SP-4221 The Space Shuttle Decision

 

INDEX
 
 
 
- A -
 

Aerojet General Corp., 16, 24, 48, 80, 106

SSME, 249, 255, 266
Solid rockets, 45, 46, 353
Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board (NASA-USAF), 83-84, 201
Aerophysics Laboratory (NAA), 24
Aerospace Corp., 54, 264, 267, 277-279, 357
aerospace industry, 291, 292, 395
Aerospaceplane, 78-79, 82
Agenda rocket stage, 194, 197, 227
Agnew, Spiro, 125-126, 167, 170
background, 144-145
supports Mars flight, 126, 145-146, 148, 150, 165-166, 178
Air Force:
and CIA, 58, 194, 195, 197, 205, 214, 216, 259
high-speed flight, 25, 28, 30-32, 33, 36-39, 78-79
lifting bodies, 40-41
missiles, postwar, 17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 45-46, 61
and NASA, 83-84, 132-133, 199-202, 215, 224-225
rocket engine research, 235-236, 239
space shuttle studies, 83-84, 116, 117, 210-213, 331, 331-332
sonic boom research, 309-310
See also Dyna-Soar; Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Air Force officials:
Crotty, Maj. Patrick, 232
Estes, Lieut. Gen. Howell, 54
Hall, Lt. Col. Edward, 17, 20, 45
Putt, Maj. Gen. Donald, 22
Roth, Col. M. S., 19
Schriever, Maj. Gen. Bernard, 45, 54, 115
Steelman, Lt. Col. Donald, 66
Yarymovych, Michael, 215; quoted, 216
Zuckert, Eugene, 54
See also Hansen; Seamans
Allen, H. Julian (NACA), 26, 29, 35-36, 206
Allen, William (Boeing), 300, 301, 302, 303, 307
American Airlines, Inc., 252-253, 319
Kolk, Frank, 319
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 142-144
Newbauer, John, 98
Anderson, Sen. Clinton, 95, 178, 203, 423-424, 426, 427; quoted, 178
Apollo program, 25, 63, 64, 100, 101, 102, 112, 136, 154-155, 158-159, 174, 176, 186, 206, 224, 229, 253
Apollo 7, 73, 113
Apollo 8, 66, 113-114, 126, 147
Apollo 9, 125-126
Apollo 11, 66, 145-146, 147, 389-390
Apollo 13, 113n, 431
Apollo 16, 366
Apollo 17, 186, 270, 271, 366
lunar module, 112, 113, 125-126, 227
Apollo Applications Program, 62-66, 64, 67, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 138-139, 189, 434
Apollo Telescope Mount, 63, 65
wet vs. dry workshop, 65-66, 67
See also Skylab
Armstrong, Neil, 35, 187
Army, 18, 23, 24, 43
Lemnitzer, Gen. Lyman, 153-154
Army Air Forces, 14
ASSET (hypersonic research vehicle), 36-37, 41, 53, 210, 221
Astro launch vehicle concept, 80
Astronauts:
Anders, William, 113, 382, 408, 422
Armstrong, Neil, 35, 187
Borman, Frank, 113, 126
Chaffee, Roger, 100
Grissom, Gus, 100
Lovell, James, 113
Schmitt, Harrison, 186
White, Ed, 100
astronomy in space, 2, 8, 63, 71, 423
Astroplane launch vehicle concept, 80
Astrorocket launch vehicle concept, 80-81
Atlas rocket, 92
for space flight, 25, 37, 197, 199, 399
as ICBM, 24, 45, 50, 196
Atomic Energy Commission, 94, 105, 108, 394, 423-424
Seaborg, Glenn, 125
automated checkout, in airliners, 88-89, 252-253
aviation, commercial, 84-85, 260, 292-293, 295, 318, 328
See also Boeing 727; Boeing 747; Concorde; Lockheed L-1011; Pan American; SST; Trippe aviation in Europe, 305. See also Concorde
 
- B -
 

B-52 bomber, 40-41, 193

B-58 bomber, 210, 310
Becker, John, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35
Bell Aircraft Corp., 27, 30, 49, 50
Woods, Robert, 27
Bellcomm, 136-137, 139, 146
Bell Telephone Laboratories, 56-57, 214
Boyle, William, 214
Pierce, John, 57
Smith, George, 214
Bissell, Richard (CIA), 193, 194; quoted, 193, 284-285
Boeing Company, 50, 51, 70
aviation, 295, 297, 300-301, 302-303, 311, 318, 327-328
Connelly, Bruce, 298
Haynes, Hal, 303
Space shuttle studies, 224, 265, 267, 348-349, 351-352, 416-417, 418-419
Sutter, Joseph, 295, 296-297
See also Allen; Boeing 747; SST; Steiner Boeing 747, 295-302, 304, 319, 328
design of, 295-297, 301-302
engines, 296, 298, 301-302
Bollay, William, 15, 16-17
Bonestell, Chesley, 3, 5, 56
magazine covers, 4, 57
Borman, Frank, 113, 126
Bossart, Karel, 26
Branscomb, Lewis, quoted, 131
Bristol Siddeley, 305, 306
British Aircraft Corp., Ltd., 305, 306
Bureau of the Budget, 63-65, 109-110, 114, 121-123, 203, 204, 269
discounted dollars, in analyses, 170, 255-259
as federal institution, 159, 177, 269
Gordon, Kermit, 203
Rhode, Earl, 263
Schlesinger, James, 159, 161
See also Mayo; Office of Management and Budget
Bussard, Robert, 105
 
- C -
 
C-5A transport, 294-295, 297, 320-321, 323
C-47 aircraft ("Gooney Bird"), 40, 41
California Institute of Technology, 43, 119, 123
Cape Canaveral, 198, 200-201, 202, 214, 215, 275-277, 425, 426-427
Vehicle Assembly Building, 275, 276, 297, 427
Caravelle airliner, 305
Castenholz, Paul, 24, 25, 240-243, 272; quoted, 242, 243, 248
Centaur rocket, 48-49, 135, 235
Central Intelligence Agency, 50, 58, 191, 192, 193-196, 198, 225
Helms, Richard, 204
Lundahl, Arthur, 194-195
Wheelon, Albert, 273
See also Bissell; Discoverer; reconnaissance
Charyk, Joseph, 51
China, 22, 153
Chairman Mao, quoted, 81
Chrysler Corp., 266, 267
civil rights movement:
Abernathy, Ralph, 151-152
Brown v. Board of Education, 156
Connor, Eugene "Bull," 157
Hamer, Fannie Lou, quoted, 157-158
King, Martin Luther, 151, 152, 157
Warren, Earl, 156
Civil War, 152, 157, 159
Clarke, Arthur C., 4, 11, 57, 187; quoted, 55-56
Clauser, Francis, quoted, 119, 245
Cleaver, Arthur, quoted, 190
Cold War, 3-4, 153-155
Castro, Fidel, 155
See also Reconnaissance; Soviet Union
Collier's magazine (series on space flight), 2-4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 56, 57, 127
Manning, Gordon, 2, 3
Ryan, Cornelius, 2-3
Comet airliner, 305
communications satellites, 8, 55-56, 57, 135, 226, 277, 286
Pierce, John, 57
Concorde airliner, 305-307, 328-329
background of, 304-306
engine, 305
Congress, 158, 204, 330, 362
and NASA budget, 65, 101, 177-186, 189-190, 230-231, 329
and SST, 313-318
and Lockheed L-1011, 326-327, 329
See also House of Representatives; Senate
Conquest of Space, The (George Pal film), 5, 11
Conrad, Paul, 316, 317
Cosenza, Charles, 36, 210
 
- D -
 
Dassault, Marcel, 305
David, Edward, 362, 382, 393, 400, 406, 409, 410, 422
Day, Leroy, 131-132, 134-135, 139, 233; quoted, 368
de Gaulle, Charles, 306
de Havilland, Sir Geoffrey, 305
De Lauer, Richard, 272
Delta launch vehicle, 25, 85, 277, 399, 419
Democratic Party, 326, 413
Westwood, Jean, quoted, 427-428
Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (Oberth): quoted, 7-9
discounted dollars, 255-256
Discoverer reconnaissance satellites, 58, 59, 194-196, 284-285
resolution, 195, 197
achievements, 197, 198
Disney, Walt, 5, 11
Domestic Council, 268-269
Donlan, Charles, 34, 233, 270, 361, 375-376, 401-402, 403; quoted, 357, 377, 410
Dornberger, Walter, 27, 28, 30; quoted, 92-93
Douglas Aircraft Co., 69, 80, 85, 204, 227
Bono, Philip, 92
Douglas Skyrocket, 25-26, 30-31
Drew, Russell, 124, 143, 148-149, 164, 167, 362
DuBridge, Lee, 123-124, 125, 126, 136, 142, 144, 148, 150, 164-165, 192, 362
Dyna-Soar, 49-54, 52, 80-81, 203, 205, 221
 
- E -
 
Economists:
Arrow, Kenneth, 315
Burns, Arthur, 123, 176-177
Friedman, Milton, 283, 315
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 315
Heller, Walter, 315
Leontief, Wassily, 315
Okun, Arthur, 315
Samuelson, Paul, 315
Wallich, Henry, 315
Edwards Air Force Base, 39-40, 41, 51, 201, 248, 310
Bikle, Paul, 40
Eggers, Alfred, 27, 35-36, 206
Ehrlichman, John, 173, 176, 189, 269, 383, 393, 395, 404, 411-412, 414; quoted, 165-166, 389, 392, 414, 415
Eisenhower, Dwight, 153, 154, 156, 192, 193, 194
electronics, 55, 56-58, 68
charge-coupled devices, 214, 225
engines, 6, 12, 19-20. See also rocket (several entries); ramjets; turbofans
environmental movement, 311-312, 318, 394
Brower, David, 312
Exploration of Space, The (Clarke), 4
 
- F -
 
F-100 fighter, 26, 305
FAA, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 318
Faget, Maxime, 34-35, 206-207, 221, 232
space shuttle concept, 208-213, 217-223, 224, 233-234, 337, 401
and external tanks, 341-344, 342-343, 346, 351, 415-416
foreshadows final shuttle design, 343, 344
Fairey Delta FD-2, 305
Ferri, Antonio, 78, 79
Flanigan, Peter, 159, 165, 175-176, 177, 188-189, 273, 383, 385, 395, 400-401, 404, 406, 409, 411, 413, 422
Flax, Alexander, 363, 369-372, 373, 381, 382
Fletcher, James: quoted, 350, 402, 403, 404
background, 272-273
meets with Nixon, 408, 411-413
and NERVA, 424
and space shuttle, 350, 351, 363-364, 369, 380-381, 383, 384, 387, 400, 402-406, 408-411, 414, 422, 423
Shuttle contractor selection, 428, 429, 430-431, 432
Fubini, Eugene, 369, 382
 
- G -
 
Gardner, Trevor, 32, 192
Garrett AiResearch, 77
Garwin, Richard, quoted, 314
Gemini program, 48, 53, 129-130, 203, 206, 253
Big G, 129-130, 289, 370, 383-384, 385
General Accounting Office, 243
Staats, Elmer, 244, 433-434
General Dynamics Corp. (Convair), 26, 75, 77, 82, 90, 92, 220, 222, 227
Triamese, 89-90, 91, 118, 218, 219-220
shuttle studies of 1970-1971, 224
General Electric Co., 111, 188, 293, 296-305, 311
Parker, Jack, 188
Gilpatric, Roswell, 195, 199
Gilruth, Robert, 28, 34-35, 72, 98, 187, 232; quoted, 128-129
Goddard, Robert, 6-7
Grand Tour (planetary m ission), 392
Grumman Aerospace Corp., 227, 264-265, 267, 434
Mead, Lawrence, 337
space shuttle, contract competition, 428, 430-431
space shuttle studies, 337-341, 339, 344, 348, 354, 356, 374, 375
 

- H -

 

Haber, Heinz, 3

Halaby, Najeeb, 306, 308
Hansen, Grant, 133, 215, 216, 224, 226
Haughton, Daniel, 319-321, 323-326, 360
Hayden Planetarium, 2
Coles, Robert, 2
heat sink (thermal protection), 30, 32, 349, 355, 356, 358
Heath, Prime Minister Edward, 322, 323-324
Heiss, Klaus, 281, 359, 373, 376-377, 410
Hilton hotels, 94, 246
historians, quoted:
Benson, Charles, 65
Catton, Bruce, 157
Compton, David, 65
Hunley, John, 11
Horwitch, Mel, 310
Koppes, Clayton, 285
Logsdon, John, 103, 114
Newhouse, John, 301
Richelson, Jeffrey, 58, 204
White, Theodore, 414
Holloman Air Force Base, 426
Hornig, Donald, 96, 203
hot structures, 30, 32, 34, 36-37, 38-39, 52, 53, 221, 248, 349
for space shuttle, 221-222, 333-336, 340, 346, 348-349, 357
See also heat sink; Inconel; thermal protection
House of Representatives, members:
Clawson, Del, 432
Fulton, James, 424
Fuqua, Don, quoted, 182, 362
Koch, Edward, quoted, 182
Miller, George, 182; quoted, 178
Patman, Wright, 326
Roudebush, Richard, quoted, 182
Yates, Sidney, 317
See also Karth; Teague
Hunter, Max, 85-86, 88, 89, 207, 245-246, 247
hypersonic flight, 26-33, 34, 35-39, 50, 51, 53
crossrange, 37-38, 213, 216-217
 

- I -

 
ICBMs, 26, 27, 45, 58, 194-197
Inconel metals, 30, 32, 34, 335
Institute for Defense Analyses, 363, 375
Brady, George, 375-376
Finke, Reinald, 375
Integral Launch and Reentry Vehicles, 92, 117
 

- J -

 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 43, 123, 272, 285

Dunn, Louis, 272
Pickering, William, 285
Ranger lunar program, 285
Johnson, Clarence "Kelly," 31, 192
Johnson, Lyndon, 100, 114, 156, 158, 194; quoted, 101, 191
and space program, 64-65, 94-97, 101, 191, 203
and SST, 306, 307-308
 

- K -

 

Karth, Congressman Joseph, 180-182; quoted, 178, 181, 182

Kartveli, Alexander, 78
Kennedy, John F., 157; quoted, 154, 307, 390-391
and Apollo, 59, 152, 390-391
and civil rights, 156, 157
and Cold War, 130-131, 152-156, 195
and SST, 306, 307
Killian, James, 192
King, Martin Luther, 151, 152, 157
Kissinger, Henry, 173-174, 204-205, 269
Kiwi nuclear rocket, 105-108
Korean War, 22, 153
Kryter, Karl, quoted, 310
Kubrick, Stanley, 11
 

- L -

 

Land, Edwin, 192

Lang, Fritz, 9
Lapp, Ralph, 259
Ley, Willy, 1-2, 3, 4, 5, 9
lifting bodies, 35-36, 37-42, 89
Peterson, Bruce, 41
Reed, R. Dale, 39-40
as space shuttles, 80, 82, 88-89, 207-208, 209, 218, 220, 337
Thompson, Milt, 40
HL-10, 40, 41, 218
M2-F1, 38, 39-40, 41
M2-F2, 38, 40, 41
X-24A, 39, 40
X-24B, 41, 42
Lilly, William, 404-405, 422; quoted, 404, 409
Lincoln, Abraham, 152
Lindbergh, Charles, 315
Lindley, Robert, 259-264, 274-275, 376
Lockheed Aircraft Corp., 31, 82, 85, 218, 220, 221
C-5A, 294, 320-321, 323, 360
Johnson, Clarence "Kelly," 31, 192
L-1011 airliner, 323, 324-327, 329-330
Root, Eugene, 85
Shuttle contract competition, 428
shuttle studies, 1970-1972: 224, 264, 265-266, 267, 278, 354, 356, 360, 419
solid-fuel rockets, 46, 353, 419, 422
Space Shuttle, final design foreshadowed, 222, 331
Star-Clipper concept, 88-89, 118, 206, 207, 210, 218, 220, 265, 336-337
See also Haughton; Hunter; SR-71
Lockheed L-1011, 319-327
and DC-10, 319, 326, 327
engines, 320, 321-323, 326
Lord Carrington, 324
Lord Cole, 322, 323
Los Angeles Times, 79
Conrad, Paul, 316, 317
Miles, Marvin, 79
Low, George, 112, 267-268, 372; quoted, 382-383, 424
and budgets, 270-271, 331
and contractor selections, 428, 430, 431, 432, 434
and space shuttle, 270-271, 289, 366-367, 383-384, 385-386, 387, 396, 397, 400, 402-403, 405-406, 407-408, 409-411, 418, 422, 426-427
 

- M -

 

MacLeish, Archibald, quoted, 147

Magruder, William, quoted, 313
New Technology Opportunities Program, 393, 410
SST, 313, 330
Manhattan Project, 3
Man in Space (Disney), 5, 11
Manned Orbiting Laboratory (USAF), 64, 203-205, 214
Manned Orbiting Module (NASA), 127
Marquardt Co., 77
Mars: automated missions, 98, 99, 101-102, 176, 181-182, 285
Mars: piloted missions, 3, 5, 60, 70-71, 120, 126, 138, 140, 165
and BoB, 171
and Congress, 178, 181-182, 216, 424
engines for, 94-95, 105. See also NERVA
as NASA goal, 96, 98, 101, 137-138, 142, 146-147, 149-150, 164, 166, 167, 180, 425
Martin Marietta Corp. (also Martin Aircraft Co.):
LeVine, David, 352
lifting bodies, 37, 40, 41
space shuttle, 80-81, 118, 224, 352, 367, 434
Titan launch vehicles, 49, 86
See also Titan
Mathematica, Inc.:
recommends TAOS, 378-379
See also Heiss; Morgenstern
Mayo, Robert:
director, Budget Bureau, 121, 159, 204-205, 259, 269
and NASA budget, 121-123, 160, 161, 163-164, 170, 174-175, 177
and space shuttle, 262-263, 274
and Space Task Group, 125, 148, 164-165, 173
McCurdy, Richard, 412, 428-429; quoted, 430, 431, 432
McDonnell Aircraft Corp., 36, 89, 227
McDonnell Douglas Corp., 89, 218, 219, 220, 222, 319, 434
McDonnell, Sanford, 432
shuttle contract competition, 428, 429-430
shuttle studies, 1970-1972: 224, 226-227, 253, 255, 266, 332-336, 335, 341, 348, 349-350, 354, 356, 374, 419
space station studies, 227-228, 229, 230
Tip Tank concept, 89, 90, 118, 207, 218
Yardley, John, 332, 348, 416
McNamara, Robert, 53-54, 195, 203, 213, 286, 293, 308
and SST, 308
Meany, George (AFL-CIO), 317; quoted, 269
Mercury piloted spacecraft, 36, 206
missiles:
Jupiter, 24, 196
Minuteman, 44, 45-46, 61, 196
MX-770, 16, 18-19
Polaris, 44, 45, 196
R-7 (Soviet ICBM), 195, 196-197
Redstone, 22-24
See also Atlas; Navaho; Thor; Titan; V-2
Mondale, Senator Walter, 183, 184, 231, 329; quoted, 183
moon: automated missions, 99, 112-113, 285
moon: piloted missions, 3, 5, 59-60, 70, 99, 140, 150, 155
See also Apollo
Morgenstern, Oskar, 264, 377, 409
MORL space station concept, 69-70, 72, 126-127, 129
Morrow, Ian, 322
Mudd, Henry, 428
Mueller, George, 61-62, 98, 112, 119, 133, 179, 272; quoted, 92-94, 246
and Apollo Applications, 62-66, 102, 200, 203, 204
and post-Apollo future, 136-141, 146, 148, 149, 167, 170, 189, 423, 434
and space shuttle, 86, 92-94, 116, 117, 131-132, 133-134, 215, 224, 246, 251
Myers, Dale, 25, 189, 223, 233, 270, 272; quoted, 179-180
and space shuttle, 179-180, 224, 226, 229, 234, 351, 368, 387, 400, 405, 407, 421-422, 426, 428
 

- N -

 

NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), 25, 27, 28-29, 30, 31-32, 33

Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, 35-36
Dryden, Hugh, 32
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 27-28, 34-35, 206
Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (Langley), 28, 34, 206
Thompson, Floyd, 27-28, 72
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), 6, 25, 59, 85, 102-103, 106, 110, 152, 159, 223, 233, 288-289, 358-359, 424-425
Ames Research Center, 39, 40, 81, 115, 201
BoB, OMB views of, 109-110, 171-172, 360-361, 364-366, 396, 398-400
budget and staff level, 64-65, 94, 101, 102, 110, 121-123, 159, 161-164, 167-170, 174-177, 185-186, 259-260, 270-272, 291, 331, 363-364, 366, 369, 418
cost overruns, 253-254, 287
Electronics Research Center, 176
Langley Research Center, 40, 67, 68, 72, 74, 79, 201
long-range plans, 6, 97-100, 137-141, 149-150, 162, 166-170, 168, 169
Michoud Assembly Facility, 60, 425
nuclear propulsion, 106, 423-424
Office of Manned Space Flight, 63, 86, 116, 119, 129, 136, 141, 180, 421-422
Office of Space Science and Applications, 63, 108, 136, 141, 180
Planning Steering Group, 109, 136, 141
procedures, planning, 108-109, 136-137
program phases, 254-255
space shuttle studies, 116-118, 218, 223-224, 226-227, 264-267, 332, 337-338, 357, 402-403, 405
White House views of, 160-162, 165-166, 273-274
NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, 34-35, 70, 101, 112, 131, 358-359
space shuttle, 82-83, 116, 223-224, 238, 359, 408, 417
See also Faget; Gilruth
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, 74, 358-360
and Apollo, 60-61, 224, 358
committed to liquid-fuel rockets, 359, 376, 416
Mars missions, 96, 146-148
Rees, Eberhard, 242, 422
solid-propellant rockets, 46, 48, 359, 376, 417, 422
space shuttle, 82-83, 84, 116, 131, 223-224, 338, 353, 416-417, 421, 422
space stations, 71-72
SSME, 236-238, 242-243
NASA officials:
Akridge, Max, quoted, 82, 116, 220
Culbertson, Philip, quoted, 286
Hearth, Donald, 137
Love, Eugene, 40, 416
Mark, Hans, quoted, 115
Mathews, Charles, 129, 131, 209
McGolrick, Joseph, quoted, 263, 286
Phillips, Sam, 112
Schneider, William, 66
Schnyer, Daniel, 116
Silveira, Milton, 220, 222; quoted, 208
Silverstein, Abe, 127, 128
Wyatt, Dale, 360
See also Day; Donlan; Faget; Fletcher; Gilruth; Lilly; Lindley; Low; McCurdy; Mueller; Myers; Newell; Paine; Shapley; Von Braun; Webb
National Aeronautics and Space Council, 125, 382
National Air and Space Museum, 66
National Science Foundation, 73, 395
Bisplinghoff, Raymond, 395
National Security Council, 268, 269
Navaho missile, 20-25, 45, 179, 272
engines, 19-24, 23, 25, 26
Navy:
and high-speed flight, 20, 30-31, 32
and solid-propellant rockets, 43-44
NERVA nuclear rocket, 94-95, 100, 106-108, 107, 139, 239, 365-366, 423-425, 427
termination of, 270, 424-425
Newell, Homer, 63, 108-109, 136-141; quoted, 109
New Technology Opportunities Program, 392-395, 414-415
Nexus launch vehicle concept, 75, 76, 79, 92
Nicholson, Rupert, 323
Nixon, Richard, 115, 121, 122, 123, 130-131, 144-145, 160, 161, 175, 177, 179, 184, 188, 189, 204-205, 243, 326, 389-390, 392-393, 424
approves space shuttle, 386, 387, 400, 408, 411-413, 414-415
management, interest in, 268-269, 414
sets up Office of Management and Budget, 268-270
space, statements on, 147, 391-392, 412-413
space, views on, 115-116, 161-162, 170, 366, 368, 389, 435
and Space Task Group, 123, 125, 166, 167, 170, 390
Nixon Administration officials:
Burns, Arthur, 123, 176, 177
Connally, John, 325
David, Edward, 362, 382, 393
Harper, Edwin, quoted, 395
Helms, Richard, 204
Kriegsman, William, 390
Laird, Melvin, 125, 204-205
Peterson, Peter, 383; quoted, 395
Romney, George, 177
Rose, Jonathan, 383
Packard, David, 402
Ruckelshaus, William, 317
Schlesinger, James, 159, 161
Seaborg, Glenn, 125
Staats, Elmer, 244, 433-434
Train, Russell, quoted, 314
Ziegler, Ron, 167
See also Flanigan; Kissinger; Magruder; Mayo; Office of Management and Budget; Rice; Rose; Seamans; Shultz, Weinberger; Whitehead
Noordung, Hermann (pen name of Herman Potocnik), 9-11, 67, 68
North American Aviation, 14-15, 24-25, 26, 32, 35, 67-68, 75, 82, 117-118
Atwood, J. Leland, quoted, 16, 17
Bollay, William, 15, 16-17
corporate divisions, 24-25
Kindelberger, James "Dutch," 14-15
Moore, John R., 25
and postwar missiles, 16, 17, 20, 22, 23
Rice, Raymond, 15
Storms, Harrison "Stormy," 35
Tinnan, Leonard, 75
North American Rockwell, 117, 118, 218, 220, 222, 227, 431-432, 434
Anderson, Robert, 240, 243
Bergen, William, 434
foreshadows final shuttle design, 344-346, 345
Hello, Bastian, 332
space shuttle, contract competition and award, 427-428, 431-432
space shuttle studies, 1970-1972: 224, 226-227, 253, 255, 266, 332-333, 334, 335, 344-348, 345, 347, 354, 356, 419, 429
space station studies, 227-228, 229
Northrop Corp., 40, 41
nuclear weapons, 22, 44, 48, 50, 191-192, 193
 

- O -

 
Oberth, Hermann, 6-9
Office of Management and Budget, 269, 270-271, 282-283, 288, 331, 363-364, 380-382, 384-386, 396, 399-401, 403-408, 414, 422, 424
Loweth, Hugh, 393
Niskanen, William, 283-284, 286, 404
Sullivan, John, 275, 360, 372, 381, 384, 406, 420-421
Taft, Daniel, 271, 288, 360, 362, 363, 384, 417
Young, John, 364, 372
See also Bureau of the Budget; Rice; Schulz; Weinberger
Office of Science and Technology, 98, 123-124, 143, 362, 393, 410
Goldmuntz, Lawrence, quoted, 394
 

- P -

 
Paine, Thomas, 66, 111, 114-116, 124, 125, 126, 147, 150, 188-189, 229, 267-268; quoted, 121, 124, 127-128, 146-147, 177, 179, 183-184, 187-188, 389-390
and Apollo, 112-114, 186, 229
background, 111, 114-115, 188, 272
boldness of, 114, 121-122, 127-128, 170, 187-188, 400
and civil-rights demonstrators, 151-152
and critics, 179
and federal budget, 160, 164, 174-177, 183-184, 229
and post-Apollo future, 118, 125-126, 130-131, 136, 141, 144, 146-149, 165, 189
and space shuttle, 132-133, 224-225, 425
Pal, George, 4-5, 11
Pan American World Airways, 295, 297, 328
airliners, fault detection in, 252-253
Boeing 747, 295, 297, 298-299, 300
Borger, John, 295
Kuter, Laurence, quoted, 299
payload effects, 260-264, 261, 267, 275, 278, 279, 284, 286
Pearson, Sir Denning, 322
Penkovskiy, Oleg, 196-197
Penn Central Railroad, 326, 393-394
Phoebus nuclear rocket, 108
Pierce, John, 57
Potocnik, Herman, see Noordung
Pratt & Whitney, 235-236, 238-239, 255, 266
appeals to GAO, 243-244, 432-434
jet engines of, 296, 298-299
Mulready, Richard, 243
Torell, Bruce, 243
RL-10 rocket engine, 80, 235, 244, 248
XLR-130 rocket engine, 236, 237, 238, 240, 241-242, 249, 433
President's Science Advisory Committee, 98-100, 119, 131, 142-144, 204, 362
PRIME (hypersonic research vehicle), 37-39, 40, 41
Problem of Space Travel, The (Noordung), 10
project management:
cost overruns, 116-117
preliminary design, 381
program phases, 254-255
studies, 116-117
Proxmire, Senator William, 184, 186, 326, 329; quoted, 311, 313, 413
opposes SST, 311, 313-314
 

- Q -

 
Q-ball instrument, 34
Quarles, Donald, 50
 

- R -

 
Raketenflugtechnik (Sanger), 12
ramjets, 19-20, 22, 77-78
supersonic combustion (scramjet), 78-79, 81, 82, 83, 84
Worth, Weldon, 20, 78-79
Rand Corp., 26, 159, 286
reaction controls, 33-34
Reaction Motors, Inc., 32
Reagan, Ronald, 230
reconnaissance, 2, 8, 50, 53, 191-198, 203, 216, 284
Big Bird, 225, 232, 259, 273
Corona, 58, 59, 194-198, 213-214, 225, 227, 259, 284-285
Gambit, 197, 213
Kennan, 225
real-time, 213-214
significance of, 58, 191, 197, 198
See also Central Intelligence Agency; Discoverer
re-entry, 26, 29, 34, 35-36, 37-38, 41, 206, 209, 217, 401-402
See also hypersonic flight; thermal protection
Rice, Donald, 270-271, 286-287, 288, 360-361, 363, 382, 383, 393, 400, 403-404, 406, 407, 409, 410; quoted, 361
Richelson, Jeffrey, quoted, 58, 204
riots, 100-101
Rockefeller, Nelson, 144
Rocketdyne, 24-25, 74, 235, 238, 239, 240-244, 255, 266, 432
aerospike engine, 235, 236, 238, 266
Biggs, Robert, quoted, 240, 242, 250
Brennan, William, 240, 243
F-1 engine, 248, 249, 360, 424-425
Hoffman, Sam, 25, 272
J-2 engine, 25, 235, 240, 248, 249, 425
J-2S engine, 265, 351, 356
rocket, liquid fuel:
airbreathing (LACE), 77
early concepts, 6-7, 8-9, 15
injector, 17-18, 19, 21, 240
in 1960s, 235-236
postwar development, 16-18, 20-24, 25, 26
principles of, 7, 21, 235-236, 397
reusable, 74, 80, 248
test facilities, 16, 17, 21, 60
turbojets, compared to, 12
for X-15, 32, 34
See also Pratt & Whitney; Rocketdyne; Space Shuttle Main Engine
rocket, nuclear, 105-108, 139, 148
Bussard, Robert, 105
Dewar, James, quoted, 106
Finger, Harold, 106
See also NERVA
rocket propellants:
liquid, 6, 7, 8, 45, 338
solid, 43-44, 45
rocket, solid fuel, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 84, 86, 88, 199, 421-422
Atlantic Research Corp., 43
Henderson, Charles, 43, 44
Rumbel, Keith, 43, 44
safety of, 419-420
Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., 46
See also Aerojet; Lockheed; Thiokol; United Technology
rocket, winged, 12-14, 13, 15-16, 18-20, 22, 25, 74-75, 79-81
Bomi, 27, 49
Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel (Ley), 1-2
Rogallo, Francis, 74
Rolls-Royce, Ltd., 322-324
Avon turbojet, 305
Huddie, David, 320
RB-211 turbofan, 320, 321-322, 324
ROMBUS launch vehicle concept, 92
Rose, Jonathan, 383, 406, 408, 414, 422
Ryan, Cornelius, 2-3
 

- S -

 

Sanger, Eugen, 12-13, 27, 50

Saturn I, 25, 62
Saturn I-B, 25, 60, 74, 83, 84, 98, 99-100, 199-200, 266, 370
and Apollo Applications, 62, 63, 66, 67
cost, 73, 199, 277
S-IVB (second stage), 62, 63, 67, 70
and space stations, 69, 70, 126-127, 129
Saturn V, 6, 25, 35, 59, 60, 62, 65-66, 98, 102, 112, 125, 229, 276, 348
and Apollo Applications, 63, 65, 67, 147
cost, 48, 73-74, 246-247, 251-252
production, 65, 99, 174, 176
S-IC (first stage), 270, 351, 352, 353, 416, 418-419, 425
and space stations, 67-68, 70, 72, 129-130, 180, 228-229
Schlesinger, James, 159, 161
Schriever, Maj. Gen. Bernard, 45, 54, 115
Science and Technology Advisory Committee (NASA), 119, 137, 139
science fiction, 1, 4-5, 9, 11
Seamans, Robert, 119, 126; quoted, 142, 234
Air Force Secretary, 125, 224-225
background, 110-111
endorses space shuttle, 142, 234
and Space Task Group, 125, 132-133, 136, 142, 143, 144, 148, 150, 164
Seattle, 303-304
Senate, members:
Cannon, Howard, 424
Cranston, Alan, 327
Fulbright, William, 184, 413
Goldwater, Barry, 184
Jackson, Henry, 312, 315
Kennedy, Edward, 179
Magnuson, Warren, 315
Mansfield, Mike, 178
McCarthy, Joseph, 153
McGovern, George, 413
Metcalf, Lee, 327
Nelson, Gaylord, quoted, 313
Pastore, John, quoted, 231
Scott, Hugh, 183-184, 424
Smith, Margaret Chase, quoted, 178
Symington, Stuart, 193, 194
See also Anderson; Johnson, Lyndon; Mondale; Proxmire
Shapley, Willis, 109, 115, 286, 331; quoted, 109, 115-116, 410
Shultz, George, 269-270, 368, 390, 395, 404, 406, 409-410, 415, 418
Sierra Club, 312, 313
Silveira, Milton, 220, 222; quoted, 208
Six-Day War (1967), 213
Skylab, 12, 25, 60, 66, 67, 138-139, 147, 434
See also Apollo Applications
SNECMA (France), 305, 306
solar power, 10-11, 62, 63, 412
Soviet Union, 9, 13, 22, 50, 130-131, 154-155, 195
armaments, 13, 191-197, 198
invasion of Czechoslovakia, 213-214
Khrushchev, Nikita, 155
Mir space station, 67
Nedelin, Marshal Mitrofan, 197
Plesetsk rocket center, 198
Severodvinsk naval base, 198
Stalin, 13, 155
Tyuratam rocket center, 193-194, 196, 198
Zond 5 (lunar mission), 112-113
See also Cold War
Space Act (1958), 98, 124-125, 329
space base (crew of 50 to 100), 129-130, 137, 140, 150
spacecraft, automated, 56-58, 59, 139, 194
design of, 260-261, 278, 284-285
low cost, see payload effects
Vanguard, 57-58
space flight:
changing prospects, 56-59
criticized by BoB and OMB, 109-110, 171-172
early visions of, 6-13, 55-57
long durations with crews, 67
and national prestige, 154
national significance, 414
public opinion of, 178-179
as wasteful, 74
space shuttle, 1, 22, 54, 73, 81, 84, 120, 293, 399, 422-423, 429
and Air Force, 133, 214-217, 224-226, 231-234, 401, 402, 422, 427
aluminum or titanium in construction, 222, 331-332, 416
approved by Nixon, 386-387, 408-415
and BoB, 170-171, 174, 255-259
booster, see space shuttle, booster
concept of 1952: 3, 4, 5, 6
concepts of 1960-1969: 75-84, 81, 83, 86-91, 93-94, 116-118, 134-135, 217-223
and Congress, 179-184, 230-231, 329
contract award, 427-432
cost-benefit tradeoff, 90-91, 337, 373, 374, 384, 385
costs, projected for program, 258, 277, 279, 280, 287, 340, 341, 350, 351, 356-357, 360, 370-372, 373, 378-380, 405, 420-421, 422
economic studies, 86, 90-91, 255-260, 262-263, 267, 274-275, 279-283, 280, 370-374, 410, 435
with external tanks, 336, 337-346, 339, 342, 343, 345, 434
fully reusable, 81, 82-84, 83, 85, 89, 118, 135, 208-210, 217-221, 219, 274-275, 289, 331, 333, 335, 337, 357-358, 361, 387
funding and budget, 118, 131, 169, 180, 183-184, 185, 218, 223, 227, 255, 266-267, 369, 410, 418
with jet engines, 232, 277, 346, 348
launch and abort, 215, 275-277
launch site selection, 425-427
low-cost flight, technology for, 246-253, 254, 287, 435
mission models, 263-264, 277-278, 281, 284
missions and rationale, 135-136, 179-180, 205, 214-215, 218-219, 229
name, origin of, 6, 92, 413
as NASA goal, 137, 142-144, 149-150, 164, 189-190, 233, 267
and OMB, 271-272, 282-288, 331, 337, 358, 360-361, 380-382, 383-387, 396, 399-401, 403-408, 417-418
onboard checkout, 88-89, 117, 133-134, 251-253, 261-262, 278
orbiter, see space shuttle, orbiter
partially reusable, 85, 88-89, 91, 217-218, 265, 275, 278, 336-337
payload capacity, 117, 133, 225, 231-233, 341, 405-407, 409, 415, 420
phased development, 265, 267, 270, 350, 356, 359, 370, 415-416
reviewed by Flax panel, 362-363, 369-372, 385
and space station, 73, 93, 116, 117, 118, 130, 131, 133, 135-136, 179-180, 225-226, 228-230, 329, 434
and Space Task Group (1969), 133-136, 137, 150
TAOS, 373-380, 375, 377, 384, 396, 398, 417
technical background for, 33-34, 48, 49
and White House officials, 382-383, 395. See also Nixon
See also Air Force; NASA; Space Shuttle Main Engine
space shuttle, booster, 346-350, 347, 351-358, 359-360, 416-423
expendable, 117-118, 134-135, 218, 265, 351-354, 352
pressure-fed, 353, 354, 355-356, 379, 398, 417-418
pump-fed, 416-417, 419, 421
solid propellant, 118, 353, 354, 374-375, 406, 415, 417, 420-421
and staging velocity, 338, 340, 341, 344, 348-349, 354-355, 421
winged S-IC, 74-75, 355, 356-357, 359-360, 361, 381, 416
space shuttle, orbiter, 331-346, 334, 336, 345, 357
final design, 331, 344-346, 345, 399
glider, 367-368, 369-370, 384, 385-386, 411
Phase B concepts, 332-336, 334
Space Shuttle Main Engine:
background, 235-239, 248-250, 255, 266
research and test, 240-242, 241
contract and protest, 239, 243-244, 432-434
NASA role for, 34, 271, 351, 356, 401, 416
space station, 12, 59-60, 66, 120, 229-230
and Air Force, 203, 205
and BoB, 171, 174
bypassed by technology, 55-59
concepts, early, 2-3, 6-11, 10, 55-56, 57
concepts of 1960s: 67-73, 68, 69, 71, 126-127, 225
concepts of 1969-1970: 128-130, 131, 140, 180, 227-228
funding and budget, 131, 169, 223, 272
Heberlig, Jack, 227, 228-229
modular designs, 225-226, 229, 230
as NASA goal, 98, 99, 100, 137, 142-144, 149-150, 164
rationales for, 68-69, 71-72, 93
See also Apollo Applications; MORL; Skylab
Space Task Group, 125-126, 130-131, 132-133, 136, 137-138, 141-142, 144, 145-150, 160, 164-170, 174, 181, 189, 190, 224
space tug, 139, 226, 232, 377, 378, 379, 423
SR-71 aircraft, 210, 213, 221, 222
SST (supersonic transport), 304, 306-318, 319, 329-330, 392
and Congress, 313-318
and environment, 311, 312-314, 315-317, 316
financing of, 306, 307, 308, 313, 318
sonic booms, 308-310
SST, supporters and opponents:
Beranek, Leo, 317
Black, Eugene, 307-308
Greif, Kenneth, 312, 315
Johnston, Harold, 316-317
Kellogg, William, 317
Leovy, Conway, 314
Lindbergh, Charles, 315
Lindsay, John, 314
McDonald, James, 315-316
Osborne, Stanley, 307-308
Ruckelshaus, William, 317
Shurcliff, William, 311, 312
Train, Russell, quoted, 314
See also Magruder; McNamara; Proxmire
State Department, 125, 268
Acheson, Dean, quoted, 414
Johnson, U. Alexis, 125
Steiner, John (Boeing), 295; quoted, 302, 303, 327-328
submarines, 6, 7, 44-45, 111, 198
Sud Aviation (France), 305, 306
Suharto (Indonesia), 155
supersonic flight, 19-20, 25-26, 27, 305
sonic boom, 308-309
 

- T -

 
Taylor, Charles, 193
Teague, Congressman Olin "Tiger," 178, 180-181, 362, 426; quoted, 180
telemetry, 56, 284-285
test pilots, 92, 247
Knight, William, 33
Peterson, Bruce, 41
Thompson, Milt, 40
Walker, Joseph, 32
Texas Instruments, Inc., 115, 245-246
Haggerty, Patrick, 115
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Morgenstern, Von Neumann), 264
thermal protection, 36, 37, 38
materials, 36, 221-222, 251, 331, 334, 335, 346, 348
for shuttle booster, 222, 346-350, 347, 356, 358
for shuttle orbiter, 212, 217, 222, 250-251, 333-336, 334, 416
See also heat sink; hot structures
Thiokol Chemical Corp., 42-43, 45, 46, 86, 353, 422, 434
Crosby, Joseph, 43, 45
Thomas, Dylan, quoted, 110
Thor rocket:
and space flight, 25, 36, 37, 85, 194, 197, 199
as weapon, 24, 45, 50, 196
See also Delta
Thorpe, Jeremy, 324
Time magazine, 4, 6, 114
Titan ICBM, 24, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 196, 199
Titan II, 47, 48-49, 51
Titan III, 47, 48-49, 51, 88, 102, 199-200, 203, 225, 232, 399, 400
alternative to shuttle, 170, 216, 255-259, 288, 380, 406-407
Titan III-M, 49, 84, 86-88, 87, 91, 99-100, 129, 199, 352, 370
Titan III-L, 352-353, 354, 367
Townes, Charles, 119
committee report (1969), 119-121, 123, 125, 126, 141, 245
Treaty of Tordesillas, 198-199
Trippe, Juan, 295, 297, 306-307
Truman, Harry, 153
TRW, Inc., 115, 272-273
Mettler, Ruben, 272-273
Ramo, Simon, 115
Solomon, George, 273
Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin, 9
turbofans, 293, 294, 319, 323
CF-6 (General Electric), 323
JT-9D (Pratt & Whitney), 296, 298-299, 323
ovalization problem, 301-302
RB-211 (Rolls-Royce), 294, 320, 321, 324
TF-39 (General Electric), 293, 296
TWA (Trans World Airlines), 325, 328
Tyuratam (Soviet rocket center), 193-194, 196, 198
 
- U -
 
U-2 aircraft, 192, 193-194, 195, 213
United Airlines, 305
United Technology Corp., 46, 352-353
 
- V -
 
V-2 missile, 1-2, 3, 9, 13, 14, 15-16, 56, 251
engine, 16-18, 21, 23-24
V-2, project staff:
Dannenberg, Konrad, 16-17
Dornberger, Walter, 27, 28, 30; quoted, 92-93
Ehricke, Krafft, 75
Huter, Hans, 16-17
Huzel, Dieter, 17
Rees, Eberhard, 242, 243
Riedel, Walter, 17
Riedel, Walther, 16-17, 21
Roth, Ludwig, 14
Thiel, Walter, 17-18
See also Von Braun
Van Allen, James, 351
Vandenberg Air Force Base, 38, 194, 198, 214-215, 233, 427
Vietnam War, 100, 101, 114, 153-154, 155-156, 204, 291
Ho Chi Minh, 153
Von Braun, Wernher, 9, 56, 72, 117, 187, 242, 266; quoted, 60, 102, 129, 146, 152
and Apollo, 60, 62, 102, 152
colleagues of, 16-18. See also V-2, project staff
and Collier's series, 2-3, 6, 11, 56, 57
flight to Mars, 146, 148
publicizes space flight, 4, 5
and rocket engines, 22-24, 236-238, 359
and space stations, 2-3, 11, 67, 68, 98, 129
von Harbou, Thea, 9
von Neumann, John, 264
 
- W -
 
Webb, James, 65, 94-98, 95, 102, 108, 110, 112-113, 114, 199, 203, 272, 283; quoted, 97
Weisner, Jerome, 95, 361
Weinberger, Caspar, 363-366, 365, 380-382, 404, 406, 409, 414, 418, 422; quoted, 381-382
Wellington, Duke of, quoted, 190
Westinghouse Electric Corp., 106, 239
Whipple, Fred, 3, 11
Whitehead, Clay, 159, 160-161, 176, 273, 383, 390
White Sands Missile Range, 426-427
Whittle, Sir Frank, 305
wings, 30, 36, 209-213, 211, 233, 401-402
canards, 18, 212
Draper, Alfred, 210, 212
Worth, Weldon, 20, 78-79
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Wright Field), 19-20, 32, 36, 78, 83, 210
 
- X -
 
X-1 aircraft, 25
X-1A aircraft, 27
X-2 aircraft, 27, 28, 29
X-7 missile, 77-78
X-15 aircraft, 32-35, 41, 42, 49-50, 75, 92, 201, 209, 221, 349
ground operations, 247-248
X-15, personnel:
Brown, Clinton, 27-28
Knight, William, 33
McLellan, Charles, 29
Soulé, Hartley, 28, 32
Walker, Joseph, 32
XB-70 aircraft, 201, 210, 308, 310
XF-103 fighter, 78
 
- Y -
 
York, Herbert, 50-51


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