STS-60 Biographies

| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

Charles F. Bolden, Commander

NAME: Charles F. Bolden, Jr. (Colonel, USMC) NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born August 19, 1946, in Columbia, South Carolina. His mother, Ethel M. Bolden, resides in Columbia.

EDUCATION: Graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in electrical science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, and a master of science in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Marine Corps Association, the Montford Point Marine Association, the U.S. Naval Institute, and Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. Lifetime member of the Naval Academy Alumni Association, the University of Southern California General Alumni Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Air Medal, the Strike/Flight Medal (8th award), the University of Southern California (Ebonics Support Group) Outstanding Alumni Award (1982), National Technical Association Honorary Fellow (1983), Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from the University of South Carolina (1984), Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Winthrop College (1986), the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988), and the University of Southern California Alumni Award of Merit (1989), and an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Johnson C. Smith University (1990).

EXPERIENCE: Bolden accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps following graduation from Annapolis in 1968. He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi, and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a naval aviator in May 1970. He flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, in the A-6A Intruder, while assigned to VMA(AW)-533 at Nam Phong, Thailand, June 1972 - June 1973.

Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as a Marine Corps officer selection officer and recruiting officer in Los Angeles, California, followed by three years at the Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, California. In June 1979, he graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland, and was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, and A-7C/E airplanes. He has logged more than 5,000 hours flying time.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became an astronaut in August 1981, qualified for assignment as a pilot on future Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical assignments to date include: Astronaut Office Safety Officer, Technical Assistant to the Director of Flight Crew Operations, Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center, Astronaut Office Liaison to the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance Directorates of the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Kennedy Space Center, Chief of the Safety Division at JSC, and Lead Astronaut for Vehicle Test and Checkout at the Kennedy Space Center. A veteran of three space flights, Bolden served as pilot on STS 61-C (January 12-18, 1986) and STS-31 (April 24-29, 1990), and was the mission commander on STS-45 (March 24 - April 2, 1992).

On his first mission Bolden was pilot on the crew of STS-61C, aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight crew members deployed the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. STS 61-C launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 12. The mission was accomplished in 96 orbits of Earth, ending with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on January 18, 1986.

He next served as pilot on the crew of STS-31, aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, which launched on April 24, 1990, from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During the five-day mission, crew members deployed the Hubble Space Telescope, and conducted a variety of middeck experiments. They also used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting altitude over 400 miles. Following 75 orbits of the Earth in 121 hours, STS-31 Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on April 29, 1990.

More recently, Bolden commanded a crew of seven on STS-45 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Launched on March 24 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-45 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. During the nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained a vast array of detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical properties, which will contribute significantly to improving our understanding of our climate and atmosphere. In addition, this was the first time an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate a man-made auroral discharge. Following 143 orbits of Earth, STS-45 Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on April 2, 1992.

With the completion of his third mission, Bolden has logged over 481 hours in space.

On April 28, 1992, Colonel Bolden was appointed Assistant Deputy Administrator, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.








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| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr., Pilot

NAME: Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. (Captain, USN) NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born March 24, 1951, in Patuxent River, Maryland, but considers Virginia Beach, Virginia, to be his hometown. Married to the former Maureen Ellen McHenry of Virginia Beach, Virginia. They have two daughters. He enjoys sailing, wind surfing, camping. His parents, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth S. Reightler, Sr., reside in Virginia Beach. Her mother, Mrs. Jean W. McHenry, resides in Virginia Beach. Her father, Cdr. William H. McHenry, USN, is deceased.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Bayside High School, Virginia Beach, Virginia, in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering from United States Naval Academy in 1973, and master of science degrees, in 1984, in aeronautical engineering from the United States Naval Postgraduate School and in systems management from University of Southern California.

ORGANIZATIONS: Member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP); U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association; Association of Space Explorers; National Aeronautic Association.

SPECIAL HONORS: Defense Superior Service Medal; Defense Meritorious Service Medal; Navy Commendation Medal; Navy Unit Commendation; Meritorious Unit Commendation; Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal; National Defense Service Medal; NASA Exceptional Service Medal; two NASA Space Flight Medals; Johnson Space Center Certificate of Commendation; NASA Group Achievement Award; INTELSAT EVA Recovery Team Award. Distinguished graduate, U.S. Naval Academy and U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. Absolute world altitude record for Class P aero-spacecraft. Mac Short Award in Aviation from U.S. Naval Academy (1973).

EXPERIENCE: Reightler graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1973, and was designated a naval aviator in August 1974 at Corpus Christi, Texas. After replacement pilot training in the P-3C airplane, he reported to Patrol Squadron Sixteen in Jacksonville, Florida, serving as both a mission commander and patrol plane commander. He made deployments to Keflavik, Iceland, and to Sigonella, Sicily.

Following jet transition training, Reightler attended the United States Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland. Upon graduation in 1978, he remained at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) where he served as test pilot and project officer for a variety of flight test programs involving the P-3, S-3, and T-39 airplanes. He later returned to the Test Pilot School, serving as a flight test instructor and safety officer flying the P-3, T-2, OV-1, T-39, and TA-7 airplanes.

In June 1981 Reightler was assigned to the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) as communications officer and carrier on-board delivery pilot, making two deployments to the Mediterranean Sea. Selected for postgraduate education, he attended the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Redesignated an aerospace engineering duty officer (AEDO) he was sent to transition training for the F/A-18 airplane with Strike Fighter Squadron 125 (VFA-125) at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. He then reported for duty at the United States Naval Test Pilot School in March 1985, serving as the chief flight instructor until his selection for the astronaut program.

He has logged over 4,700 hours flying time in over 60 different types of aircraft.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in June 1987, Reightler became an astronaut in August 1988.

From September 12-18, 1991, he was the pilot on the crew of STS-48. This was the first Space Shuttle flight in support of "Mission to Planet Earth." During the five-day mission, the crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery successfully deployed the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), designed to provide scientists with their first complete data set on the upper atmosphere's chemistry, winds and energy inputs. The crew also conducted numerous secondary experiments ranging from growing protein crystals, to studying how fluids and structures react in weightlessness. After 81 orbits of the Earth, STS-48/Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

More recently, Reightler served as pilot on STS-60, the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle Mission. Launching from the Kennedy Space Center on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1) and the second flight of the Space Habitation Module (Spacehab-2). During the eight-day flight, the crew of Discovery, including Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, conducted a wide variety of biological, materials science, Earth observation, and life science experiments. Following 130 orbits of the Earth, STS-60 landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994.

With the completion of his second mission, Reightler has logged over 327 hours in space.

His technical assignments to date have included: Chief of the Astronaut Office Space Station Branch; Chief of the Astronaut Office Mission Support Branch; Lead Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM); Lead Astronaut for flight software development and computer systems; Flight Crew Operations Directorate representative to the Program Requirements Control Board; weather coordinator for Space Shuttle launches and landings; Astronaut Office representative in the areas of ascent, entry, and aborts.

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| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

N. Jan Davis, Mission Specialist

NAME: N. Jan Davis (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born November 1, 1953, at Cocoa Beach, Florida, but considers Huntsville Alabama, to be her hometown. She enjoys flying, ice skating, snow skiing, water sports, and needlepoint.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Huntsville High School in 1971; received bachelor of science degrees in applied biology from Georgia Institute of Technology and in mechanical engineering from Auburn University in 1975 and 1977, respectively; received a master of science degree and a doctorate in mechanical engineering from University of Alabama in Huntsville, in 1983 and 1985, respectively.

ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Member, Tau Beta Pi, Omicron Delta Kappa, Pi Tau Sigma, and Sigma Gamma Tau honoraries, and Alpha Xi Delta social sorority.

SPECIAL HONORS: NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1998), NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1995), NASA Space Flight Medal (1992, 1994, 1997), Marshall Space Flight Center Director's Commendation (1987), NASA Fellowship for Full-Time Study (1983), ASME National Old Guard Prize (1978), and Alpha Xi Delta Woman of Distinction (1993).

EXPERIENCE: After graduating from Auburn University in 1977, Dr. Davis joined Texaco in Bellaire, Texas, working as a petroleum engineer in tertiary oil recovery. She left there in 1979 to work for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer. In 1986, she was named as team leader in the Structural Analysis Division, and her team was responsible for the structural analysis and verification of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the HST maintenance mission, and the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

In 1987, she was also assigned to be the lead engineer for the redesign of the solid rocket booster external tank attach ring. Dr. Davis did her graduate research at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, studying the long-term strength of pressure vessels due to the viscoelastic characteristics of filament-wound composites. She holds one patent, has authored several technical papers, and is a Registered Professional Engineer.

Dr. Davis became an astronaut in June 1987. Her initial technical assignment was in the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch, where she provided technical support for Shuttle payloads. She then served as a CAPCOM in Mission Control communicating with Shuttle crews for seven missions. After her first space flight, Dr. Davis served as the Astronaut Office representative for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), with responsibility for RMS operations, training, and payloads. After her second space flight, she served as the Chairperson of the NASA Education Working Group and as Chief for the Payloads Branch, which provided Astronaut Office support for all Shuttle and Space Station payloads. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 673 hours in space. She flew as a mission specialist on STS-47 in 1992 and STS-60 in 1994, and was the payload commander on STS-85 in 1997.

After her flight on STS-85, Dr. Davis was assigned to NASA Headquarters as the Director of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS), Independent Assurance Office for the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. In that position, Dr. Davis managed and directed independent assessments for the programs and projects assigned to the HEDS enterprise. In July 1999, she was named the Deputy Director of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

NASA EXPERIENCE: STS-47, Spacelab-J, was the 50th Space Shuttle mission. Launched on September 12, 1992, this cooperative venture between the United States and Japan, conducted 43 experiments in life sciences and materials processing. During the eight-day mission, she was responsible for operating Spacelab and its subsystems and performing a variety of experiments. After completing 126 orbits of the Earth, STS-47 Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center on September 20, 1992.

STS-60 was the second flight of Spacehab (Space Habitation Module) and the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF). Launched on February 3, 1994, this flight was the first Space Shuttle flight on which a Russian Cosmonaut was a crew member. During the eight-day mission, her prime responsibility was to maneuver the WSF on the RMS, to conduct thin film crystal growth and she was also responsible for performing scientific experiments in the Spacehab. The STS-60 Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center on February 11, 1994, after completing 130 orbits of the Earth.

Dr. Davis was the payload commander for STS-85, which was launched on Discovery on August 7, 1997. During this 12-day mission, Dr. Davis deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS payload, and operated the Japanese Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD) robotic arm. The mission also included several other scientific payloads for the conduct of research on astronomy, Earth sciences, life sciences, and materials science. The mission was accomplished in 189 Earth orbits, traveling 4.7 million miles. The STS-85 Discovery landed at Kennedy Space Center on August 19, 1997.

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| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

Ronald M. Sega, Mission Specialist

NAME: Ronald M. Sega (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born December 4, 1952, in Cleveland, Ohio.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Nordonia High School, Macedonia, Ohio, in 1970; received a bachelor of science degree in Mathematics and Physics from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1974, a master of science degree in Physics from Ohio State in 1975, and a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Colorado in 1982.

ORGANIZATIONS: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) - Associate Fellow (1992), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Physical Society (APS), Institute for the Advancement of Engineering - Fellow (1992), Society for Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), Air Force Reserve Officer Association, Association of Space Explorers, and Eta Kappa Nu.

SPECIAL HONORS: Distinguished Graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, 1974. Top Graduate of the Pilot Instructor Training Course, 1976. Officer of the Year in the Department of Physics, U.S. Air Force Academy, 1980. Recipient of Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, Commendation Medal, and Reserve Achievement Medal. Air Force Research Fellow - Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1985. Received the Outstanding Faculty Award - Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Colorado, 1985. Selected to the Academic Hall of Fame of his high school in Macedonia, Ohio, 1988. Reserve Officer of the Year (IMA), Air Force Space Command, 1988; Reserve Officer of the Year (IMA), U.S. Air Force, 1988. Received an honorary doctorate from Clarkson University, 1993. Recipient of the NASA Space Flight Medal, 1994 and 1996. Superior Achievement Award (NASA Director of Operations, Russia), 1995.

EXPERIENCE: Dr. Sega graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1974, and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force. He earned a masters degree in Physics at Ohio State University in 1975. Completing pilot training in 1976 he served as an Instructor Pilot at Williams AFB, Arizona, until 1979.

From 1979 to 1982 he was on the faculty of the U.S. Air Force Academy in the Department of Physics where he designed and constructed a laboratory facility to investigate microwave fields using infrared techniques while pursuing a doctorate in Electrical Engineering.

In 1982 he joined the faculty of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs as Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1985, granted tenure in 1988, promoted to Professor in 1990, and is currently on an extended leave of absence.

From 1987 to 1988 he served as Technical Director, Lasers and Aerospace Mechanics Directorate, of the Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory at the U.S. Air Force Academy. From 1989 to 1990, while on leave from the University of Colorado, he served as Research Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Houston, affiliated with the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center, and currently is Adjunct Professor of Physics. Dr. Sega is a Co-Principal Investigator of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF)which has flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-60 in February 1994 and STS-69 in 1995, also serving as mission director for WSF. He has authored or co-authored over 100 technical publications.

An Air Force Reserve Officer, he holds an aeronautical rating of Command Pilot and the rank of Colonel. He serves as a reserve augmentee to the Director, Plans, Air Force Space Command.

As a pilot, Dr. Sega has logged over 4,000 hours in the Air Force, Air Force Reserves, and NASA.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in January 1990, Dr. Sega became an astronaut in July 1991, qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on Space Shuttle flight crews. His technical assignments have included: working Remote Manipulator System (RMS) issues for the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch; supporting Orbiter software verification in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL); Chief of Astronaut Appearances; Science Support Group Lead; Space Station integration team; Astronaut Representative to the Space Station Science and Utilization Advisory Board (primarily an external board for NASA).

Dr. Sega was a mission specialist on STS-60, the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle Mission. Launched on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2), and the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1). During the 8-day flight, the crew of Discovery conducted a wide variety of biological materials science, Earth observation, and life science experiments. He was the "flight engineer" for ascent and entry on this mission, performed several experiments on orbit, and operated the robotic arm, berthing the Wake Shield onto its payload bay carrier on four separate occasions. Following 130 orbits of the Earth in 3,439,705 miles, STS-60 landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994. With the completion of his first space flight, Dr. Sega has logged 199 hours in space.

From November 1994 to March 1995, Dr. Sega was the NASA Director of Operations, Star City, Russia (The Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center) responsible for managing NASA activities at Star City. These activities involved building an organization and infrastructure to support Astronaut and Cosmonaut mission and science training for flight on the Russian Space Station Mir. He also participated in training on Russian Space Systems and was the first American to train in the Russian EVA suit (Orlan) in their underwater facility (Hydrolaboratory).

Dr. Sega was a mission specialist on STS-76, the third docking mission to the Russian space station Mir, launched on March 22, 1996 with a crew of six aboard Atlantis. Following rendezvous and docking with Mir, a NASA Astronaut transferred to Mir for a five month stay to begin a continuous presence of U.S. astronauts aboard Mir for the next two year period. Dr. Sega was the Payload Commander for this mission and lead on Biorack, a small multipurpose laboratory located in the Spacehab module carried in the Shuttle payload bay. Biorack was used to technology development, fundamental biology (research into plant and animal cellular function), and environment characterization. He was responsible for planning and on-orbit operations, including extensive transfer of logistics and science, including 4800 pounds of science and mission hardware, food, water and air to Mir, and returning over 1100 pounds of U.S. and ESA science and Russian hardware. Following 144 orbits of the Earth, Atlantis landed with a crew of five at Edwards Air Force Base in California on March 31, 1996.

Dr. Sega left NASA on July 1, 1996 to become Dean of the College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs.

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| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Mission Specialist

NAME: Franklin R. Chang-Džaz (Ph.D.) NASA Astronaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born April 5, 1950, in San JosŤ, Costa Rica, to the late Mr. RamÚn A. Chang-Morales and Mrs. Marža Eugenia Džaz De Chang. Married to the former Peggy Marguerite Doncaster of Alexandria, Louisiana. Four children. He enjoys music, glider planes, soccer, scuba-diving, and hiking. His mother, brothers and sisters still reside in Costa Rica.

EDUCATION: Graduated from Colegio De La Salle in San JosŤ, Costa Rica, in November 1967, and from Hartford High School in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Connecticut in 1973 and a doctorate in applied plasma physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1977.

SPECIAL HONORS: Recipient of the University of Connecticut's Outstanding Alumni Award (1980); 6 NASA Space Flight Medals (1986, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998); 2 NASA Distinguished Service Medals (1995, 1997), and 3 NASA Exceptional Service Medals (1988, 1990, 1993). In 1986, he received the Liberty Medal from President Ronald Reagan at the Statue of Liberty Centennial Celebration in New York City, and in 1987 the Medal of Excellence from the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. He received the Cross of the Venezuelan Air Force from President Jaime Lusinchi during the 68th Anniversary of the Venezuelan Air Force in Caracas, Venezuela (1988), and the Flight Achievement Award from the American Astronautical Society (1989). Recipient of four Doctorates "Honoris Causa" (Doctor of Science from the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica; Doctor of Science from the University of Connecticut, Doctor of Law from Babson College, and Doctor of Science from the Universidade de Santiago de Chile. He is Honorary faculty at the College of Engineering, University of Costa Rica. In April 1995, the government of Costa Rica confered on him the title of "Honorary Citizen." This is the highest honor Costa Rica confers to a foreign citizen, making him the first such honoree who was actually born there.

EXPERIENCE: While attending the University of Connecticut, he also worked as a research assistant in the Physics Department and participated in the design and construction of high energy atomic collision experiments. Following graduation in 1973, he entered graduate school at MIT, becoming heavily involved in the United States' controlled fusion program and doing intensive research in the design and operation of fusion reactors.

He obtained his doctorate in the field of applied plasma physics and fusion technology and, in that same year, joined the technical staff of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. His work at Draper was geared strongly toward the design and integration of control systems for fusion reactor concepts and experimental devices, in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion. In 1979, he developed a novel concept to guide and target fuel pellets in an inertial fusion reactor chamber. More recently he has been engaged in the design of a new concept in rocket propulsion based on magnetically confined high temperature plasmas.

As a visiting scientist with the M.I.T. Plasma Fusion Center from October 1983 to December 1993, he led the plasma propulsion program there to develop this technology for future human missions to Mars. In December 1993, Dr. Chang-Džaz was appointed Director of the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center where he continues his research on plasma rockets. He is an Adjunct Professor of Physics at Rice University and the University of Houston and has presented numerous papers at technical conferences and in scientific journals.

In addition to his main fields of science and engineering, he worked for 2-1/2 years as a house manager in an experimental community residence for de-institutionalizing chronic mental patients, and was heavily involved as an instructor/advisor with a rehabilitation program for hispanic drug abusers in Massachusetts.

NASA EXPERIENCE: Selected by NASA in May 1980, Dr. Chang-Džaz became an astronaut in August 1981. While undergoing astronaut training he was also involved in flight software checkout at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), and participated in the early Space Station design studies. In late 1982 he was designated as support crew for the first Spacelab mission and, in November 1983, served as on orbit capsule communicator (CAPCOM) during that flight.

From October 1984 to August 1985 he was leader of the astronaut support team at the Kennedy Space Center. His duties included astronaut support during the processing of the various vehicles and payloads, as well as flight crew support during the final phases of the launch countdown. He has logged over 1,800 hours of flight time, including 1,500 hours in jet aircraft.

Dr. Chang-Džaz was instrumental in implementing closer ties between the astronaut corps and the scientific community. In January 1987, he started the Astronaut Science Colloquium Program and later helped form the Astronaut Science Support Group, which he directed until January 1989.

A veteran of six space flights (STS 61-C in 1986, STS-34 in 1989, STS-46 in 1992, STS-60 in 1994, STS-75 in 1996, and STS-91 in 1998), he has logged over 1,269 hours in space.

STS 61-C (January 12-18, 1986), was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on the Space Shuttle Columbia. STS 61-C was a 6-day flight during which Dr. Chang-DŪaz participated in the deployment of the SATCOM KU satellite, conducted experiments in astrophysics, and operated the materials processing laboratory MSL-2. Following 96 orbits of the Earth, Columbia and her crew made a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 146 hours, 3 minutes, 51 seconds.

On STS-34 (October 18-23, 1989), the crew aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis successfully deployed the Galileo spacecraft on its journey to explore Jupiter, operated the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) to map atmospheric ozone, and performed numerous secondary experiments involving radiation measurements, polymer morphology, lightning research, microgravity effects on plants, and a student experiment on ice crystal growth in space. STS-34 launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Mission duration was 119 hours and 41 minutes and was accomplished in 79 orbits of the Earth.

STS-46 (July 31-August 8, 1992), was an 8-day mission during which crew members deployed the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite, and conducted the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS) test flight. Mission duration was 191 hours, 16 minutes, 7 seconds. Space Shuttle Atlantis and her crew launched and landed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, after completing 126 orbits of the Earth in 3.35 million miles.

STS-60 (February 3-11, 1994), was the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1), the second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2), and the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle mission on which a Russian Cosmonaut was a crew member. During the 8-day flight, the crew aboard Space Shuttle Discovery conducted a wide variety of biological materials science, Earth observation, and life science experiments. STS-60 launched and landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mission achieved 130 orbits of Earth in 3,439,705 miles.

STS-75 (February 22 to March 9, 1996), was a 15-day mission with principal payloads being the reflight of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) and the third flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3). The TSS successfully demonstrated the ability of tethers to produce electricity. The TSS experiment produced a wealth of new information on the electrodynamics of tethers and plasma physics before the tether broke at 19.7 km, just shy of the 20.7 km goal. The crew also worked around the clock performing combustion experiments and research related to USMP-3 microgravity investigations used to improve production of medicines, metal alloys, and semiconductors. The mission was completed in 252 orbits covering 6.5 million miles in 377 hours and 40 minutes.

STS-91 Discovery (June 2-12, 1998) was the 9th and final Shuttle-Mir docking mission and marked the conclusion of the highly successful joint U.S./Russian Phase I Program. The crew, including a Russian cosmonaut, performed logistics and hardware resupply of the Mir during four docked days. They also conducted the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment, which involved the first of its kind research of antimatter in space. Mission duration was 235 hours, 54 minutes.

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| Bolden | Reightler | Davis | Sega | Chang-Diaz | Krikalev |

Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, Mission Specialist

NAME: Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Russian Cosmonaut

PERSONAL DATA: Born August 27, 1958, in Leningrad, Russia, which has been renamed St. Petersburg. Married to Elena Terekhina of Samara, Russia. They have one daughter. He enjoys swimming, skiing, bicycle riding, aerobatic flying, and amateur radio operations, particularly from space. His parents, Konstantin and Nadia, reside in Leningrad, Russia. Her parents, Faina and Yuri, reside in Samara, Russia.

EDUCATION: Graduated from high school in 1975; in 1981, received mechanical engineering degree from the Leningrad Mechanical Institute, now called St. Petersburg Technical University.

SPECIAL HONORS: He was a member of the Russian and Soviet national aerobatic flying teams, and was Champion of Moscow in 1983, and Champion of the Soviet Union in 1986. For his space flight experience, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, the French title of L'Officier de la L'egion d'Honneur, and the new title of Hero of Russia. He also has been awarded the NASA Space Flight Medal (1994, 1998).

EXPERIENCE: After graduation in 1981, he joined NPO Energia, the Russian industrial organization responsible for manned space flight activities. He tested space flight equipment, developed space operations methods, and participated in ground control operations. When the Salyut 7 space station failed in 1985, he worked on the rescue mission team, developing procedures for docking with the uncontrolled station and repairing the station's on-board system.

Krikalev was selected as a cosmonaut in 1985, completed his basic training in 1986, and, for a time, was assigned to the Buran Shuttle program. In early 1988, he began training for his first long-duration flight aboard the MIR space station. This training included preparations for at least six EVA's (space walks), installation of a new module, the first test of the new Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), and the second joint Soviet-French science mission.

Soyuz TM-7 was launched on November 26, 1988, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Alexander Volkov, and French Astronaut Jean-Loup Chretien. The previous crew (Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov, and Valeri Polyakov) remained on MIR for another twenty-five days, marking the longest period a six-person crew had been in orbit. After the previous crew returned to Earth, Krikalev, Polyakov, and Volkov continued to conduct experiments aboard the MIR station. Because arrival of the next crew had been delayed, they prepared the MIR for a period of unmanned operations before returning to Earth on April 27, 1989.

In April 1990, Krikalev began preparing for his second flight as a member of the backup crew for the eighth long-duration MIR mission, which also included 5 EVA's and a week of Soviet-Japanese operations. In December 1990, Krikalev began training for the ninth MIR mission which included training for 10 EVA's. Soyuz TM-12 launched on May 19, 1991, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky, and British astronaut Helen Sharman. Sharman returned to Earth with the previous crew after one week, while Krikalev and Artsebarsky remained on MIR. During the summer, they conducted six EVA's to perform a variety of experiments and some station maintenance tasks.

In July 1991, Krikalev agreed to stay on MIR as flight engineer for the next crew, scheduled to arrive in October because the next two planned flights had been reduced to one. The engineer slot on the Soyuz-13 flight on October 2, 1991, was filled by Toctar Aubakirov, an astronaut from the Soviet republic of Kazakhstan, who had not been trained for a long-duration mission. Both he and Franz Viehbok, the first Austrian astronaut, returned with Artsebarsky on October 10, 1991. Commander Alexander Volkov remained onboard with Krikalev. After the crew replacement in October, Volkov and Krikalev continued MIR experiment operations and conducted another EVA before returning to Earth on March 25, 1992.

In October 1992, NASA announced that an experienced cosmonaut would fly aboard a future Space Shuttle mission. Krikalev was one of two candidates named by the Russian Space Agency for mission specialist training with the crew of STS-60. In April 1993, he was assigned as prime mission specialist. In September 1993, Vladimir Titov was selected to fly on STS-63 with Krikalev training as his back-up.

Krikalev flew on STS-60, the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle Mission. Launched on February 3, 1994, STS-60 was the second flight of the Space Habitation Module-2 (Spacehab-2), and the first flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF-1). During the 8-day flight, the crew of Discovery conducted a wide variety of materials science experiments, both on the Wake Shield Facility and in the Spacehab, Earth observation, and life science experiments. Krikalev conducted significant portions of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) operations during the flight. Following 130 orbits of the Earth in 3,439,705 miles, STS-60 landed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on February 11, 1994. With the completion of this flight, Krikalev logged an additional 8 days, 7 hours, 9 minutes in space.

Krikalev returned to duty in Russia following his American experience on STS-60. Periodically he returned to the Johnson Space Center in Houston to work with CAPCOM in Mission Control and ground controllers in Russia supporting joint U.S./Russian Missions. To date he has supported STS-63, STS-71, STS-74 and STS-76.

Krikalev flew on STS-88 Endeavour (December 4-15, 1998), the first International Space Station assembly mission. During the 12-day mission the Unity module was mated with Zarya module. Two crew members performed three space walks to connect umbilicals and attach tools/hardware for use in future EVA's. The crew also performed IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) operations, and deployed two satellites, Mighty Sat 1 and SAC-A. The mission was accomplished in 185 orbits of the Earth in 283 hours and 18 minutes.

In completing his fourth space flight, Krikalev logged more than 1 year, 3 months and 19 days in space, including seven EVA's.

Krikalev is currently living and working aboard the International Space Station. The Expedition-1 crew launched October 31, 2000 on a Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur launch site in Kazakhstan, and successfully docked with the station on November 2, 2000. The crew is scheduled to spend approximately 4 months aboard the station, and to return to Earth on the Shuttle Flight delivering the second Expedition crew.