space Research), 47, 48.
Counselman, Charles C.,111, 120.
Cuzzi, Jeffrey N., 215.
 
 
- D -
 
 
Daddario, Emilio Q., 101.
Dallas, Saterios Sam, 194.
Danforth, Haines, 125.
Davenport, Wilbur B.,Jr., 30, 56.
Davies, John C., 15, 16.
Davis, John W., 104.
de Dominicis, Cyrano, 126-127.
Deep Space Network, 36, 37, 63, 70, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 151, 155, 173, 184, 187, 188, 193, 225, 229
Advisory Croup, 225;
Voyager upgrade, 228, HADEC antenna (Pioneer), 37, 39-40, 49;
AZ-EL antenna (Echo), 38, 39-40, 49;
Venus Station (DSS 13) 108, 110;
Mars Station (DSS 14), 67, 72, 75, 96, 104, 105-109, 110, 121, 123, 135, 137, 139, 147;
Tidbinbilla facility, 155. See also Goldstone radar; Bistatic radar: Goldstack.
Dewitt, John H.,Jr., 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 32.
Dicke Panel. See under Radio astronomy.
Downs, George S., 109, 115, 158, 161, 162, 225-226, 238, 263.
Drake, Frank, 75, 93, 94, 96, 98, 231.
Dyce, Rolf, 75, 92, 93, 96, 119, 121, 124, 133, 135, 139, 146, 150, 151, 158, 180-181.
 
 
- E -
 
 
Effelsberg (Germany) radio telescope, 76, 259.
EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Association), 231, 232.
Elachi, Charles, 227.
Ellyett, Clifton D., 15, 20.
Eshleman, Von R., 19-20, 55, 57, 58, 61, 155, 209.
Europa. See under Galilean moons.
European Space Agency, 220.
Evans, John V., 23-24, 34-35, 41, 42, 44, 49, 55, 56, 112, 113.
Evans, W. E., Jr., 19.
Explorer probes, 155-156.
Ezell, Edward Clinton, 158, 159.
Ezell, Linda Neuman, 158, 159.
 
 
- F -
 
 
Farr, Tom C., 195.
Ferrell, Oliver Perry, 17.
Ferrie, Gustave, 60.
Findlay, John, 77.
Fink, Donald G., 9.
Fjeldbo (later Lindal), Gunnar, 155.
Fleischer, Robert, 81.
Ford, Peter G., 166, 174, 195, 202, 245.
Forni, Antonia, 216.
Franklin, Fred A., 214.
Fricke, Walter, 48, 49.
Friedman, Louis D., 178, 183.
 
 
- G -
 
 
Galilean moons, 206, 208, 210-211;
radar signatures of, 207-208;
radar backscattering models of, 208-212;
radar echoes and "weak localization," 211;
Callisto, 105, 112, 206, 208-210;
Europa, 207-210;
Ganymede, 105, 112, 206-210;
Io, 207, 210. See also Range-Doppler mapping.
Galileo mission, 184,187, 200, 193, 203, 177, 212; 229.
Gallagher, Philip. B., 58.
Ganymede. See under Galilean moons.
Gehrels, Torn, 123, 222, 224, 248.
General Theory of Relativity, 9, 112, 117, 126;
radar test of, 126 129.
Gerks, Irvin H., 25.
Gerpheide, John H., 179, 194.
Gillmor, C. Stewart, 18-19.
Gilmore, Alan, 217.
Gold, Thomas, 32, 57, 59, 75, 89-90, 91, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 140, 152, 153.
Goldberg, Leo, 66, 69.
Goldreich, Peter. 119.
Goldstein, Richard M. "Dick", 39, 40, 52, 61, 104, 105, 106, 109, 110, 115, 119, 120-121, 123, 135, 137, 139, 143, 147, 151, 152, 158, 174, 176, 179-180, 183-184, 206, 209, 212, 213, 214, 219, 220, 222, 224, 226, 237, 242, 263.
Goldstein, Samuel, 40.
Goldstone radar, 149, 152, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160 161, 174, 177, 180, 205, 206, 225;
attempted upgrade, 225-230;
Planetary Radar Science Review Committee, 229-230;
Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), 225, 227-228;
Echo station (DSS 12), 180;
Venus station (DSS 13), 180;
Mars Station, 150, 180, 199, 259. See also Deep Space Network.
Golomb, Solomon, 39, 45-46.
Goody, Richard M., 163.
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation, 168, 184, 185, 192-193.
Gordon, William E. "Bill", 88, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 99.
Green, Paul E.,Jr., 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 41, 52, 55, 56, 59, 61, 131, 132.
Green, Richard R. "Rick", 109, 209, 225, 226.
Greenstein Panel. .See under Radio astronomy.
Grossman, Arie, 237.
Guerlac, Henry, 1.
Gurrola, Eric, 210.

 

- H -

 

Hagfors, Tor, 56, 101, 159, 162, 209, 213, 227, 229, 231, 232, 233.
HaIdeman, Albert, 246.
Hapke, Bruce, 211.
Harang, Leiv, 21.
Hargreaves, J. K, 22-23.
Harmon, John K, 115, 195, 196, 212, 221, 239, 241, 242, 245, 246, 259.
Harrington, John V. ''Jack'', 55, 56, 59.
Harris, Sam, 145, 146.
Harvard University, 67, 71, 73, 76, 90;
College Observatory, 17, 67.
Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 219;
Center for Astrophysics, 125, 212. See also Smithsonian Institution: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
Hawkins, G. S., 20.
Haworth, Leland J., 69, 81, 97.
Haystack Observatory, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 75, 76, 92, 93, 94, 121, 122, 123, 127, 129, 134-135, 141, 150, 152, 156, 157, 158, 183, 206. See also Lincoln Laboratory; NEROC.
Head, James W.,III, 186, 190-191, 194-196, 242-243.
Helin, Eleanor, 222, 250.
Hellgren, Gotha, 20.
Helliwell, Robert A., 18.
Herlofson, Nicolai, 14, 15.
Herman, Daniel H. "Danny", 167, 177, 180, 183.
Hess, Harry H., 101, 102.
Hey, James S., 13.
Hibbs, Albert R. "Al", 39.
Higgins, Charles S., 21-22.
Hine, Alice, 197, 201.
Hornig, Donald, 100.
Housman, W. B., 20.
Hudson, R. Scott, 240, 241, 252, 254, 259.
Hughes, Thomas P, x.
Hughes Aircraft Company, 185, 188, 192-193, 194.
Hunt, Daniel, 103.
Hunten, Donald M., 163, 235.
 
 
- I -
 
 
Imrie, K S., 113.
Ingalls, Richard R "Dick", 56, 85, 141-143, 150, 206, 242.
Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE), 45, 46, 113, 114, 118. See also Yevpatoriya tracking station. International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM), 188.
International Astronomical Union (IAU), 61, 62, 203, 263;
adopts radar names for Venus features, 175-176. See also Astronomical Unit.
Io. See under Galilean moons.
 
- J -
 
 
Jaffe, Richard, 36.
Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 43-44, 59, 61, 76, 92, 260;
Venus radar at, 33-35
250-ft (76 meter) telescope, 33;
end of radar astronomy at, 112-115. See also Lovell, Sir A. C. Bernard.
Jones, Harold Spencer, 46, 47, 48.
Jones, Tom, 98, 99.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), 36-40, 104, 125, 150, 162, 169, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 192, 193, 194, 205, 206, 213;
relations with Caltech, 110;
Friend of the Radar, 227;
Office of Space Science and Instruments, 227;
rivalry with MIT over Pioneer Venus, 172;
ephemeris activity, 225.
Jupiter, 120-121.
Jurgens, Raymond F "Ray",93, 109, 110,111,115, 124, 139, 140, 143, 146, 147, 150, 180, 219-220, 222-223, 225, 226, 237, 243, 246, 248, 250, 256, 261, 263.
 
 
- K -
 
 
 
Kamoun, Paul G. D., 216, 217, 218.
Kauffman, Herbert R, 7.
Keesey, Mike, 220.
Keff, Frank J., 21-22.
Keller, Carl, 171.
Kildal, Per-Simon, 232.
Kingston, Robert H. "Bob", 31, 55.
Kliore, Arvydas, 123, 150, 151.
Kotelnikov, Vladimir A., 45, 46, 50, 113, 114, 118-119, 120, 191.
Kovalevsky, Jean, 48.
Kozak, Richard, 195.
Krige,John, xi, 263.
Kuhn, Thomas S., xii, 117-118, 263;
"normal science," 117-118;
scientific paradigm defined, 117. See also radar astronomy: Kuhn's notion of paradigm in.
 
 
- L -
 
 
Laderman, Al, 178.
Lalonde, L. Merle, 96.
Landmark, B., 21.
Liller, William, 47.
Lilley, A. Edward "Ed", 47, 63, 66, 67, 71, 72, 73, 82, 83.
Lincoln Laboratory, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 39, 61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 71, 73, 76, 79, 80, 81, 92, 121, 122, 126, 127, 219;
radar astronomy summer course, 55-56;
El Campo (Texas) solar radar facility, 55, 58, 62, 92. See also MIT; Sun.
Long, Franklin A., 97.
Long-Distance Space Communication Center. See Yevpatoriya tracking station; Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics.
Love, Alan, 96, 231.
Lovell, Sir A. C. Bernard, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 23, 24, 34, 35, 44, 63, 112, 113, 114, 115.
Low, Ward, 89.
Low, George, M., 85.
 
 
- M -
 
 
Magellan (VOIR and VRM), 162, 165, 167, 169, 226, 264;
origins as VOIR, 177-178;
defining the VOIR mission, 184-185;
VOIR Science Working Group, 179-180, 185;
VOIR cancelled, 187;
renamed VRM, 187-188, 189;
defining the VRM mission, 191-192;
organization of the science teams, 186;
radar contract awarded, 192-193;
SAR mapper, 178, 184-185;
in-house versus contracting out, 184-185;
named Magellan, 192;
delayed launch of, 193-194, 200;
management changes, 199;
technology borrowed from other NASA flight missions, 178-179, 185, 188, 193, 199, 200;
and shift of planetary radar astronomy toward geology, 177, 179-180; 191, 194-196, 203;
interpretation of radar images, 185, 200-201;
role of ground-based radars in, 201;
space-based versus ground-based radar, 180, 183-184;
impact on ground-based radar astronomy, 203-204;
and Venus geology, 194, 195 197;
as Big Science, 177, 191-192, 202-203;
NAIC Brown University agreement, 196. See also Microsymposia; Venera.
Malin, Michael C., 180.
Mallow, Dick, 233.
Manning, Lawrence A., 19.
Mansfield Amendment, 80, 87, 94, 97.
Marconi, Cuglielmo, 1.
Manner missions, 106, 108, 157, 178, 186, 242, 243, 244, 246;
Mariner I and 2, 39, 49;
Mariner 4, 108, 154;
Mariner 5, 150, 151, 163;
Mariner 6, 154
Mariner 7,154;
Mariner 9,154,185;
Mariner 10,109.
Marov, M. Ya., 176.
Mars, 124;
topography, 238-239, 242;
radar observations of polar ice caps, 238-242.
Marsden, Brian G., 48, 216, 217, 219, 220, 222, 223-224.
Martel, Hardy, 40.
Martin Marietta Aerospace, 178, 188.
Marun, James, 161.
Maser, 31-32, 40, 65.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. See MIT.
Masursky, Harold "Hal", 163, 164, 169, 170, 174, 176, 179, 183, 186, 190, 191, 194.
Mason, Dennis L., 238.
McAfee, Walter S., 7.
McGill, George E., 174.
McGuire, William, 89.
McKay, John S., 178.
McKinley, Donald W. R., 16, 17, 20.
Melbourne, Bill, 150.
Menzell, Donald, 66.
Meos, Johan, 20.
Mercury: first detected by radar, 118-119;
period of rotation determined, 119-120;
topography, 242-243;
discovery of polar ice 242-246;
confirmation of polar ice at Arecibo Observatory, 245.
Messel, Harry, 99.
Meteors, 12-20, 88. See also Communications: meteor burst; U.S. Army: meteors.
Microsymposia, 194, 197;
origins, 190-191. See also Brown University; Vernadsky Institute.
Mikhailov, Aleksandr A., 48.
Millman, Peter M., 16, 20.
Millstone radar observatory, 29, 30, 31, 55, 63, 67, 88, 101, 150;
Venus (1958), 30-33. See also Lincoln Laboratory.
MIT: Center for Space Research, 56, 73, 172, 186;
Draper Laboratory, 125;
Electronics Systems Laboratory, 163;
Radiation Laboratory, 5-6, 9;
Radiation Laboratory of Electronics, 28. See also Lincoln Laboratory.
Mofenson, Jack, 7.
Montgomery, G. Franklin, 25.
Moon, 92, 132-135, 245;
bistatic radar studies of, 104, 111- 112, 113-114;
Operation "Haymoon," 143;
Goldstack, 111-112;
Jodrell Bank-USSR (Yevpatoriya), 113-114. See also Radar interferometry: Operation "Haymoon"; Radar range-Doppler mapping: Moon.
Moore, Henry John, ll, 169, 203, 226, 239.
Morns, George A.,Jr., 109, 206, 212, 213.
Morrison, David, 235, 255.
Morrison, Philip, 57.
Mouginis-Mark, Peter, 238.
Muhleman, Duane O. "Dewey", 40, 47, 48, 50, 61, 106, 128-129, 150, 227, 230, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 259, 261.
Murray, Bruce C., 110, 244.
Murray, William A. S., 22, 23.
Mutch, Thomas, 226.
 
 
- N -
 
 
NAIC (National Astronomy and ionospheric Center), 104, 147, 181, 196, 231, 233. See also Arecibo Observatory.
NASA, 72, 77, 81, 83, 85, 87, 88, 92, 93, 106, 149, 153, 155, 163, 166, 169, 172, 177, 179, 180, 183, 184-185, 186, 192, 193, 194, 203, 213, 255-256, 264, 265;
budget, 187;
Advanced Programs, 166-167;
Ames Research Center, 163, 171, 178;
Discovery program, 259;
Goddard Space Flight Center, 163;
Lunar and Planetary Missions Board, 163;
Office of Space Science, 39, 226;
planetary programs office, 213. See also Arecibo Observatory: NASA-NSF agreement; Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
National Academy of Sciences, 168;
Space Science Board, 57, 163;
COMPLEX (Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration), 180, 190;
Bahcall Committee, 235.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. See NASA.
National Astronomy and ionospheric Center. See NAIC.
National Bureau of Standards, 62-63, 88;
Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (Sterling, VA), 18, 22, 25, 58, 61;
Jicamarca facility, 55, 63, 88, 101.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Green Bank radio telescope, 58, 67, 69, 70, 259.
National Research Council (Canada), 260.
National Science Foundation (NSF),69, 70,73,74,75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 205, 233. See also Arecibo Observatory: NASA-NSF agreement.
Naugle,John E., 81, 101, 161.
NEROC (Northeast Radio Observatory Corporation), 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 99, 102, 177. See also Haystack Observatory; CAMROC.
Newell, Homer E., Jr., 58.
Nichols, Benjamin "Ben", 88.
Nickle, Neil, 199.
Northeast Radio Observatory Corporation. See NEROC.
NSF. See National Science Foundation.
 
 
- O -
 
 
O'Handley, D. A., 150.
Orlen,Joel, 72.
Ostro, Steven J. "Steve", 115, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 221, 222, 224, 226, 227, 228, 234, 237, 239, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 256, 257, 259, 261, 263.
Owens Valley Observatory, 70, 72, 73, 75, 81;
Westroc, 73, 75. See also California Institute of Technology.
 
 
- P -
 
 
Paige, David A., 244, 245.
Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS), 222.
Parkes radio telescope, 107.
Parsons, S.J., 13.
Pawsey, J. L., 22, 31.
Peale, Stanton J., 119, 120.
Perillat, Phil, 241.
Peters, Kenneth J., 211.
Peterson, Allen M., 19.
Petrosian, Vahi, 92.
Pettengill, Gordon H., 31, 35, 36, 41, 42, 48, 55, 56, 72, 75, 85, 91-92, 93, 98, 101, 104, 112, 115, 119, 121, 123, 124, 127, 132, 133, 134-135, 139, 141, 143, 150 152, 158-159, 162-164, 166, 167, 170-174, 176, 177, 179, 181, 183 184, 185-186, 187-188, 190, 191, 193-195, 201-202, 207, 208, 213, 214, 215, 216, 224, 226, 229, 237, 248, 261.
Philco Corporation, 168.
Phillips,J. W., 13.
Pickering, William, 36.
Pineo, Victor C., 18, 55.
Pioneer Venus, 162, 177, 179, 180, 184, 186, 190, 193, 194;
origins, 162-163;
Purple Book, 163-165;
Orange Book, 166;
radar mapper experiment, 171-174.
Planetary Radar Working Group, 226.
Planetary radar ephemerides, 93, 130, 212;
Planetary Ephemeris Program (PEP), 123 126, 139, 150, 172, 212, 223;
JPL Development Ephemeris (DE), 125-126.
Polarization: right-handed and left-handed, 207;
"expected" and "unexpected" sense, 207;
circular polarization inversion, 207-208.
Pollack, James B., 152, 214, 215.
Ponsonby, John E. B., 44, 113, 114.
Posner, Edward C. "Ed", 111.
Prentice, J. R Manning, 14, 15.
Price, Robert "Bob", 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 41, 42, 55, 56, 90.
Price, Derek J. De Solla, ix, xi.
Project Echo, 38, 39.
Project Needles, 63, 141.
Project Diana. See under U.S. Army.
Project West Ford. See Project Needles.
Purcell, Edward M., 77.
 
 
- R -
 
 
Rabe, Eugene, 47, 48, 49.
Radar: origins of in radio, 1;
and magnetron development in Britain, 2, 4-6;
Tizard Mission, 4-5;
Chain Home, 24;
DEW Line, 29, 65;
BMEWS, 29, 45, 65;
monostatic versus bistatic, 39. See also Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).
Radar astronomy: and misinterpretations of measurements, 151-153, 158-159;
Radar Astronomy, 56;
Endicott House Conference on (1959),57-60;
driven by technology, 259, 264;
as problem-solving, 52, 117-118, 162, 204-205, 246;
and epistemological versus scientific problems, 117-118, 259;
at intersection of engineering and science, 263-264;
as Little Science, 93 94, 106, 109-111, 115, 203, 205, 262;
and Big Science, 149, 162, 263-264;
social construction of, 264;
Kuhn's notion of a scientific paradigm in, 117-118, 125-126, 129;
growth of literature, 261-262;
utilitarian tendency of, 264;
NASA mission orientation of, 205, 215, 264;
MIT Lincoln Laboratory summer course in, 55-56;
academic training in, 92-93, 105-106, 205, 261;
at JPL, 106, 109-111, 206;
limits to growth in, 262-263, 265;
and geology, 225-226;
and computers, 124 125, 283;
at Arecibo Observatory and JPL Goldstone compared, 265, 228, 229;
as a space-based endeavor, 203-204;
future of, 259-260. See also Kuhn, Thomas; Planetary radar ephemerides.
Radar geology, 167. See also Radar astronomy: and geology.
Radar interferometry, 93, 141-147;
Operation "Haymoon," 143;
Hayford, 141, 143;
at Arecibo Observatory, 143,145-147;
and observations of asteroid Toutatis, 252.
Radford, William "Bill", 127.
Radio astronomy, 62, 69, 91, 101, 105, 125, 141, 259;
at Haystack Observatory, 55, 63, 66-67, 84-85;
at JPL Goldstone, 226;
Whitford Report, 67, 69-71, 77;
Dicke Panel (1969), 79, 81, 101;
Dicke Panel (1967), 75-76, 96, 97;
Greenstein Panel (1971), 82;
spectral lines, 141;
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), 125, 174;
SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence), 226, 235. See also CAMROC; NEROC.
Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 3, 45.
Radome, 65, 72-73, 78.
Rainville, Louis R 122, 123, 125.
Randall, John E, 4.
Range-Doppler- mapping: planetary, 129-131;
at University of Michigan, 131;
first applied to Moon, 132-135, 143;
lunar, 114;
first applied to Venus, 135-141;
of Venus, 93, 101-102, 103, 107, 180-183;
of Venus from space, 163-165;
with SARs, 167-168;
of Galilean moons, 212.
Rasool, S. Ichtiaque, 213.
Rechtin, Eberhardt "Eb", 36-37, 39, 41, 47, 105, 105, 106, 110, 111, 225.
Reichley, Paul, 128.
Reintjes, J. F, 163.
Renzetti, Nicholas A. "Nick", 105, 204, 226 227, 228, 229, 236, 238, 252.
Ripley, S. Dillon, 77, 78, 79, 81, 62.
Roberts, Morton S., 231.
Roemer, Elizabeth, 122, 123.
Roger, R. S., 44.
Rogers, Alan E. E., 56, 141-143.
Roman, Nancy G., 58, 70.
Rose, Jim, 178.
Rossi, Bruno B., 57, 58, 58.
Roth, Ladislav, 162.
Royal Radar Establishment (Malvern), 59.
Ryle, Sir Martin, 63, 69, 141.
Rumsey, Howard C.,Jr., 109, 138-139, 174.
 
 
- S -
 
 
Sadler, D. H., 48.
Sagan, Carl, 123, 152, 154, 256.
SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment), 65.
Sanchez, Andy, 121.
SAR. See Synthetic Aperture Radar.
Sato, Takoshi, 40.
Saturn: Arecibo Goldstone experiment on rings of 213-214;
radar limits structure of rings, 214-215,
strange radar echoes from rings, 213;
Titan, 236 238.
Saunders, R. Stephen, 169, 178, 180, 185, 191, 194.
Schaber, Gerald C., 169, 174, 179, 186, 194, 195, 201, 238-239, 243.
Schmidt, R. F, 168.
Schubert, Gerald "Gerry", 162, 185.
Scott, Hugh, 80.
Seamans, Robert C., Jr, 71-72.
SEASAT, 169, 178-179, 184, 185, 188, 199.
Sebring, Paul B., 79.
Sekanina, Zdenek, 216, 219, 220.
Senske, David A., 196.
SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). See under Radio astronomy.
Shain, Alex, 21-22.
Shapiro, Irwin I., 47, 48, 52, 93, 112 119 121, 124 126-129, 150, 172, 174, 201, 206, 212, 216, 219, 220, 223-224, 227, 234.
Shoemaker, Carolyn, 228.
Shoemaker, Eugene, 169, 209-210, 211, 222, 228.
Simpson, Richard A. "Dick", 155, 156, 161, 177, 186 201-203, 210, 240, 261.
Slade, Martin A. "Marty", 150, 227, 237, 239, 240, 242-246, 261.
Smith, William B. "Bill", 32, 42, 52, 147, 150, 242.
Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. See under Smithsonian Institution.
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. See under Smithsonian Institution.
Smithsonian Institution, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 177;
Air and Space Museum, 193;
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), 67, 71, 73, 76, 77, 80, 119, 152, 214;
STAC (Smithsonian Telescope Advisory Group), 79, 81. See also Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Social construction (of science or technology), x. See also Radar astronomy: social construction of.
Soderblom, Lawrence A., 105, 186.
Soffen, Gerald, 155.
Space Science Board. See under National Academy of Sciences.
Space Technology Laboratories (STL), 47, 112.
Spaceguard. See under Asteroids.
Spacewatch. See under Asteroids.
Spear, Anthony J., 179.
Spencer, Nelson W., 163.
Stacy, Nicholas John Sholto "Nick", 195, 197, 201, 245.
Standish, E. Miles, Jr, 125, 225.
Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy (SCRA). See under Stanford University.
Stanford Research Institute (SRI). See under Stanford University.
Stanford University, 61, 62, 153, 155;
"bistatic radar," 155, 162, 165, 202;
Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy (SCRA), 154-156, 186, 205;
Stanford Radio Propagation Laboratory, 18-19;
Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 58, 62, 92, 155.
Stelzried, Charles T, 40.
Steson, Paul, 233.
Stevens, Robertson "Bob", 36, 37, 39, 42.
Stewart, G. S., 13.
Stodola, King, 7, 9.
Stroke, George, 127.
Sulzer, Peter G., 25.
Sulzer, Michael P., 241, 245.
Sun: astronomy of, 70;
radar studies of 70, 92. See also International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM); Lincoln Laboratory: El Campo (Texas) solar radar facility.
Swenson, Byron, 178.
Swords, Sean S., 1, 4.
Synthetic Aperture Radar, 167-168, 178, 179, 185, 186, 192-193, 195;
AIR-SAR (NASA JPL airborne SAR), 211;
Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), 178.
 
 
- T -
 
 
Taylor, G. N., 44, 49.
Telecommunications Research Establishment, 88.
Terman, Frederick E., 18.
Thompson, Thomas W. "Tommy", 92, 93, 133, 135, 143, 145, 150, 153, 169, 170, 183, 199, 227, 239.
Thompson, Frank,Jr., 81-82.
Thomson, John H., 24, 44, 49, 113, 114.
Titan. See under Saturn.
Tizard, Henry, 4.
Townes, Charles, 127.
Traxler, Jerome Bob, 233.
Tuve, Merle A., 3.
Tyler, G. Leonard "Len", 155, 156, 158, 159, 161, 165, 177, 186, 201-203, 226, 240.
 
 
- U -
 
 
U.S. Air Force, 80, 83, 85, 168;
Cambridge Research Center (also Cambridge Research Laboratories and today Phillips Laboratory), 18, 20, 24, 28, 58, 89;
Office of Scientific Research, 89, 97;
Research and Development Command (EOARDC), 33.
U.S. Army, 168;
Corps of Engineers, 90;
Signal Corps, 6-9, 28;
radar research, 5;
Project Diana, 6-9, 32;
Evans Signal Laboratory, 6, 7;
and meteors, 17-18.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 105, 162-164, 167, 169, 174, 179, 186,195, 203;
Branch of Astrogeologic Studies, 169, 186.
U.S. Navy: Naval Observatory, 93, 125, 150;
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 3, 5, 6, 24, 25, 31, 58, 61;
NRL Sugar Grove facility, 62, 67-69, 71, 89;
Office of Naval Research, 28, 33, 72, 75, 87, 88, 168.
Udall, Morris K, 81.
Union Radioscientifique Internationale (URSI), 60-62, 203, 263.
University of Illinois, Control Systems Laboratory, 168
University of Michigan, 169;
Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM), 178,
Venus radar development, 163;
Willow Run Research Center, 168.
 
 
- V -
 
 
Valley, George E.,Jr., 9, 28.
Venera:
Venera 4, 150, 163;
Venera 7, 165;
Venera 15 and 16, 186, 189-191, 194, 197.
Venus, 30-52, 106, 109, 180-183, 246;
Millstone (1958) 30-33;
Jodrell Bank (1959), 33-35;
Millstone (1959) 35-36;
JPL (1961),39-41;
Millstone (1961),41-42,44;
Jodrell Bank (1961), 44-45;
RCA (1961), 45;
Soviet Union (1961), 45-46;
priority of first detection, 41;
radar determination of retrograde rotation of, 49-52;
radius determined by radar, 150-151;
radar identification of topography, 135-140;
geology of, 139, 174-175. See also Pioneer Venus; Magellan; Radar range-Doppler mapping; Synthetic Aperture Radar.
Vernadsky Institute, 190, 191, 194, 197;
Planetology Laboratory, 190. See also Brown University; Microsymposia.
Very Large Array (VLA), 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 81, 82, 228, 230, 236;
Voyager upgrade, 236.
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). See under Radio astronomy.
Vesecky, John F, 186, 201.
Victor, Walter K 'Walt", 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 50, 106, 110, 225.
Viking, 83, 85, 105, 106, 108 109, 129, 153-162, 264, 177, 178, 188, 194, 205;
selection of landing site, 154, 156-158, 160-162;
role of radar in, 161-162.
Villard, Oswald G.,Jr., 19, 58.
von Braun, Werner, 102.
von Hoerner, Sebastian, 231.
Vorder Brueggie, Richard W., 196.
Voyager mission, 106, 153, 188, 193, 203, 209, 210, 228, 236-237, 248, 250;
as Mariner Jupiter-Saturn, 108-109, 213. See also Very Large Array; Deep Space Network.

 

- W -

 

Wall, Steve, 195.
Wasserburg, Gerald J., 180.
Watson, Kenneth, 244.
Watson-Watt, Sir Robert, 2, 3.
Webb, Earle L. R., 16.
Webb, Harold D., 7.
Weiss, Herbert G. "Herb", 29, 55, 59, 76, 78, 83.
Western Union (telegraph company), 263, 265.
Westinghouse, 168.
Whipple, Fred L., 15-16, 17, 77, 81, 216.
Whitford Report. See under Radio astronomy.
Wiesner, Jerome, 72.
Wilhelms, Don E., 153.
Wilkins, George A., 48.
Wimperis, Henry Egerton, 2, 3.
Winter, George, 89.
Witt, Gustav, 47.
Wood, Stephen, 244.

 

- Y -

 

Yaplee, Benjamin S., 25, 68.
Yeomans, Don, 256.
Yevpatoriya tracking station, 118, 259. See also Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics.
Young, Tom, 155, 161.

 

- Z -

 

Zellner, Benjamin, 224.
Zisk, Stanley H. "Stan", 56, 135, 143, 153, 169, 170, 238.

 


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