SP-4312 Dreams, Hopes, Realities

 

[175-189] REFERENCES

 

Chapter 1

 

1. Alfred Rosenthal, Venture Into Space (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1968), 20-21; Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1980), 55-56.

2. When President Eisenhower originally proposed the civilian space agency, it was called the National Aeronautics and Space Agency, but the name was later changed to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Shirley Thomas, Men of Space (New York: Chilton Books, 1965), 84.

3. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 408.

4. Today, NASA refers to this part of its mission as human space flight. But in the early days, the astronaut program was known both formally and informally as the "manned space flight program." So in some instances I use the term "manned space flight" when referring to this part of NASA in a historical context, even though that term is now outdated.

5. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 246; Sam Keller, interview with author, Washington, D.C., 15 October 1997.

6. According to Homer Newell, "on 22 July 1965 (NASA Associate Administrator Robert) Seamans removed Goett from the directorship ... with the concurrence of both (James) Webb and (Hugh) Dryden." Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 256; Harry Goett, interview with author, Los Altos Hills, California, 13 February 1998.

7. Thomas, Men of Space, 94.

8. Christopher Kraft, as quoted in Kathleen M. Mogan, Frank P. Mintz, ed., Keeping Track: A History of the GSFC Tracking and Data Acquisition Networks: 1957 to 1991 (Greenbelt, MD: NASA Publication, undated), 104.

9. Andre Gide, as quoted in Julia Cameron, The Artist's Way: A Spiritual Path to Higher Creativity (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992, p.199).

 

Chapter 2

 

1. John C. Mather and John Boslough, The Very First Light (New York: Basic Books, 1996), 12-13.

2. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1980), 25-26.

3. Alfred Rosenthal, Venture Into Space (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4301, 1968), 6-13.

4. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere , 31-32.

5. William R. Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets, 1958-1968 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4401, 1971), 29; Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 51.

6. William Corliss, "The Evolution of the Satellite Tracking and Data Network (STADAN)," Goddard Historical Note Number 3, X-202-67-26 (Greenbelt, Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center, January 1967), 12.

7. Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 16; Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 31, 54.

8. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 55-56; Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 20-22; Robert Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1966), 3-8; John W. Townsend, Jr., interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997.

9. For more detailed information on the formation of NASA, see Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, and Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 87-99.

10. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, 13.

11. Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 22; John E. Naugle, First Among Equals (Washington, D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1991), 13-14; J.H. Capshew, "Within Goddard's Orbit: Satellites, Space Research and NASA," unpublished manuscript, 28 September 1989, Chapter 2, 12. (note: cover says do not quote or cite without author's permission)

12. The Army had successfully launched a Jupiter C missile into space and retrieved its nose cone after re-entry sometime before the beginning of November 1957 (Rosenthal, The Early Years, 126); John E. Naugle, First Among Equals , 6; Dr. Frank B. McDonald, "IMPs, EGOs, and Skyhooks," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, A5, 1 May 1996, 10,523; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998.

13. Alfred Rosenthal, ed. NASA Space Missions Since 1958 (Washington D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1982), 1-14; "NASA Major Launch Record," Launch summary, 1958-1992, unpublished document, prepared by Chao Yang, Goddard Space Center Technical Library, 1997.

14. John W. Townsend, Jr., Interview, 15 October 1997.

15. "Press release by Senator J. Glenn Beall, Maryland, at Washington D.C. Office, 1 August 1958," from NASA Headquarters History Office Archives.

16. Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 284-85.

17. Alfred Rosenthal, The Early Years, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, undated), 17-20, 27-28; Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 27-28; Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 47; Capshew, "Within Goddard's Orbit, Chapter 3, 5-12; John Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997.

18. Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 286-289; T. Keith Glennan, Memorandum, 1 May 1959, from NASA Headquarters History Office archives.

19. Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 209.

20. McDonald, "IMPs, EGOs, and Skyhooks," 10,523-10,524; Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, 290-291; John Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; Roland Van Allen, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 6 October 1997; Memorandum, from John W. Townsend to T. Keith Glennan, 6 March 1959, from NASA Headquarters History Office archives.

21. Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; Roland Van Allen, interview, 6 October 1997; Frank McDonald, "Imps, EGOs, and Skyhooks,"10,523-10,524; Frank McDonald, phone interview with author, 5 May 1998.

22. Rosenthal, The Early Years, 28.

23. John W. Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; Samuel Keller, interview with author, Washington, D.C., 15 October 1997.

24. Alberta Moran, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, 10 July 1997.

25. The Space Science Board name was changed to the Space Studies Board around 1989. The Board contributes ideas for missions, but does not make decisions about which experiments are selected for the missions.

26. John E. Naugle, First Among Equals, 37, 51-53, 57-59, 67-69, 82-85.

27. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 135, 112, 28.

28. John E. Naugle, First Among Equals , 61.

29. John W. Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; Frank McDonald, interview,16 October 1997; Les Meredith and Dave Blanchard, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 21 October 1997.

30. Samuel Keller, interview, 15 October 1997; John New, interview with author, Lanham, Maryland, 15 October 1997.

31. Frank McDonald, interview, 16 October 1997; John Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997.

32. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 114-115; Rosenthal, An Administrative History of NASA, 248-49.

33. Robert Jastrow, interview with author, Los Angeles, California, 11 February 1998; Robert Jastrow, The Enchanted Loom, (New York: Simon & Shuster, 1981), 9; "Establishment of an Institute for Space Studies," Memorandum, from Robert Jastrow to the Director of Space Flight Programs, with initialled note "approved subject to attached memo by Dr. Glennan" by Abe Silverstein, 13 December 1960, from NASA Headquarters History Office archives; Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 237-240.

34. John Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998.

35. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 75, 87,

36. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 29, 32, 96, 100, 107; Andrew J. Butrica, ed., Beyond the Ionosphere (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1997), 104.

37. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 109.

38. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 251-157; Harry Goett, interview with author, Los Altos Hills, California, 13 February 1998; George Pieper, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 October 1997; John W. Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997.

39. A Reduction in Force, or RIF, is the formal term for layoffs of civil servants. (George Pieper, interview, 19 November 1997, comments, 31 August 1998.)

40. Frank Ceppolina, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 12 January 1998.

41. Wallace H. Tucker, The Star Splitters: The High Energy Astronomy Observatories (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1984); Margorie Townsend, interview with author, Washington, D.C., 22 November 1997; Nancy Roman, phone interview with author, 27 January 1998; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 454-455, 513-516.

42. Nancy Roman, phone interviews with author, 27 January 1998 and 23 February 1998; Jesse Mitchell, phone interview with author, 4 March 1998; Albert Opp, phone interview with author, 25 February 1998; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; George Pieper, interview with author, Greenbelt, Maryland, 19 November 1997.

43. In a sense, support for funding any NASA project is affected by national priorities. But the Earth Science research results themselves were more likely to be used as a basis for regulation or legislation than space science results, and therefore, as the scientists relate, were more often attacked by both sides of any related policy debate, particularly with regard to environmental issues. This link to legislation or regulation gave Earth Science projects an additional element of complexity that Space Science projects typically did not have.

44. Robert Cooper, interview with author, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 October 1997; Vince Salomonson, interview, 19 November 1997; Robert Price, interview, 16 January 1998; John Klineberg, interview with author, Palo Alto, California, 26 November 1997; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; W.Henry Lambright, "Administrative Entrepreneurship and Space Technology: The Ups and Downs of 'Mission to Planet Earth," 97-104..

45. Jim Gravura, phone interview with author, 3 March 1998.

46. "Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory: Exploring the Mysteries of Time," Fact Sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

47. Wallops underwent several name changes over the years. In 1946, it became the "Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD)" of Langley. When the NACA became NASA in 1958, it became an independent NASA Center and was renamed the Wallops Island Station. When it was absorbed into Goddard in 1982, it was renamed once again, as the Wallops Flight Facility. James Hansen, Engineer in Charge (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4305, 1987), 267-270, 567; Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview with author, Wallops Island, 23 October 1997; Harold D. Wallace, Jr. Wallops Station and the Creation of an American Space Program, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4311, 1997), 6-16.

48. Goddard Space Flight Center organizational charts, from the GSFC Library.

49. Goddard Space Flight Center organizational charts, from the GSFC Library, Greenbelt, Maryland; Dave Shrewsberry, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 15 January 1998; Jon Busse, phone interview with author, 3 March 1998; Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1997; Tom Young, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 18 November 1997.

50. Charles Gunn, interview with author, Falls Church, Virginia, 15 January 1998; John Clark, interview, 18 May 1998.

51. Dave Shrewsberry, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 15 January 1998; "NASA's Small Explorer Program: Faster, Better, Cheaper," Fact Sheet FS-96(07)-014, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files, July 1996.

52. John Mather, The Very First Light, xvii.

53. Bill Robie, For the Greatest Achievement, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993), frontespiece.

54. W.Henry Lambright, "Administrative Entrepreneurship and Space Technology: The Ups and Downs of 'Mission to Planet Earth,' Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 2, March/April 1994, 100.

55. Robert Price, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 January 1998; Vince Salomonson, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 October 1997; W.Henry Lambright, "Administrative Entrepreneurship and Space Technology: The Ups and Downs of 'Mission to Planet Earth,' Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 2, March/April 1994, 97-104.

56. Orlando Figueroa, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998; Brian Keegan, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 21 November 1997; Joe Rothenberg, interview with author, NASA HQ, Washington, D.C., 15 January 1998; Steve Holt, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998.

57. Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1997.

58. Tom Young, interview, 18 November 1997.

59. Tom Huber, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; Joe Rothenberg, interview, 15 January 1998; "Response to Initial Set of NASA Advisory Council Questions for GSFC," 15 September 1997, Viewgraphs, from Joe Rothenberg files; Jim Adams, telephone interview with author, 16 July 1998.

60. "Space Operations Management," memorandum from Daniel S. Goldin to Directors, NASA Field Installations, 18 October 1995, from the files of Arthur Fuchs, GSFC; Arthur Fuchs, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 12 January 1998.

61. Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1997.

62. Tony Busalacchi, phone interview with author, 28 February 1998; Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1998.

 

Chapter 3

 

1. Alfred Rosenthal, edl, NASA Space Missions Since 1958, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1982), 435; Alfred Bester, The Life and Death of a Satellite, (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1966), 60-61.

2. John Boeckel, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Margorie Townsend, interview with author, Washington, D.C., 22 November 1997; John New, interview with author, Lanham, Maryland, 15 October 1997; Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 144-149; Frank McDonald, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 October 1997.

3. Karen Kaplan, "Outer Space Outage Signals Growing Dependence on Satellites," Los Angeles Times, 21 May 1998, A1,A31.

4. John Boeckel, interview, 17 October 1997.

5. John Boeckel, interview, 17 October 1997; Roland Van Allen with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, interview, 16 October 1997; John New, interview, 15 October 1997; Margorie Townsend, interview, 22 November 1997; Bester, The Life and Death of a Satellite, 74-76.

6. John W. Townsend, interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997.

7. Harry Goett, interview with author, Los Altos Hills, California, 13 February 1998; John W. Townsend, interview with author, 15 October 1997; John Boeckel, interview, 17 October 1997; John New, interview, 15 October 1997; Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 165-170.

8. A good example of this danger was SeaSat A - a satellite Goddard did not build, but which the Center was handling through its tracking and data network. Three months after its launch in June 1978, the spacecraft developed problems. Engineers realized it was ailing when it passed over Goddard's ground tracking station. They frantically began trouble-shooting the problem, but by the time the spacecraft came within range of the next ground station that could uplink commands to fix it, the satellite's batteries had gone dead.NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 700-701; Robert Cooper, interview with author, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 October 1997; Robert Price, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 January 1998; Tom Huber, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997.

9. Nancy Roman, phone interview with author, 23 February 1998; Frank McDonald, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 October 1997; John New, interview, 15 October 1997; Frank McDonald, "IMPs, EGOs and Skyhooks," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. A5,, 10,526; Goddard Space Flight Center Organizational Charts, from the GSFC Technical Library, Greenbelt, Maryland.

10. John New, interview, 15 October 1997.

11. John New, interview, 15 October 1997; Harry Goett, interview, 13 February 1998.

12. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 159-160, 170.

13. Alfred Bester, Life and Death of a Satellite, 177-180.

14. Jon Busse, phone interview with author, 3 March 1998.

15. Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview with author, Wallops Island, Virginia, 23 October 1997; Jon Busse, interview, 3 March 1998, William R. Corliss, NASA Sounding Rockets 1958-1968 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4401, 1971), 2-3.

16. "NASA Sounding Rocket Launch Vehicles," Fact Sheet, from Suborbital Projects Directorate files, Wallops Island, Virginia.

17. Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1997.

18. Arnold Torres, Ray Stanley and Keith Koehler, interview, 23 October 1997; Scientific Balloon and Aircraft Fact Sheets, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

19. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 133-134; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 3-17; Charles Gunn, interview with author, Falls Church, Virginia, 16 January 1998.

20. John W. Townsend, interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997; Charles Gunn, interview, 16 January 1998;

21. Charles Gunn, interview, 16 January 1998; "The Delta Expendable Launch Vehicle," Fact Sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

22. Don Margolies and Jim Barrowman, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 13 January 1998; Dave Shrewsberry, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 15 January 1998; "Science Research with the Spartan," "The Hitchhiker Project," Shuttle Small Payloads Capabilities," "NASA's Get Away Special Program," Fact Sheets/booklets from GSFC Special Payloads Division and Public Affairs Office files; "Get Away Special (GAS) Flight History," Memorandum, from Susan Olden to Dave Shrewsberry, et. al., 9 December 1997.

23. For more information on the IGY, see Chapter Two.

24. This number is approximate because the network was never static. New stations continued to be added and others closed as the tracking needs developed and changed. Information on minitrack network from: William R. Corliss, "The Evolution of the Satellite Tracking and Data Network (STADAN)," Goddard Historical Note Number 3, X-202-67-26 (Greenbelt, Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center, January 1967) 1-41; Kathleen M. Mogan and Frank P. Mintz, ed., Keeping Track: GSFC Tracking and Data Acquisition Networks: 1957 to 1991 (Greenbelt, Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center, (undated), 5-14, 79-81.

25. Verne Stelter, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 October 1997;

26. Keeping Track, 89, 104.

27. Keeping Track, 41, 101.

28. Verne Stelter, interview, 20 October 1997; Keeping Track, 38-41.

29. Keeping Track, 39; "NASA Major Launch Record," from GSFC Library files.

30. Verne Stelter, interview, 20 October 1997; Keeping Track, 96.

31. The name of the network was changed from the Mercury Space Flight Network to the Manned Space Flight Network at the beginning of the Gemini program.

32. Keeping Track, 42-49, 57-66.

33. John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; Verne Stelter, interview, 20 October 1997; Marjorie Townsend, interview, 22 November 1997; Keeping Track, 104.

34. Keeping Track, 56; GSFC Organizational Charts, from the GSFC Library files.

35. Keeping Track, 61.

36. Verne Stelter, interview, 20 October 1997; Pete Bracken, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Dale Harris, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 19 November 1997; Art Fuchs, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 12 January 1998; Keeping Track, 70-75.

37. Roland Van Allen, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 October 1997; Pete Bracken, interview, 17 October 1997; Rick Obenschain, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; "Product Levels - Layman's Definitions," Email Memorandum, from H.K. Ramapriyan to Rick Obenschain, 24 November 1997.

38. Steve Holt, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998; Rick Obenschain, interview, 20 November 1997; "EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview," viewgraphs, from Rick Obenschain files; "The Earth Observing System Data and Information System," Fact Sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

 

Chapter 4

 

1. K.C. Cole, "Study of Black Holes Backs Einstein's Theory of Gravity," Los Angeles Times, 7 November 1997, A-1, A-32-33, (referencing research with Goddard's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)).

2. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-4211,1980), 39, 82-84, 329.

3. These missions included Explorers 7, 13, 16 and 23. For specific launch dates, see Appendix A.

4. Frank McDonald, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 October 1997; Steve Maran, email comments, 14 July 1998; "Advanced Composition Explorer," booklet, from Don Margolies' files, GSFC.

5. Frank McDonald originally named the series Interplanetary Monitoring Probes, but it was soon changed from Probes to Platforms.

6. Frank McDonald, interview, 16 October 1997; George Pieper, phone interview with author, 20 July 1998, comments, 31 August 1998; John W. Townsend, phone interview with author, 28 August 1998.

7. Frank McDonald, interview, 16 October 1997; Frank McDonald, "IMPs, EGOs, and Skyhooks," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. A5, 1 May 1996, 10,521-10,530; "NASA Major Launch Record," from GSFC library files; Alfred Rosenthal, ed., NASA Space Missions Since 1958 (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1982).

8. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 338-340.

9. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 135, 179, 212, 270, 306, 382; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; Alfred Rosenthal, Venture Into Space, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1968), 47, 231,-232; Tom Huber, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; Robert Bordeaux, interview with author, Fulton, Maryland, 21 October 1997. (For more information on the Rapid Spacecraft Procurement Initiative, see Chapter 2.)

10. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 675, 710; Frank McDonald, "IMPs, EGOs, and Skyhooks," 10,528.

11. "Advanced Composition Explorer," GSFC booklet, from Don Margolies files, 9-19; "Our Sun: A Look Under the Hood," Fact sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; Dick Thompson, "Eyes on the Storm-Tossed Sun," Time, 8 September 1997, 68-69.

12. John Klineberg, interview with author, Palo Alto, California, 24 November 1997; "The Geotail Mission," "Polar Satellite Will Study Effects of Solar Plasma," "ISTP Unites Scientists for Study of Sun-Earth System," "Wind Spacecraft to Study Solar Breeze," Fact Sheets, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) fact sheet/educational aid, from SOHO project office files; "Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)," booklet, from Don Margolies files; "GGS Polar Mission Profile," Booklet, produced by Lockheed Martin Astro Space, Princeton, New Jersey, undated.

13. "SMEX Project History," Fact Sheet, from SMEX project Web Page; "FAST Satellite Probes Mysteries of the Aurora," Fact Sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

14. Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 363-369; Steve Maran, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998; "Our Sun: A Look Under the Hood," NASA Fact Sheet FS-1997-01-002-HQ-S, January 1997, from GSFC Public Affairs Office Files, .

15. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 178.

16. For more information on Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft, see Chapter 3.

17. Pete Bracken, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Frank Ceppolina, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 12 January 1998; Major NASA Satellite Missions and Key Participants, Vol. IV - 1984 and 1985 (Greenbelt, Maryland: Goddard Space Flight Center, 1985), 10-15.

18. Stephen Maran, interview, 14 January 1998; NASA Missions Since 1958, 746-748; Stephen Maran, "A New Look at Old Sol," Natural Science, June 1997, 154-161; "Heat Source of Sun's Corona Said Found by SOHO Satellite," Press Release, from the Royal Astronomical Society, 27 March 1998; "SOHO Data on Coronal Ejections May Tell Where Solar Wind Begins," Press Release, from the Royal Astronomical Society, 27 March 1998; "Tiny Explosions, Size of Earth, Said Found on Sun by SOHO Satellite," Press Release, from the Royal Astronomical Society, 26 January 1998; Dick Thompson, "Eyes on the Storm-Tossed Sun," Time, 8 September 1997, 68-69; R. Cowen, "Deepening Insight into Solar Outbursts," Science News, Vol. 152, 20-27 December 1997, 390; R. Cowen, "Spacecraft Probes Beneath Sun's Surface," Science News, Vol 152, 6 September 1997, 150; Alexander Hellemans, "SOHO Probes the Sun's Turbulent Neighborhood," Science, Vol. 277, 25 July 1997, 479; David Ehrenstein, "SOHO Traces the Sun's Hot Currents," Science, Vol. 277, 5 September 1997, 1438; Randy Showstack, "Scientists Unveil New Theory and Findings About Solar Eruptions," EOS, 16 December 1997, 581; "New Satellite Shows Sun in Stunning Detail," Press Release, from NASA HQ, 29 May 1998; "Our Sun: A Look Under the Hood," Fact Sheet, January 1997, from GSFC Public Affairs Office Files; "Advanced Composition Explorer," GSFC booklet, from Don Margolies files; "Transition Region and Coronal Explorer," Fact Sheet, from GSFC TRACE project web page; "Spartan 201: NASA's Mission to Explore the Sun's Corona," Fact Sheet, from GSFC Spartan project web page; "The Ulysses Mission - A Deep Space Voyage to High Latitudes over the Solar Pole," Fact Sheet, from the Ulysses/NASA internet web page; "SOHO Illuminates the Sun," Fact Sheet/Educational Reference Guide, from SOHO project office files, GSFC.

19. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 321-326, 547-548; Dave Blanchard, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 22 October 1997; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; "SWAS Spacecraft Probes Mysteries of Star Formation, Fact Sheet FS-96(07)-012, July 1996, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; Wallace H. Tucker, The Star Splitters (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1984), 6-7, 91.

20. John C. Mather, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 24 October 1997; John C. Mather and John Boslough, The Very First Light, (New York: Basic Books, 1996), 113-114; John C. Mather, "Cosmic Background Explorer Observes the Primeval Explosion," GSFC Booklet, undated.

21. John C. Mather, interview, 24 October 1997; Steve Holt, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998; Mather, The Very First Light; "COBE: Revealing Secrets of the Big Bang, Fact Sheet, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "Astronomers Discover an Infrared Background Glow in the Universe," NASA Press Release, 9 January 1998.

22. John W. Townsend, interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997; Nancy Roman, phone interview with author, 23 February 1998; George Pieper, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 October 1997; John Boeckel, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Tom Huber, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 202-203, 340-341, 452, 517-518.

23. For more discussion on how and why the Hubble program was set up the way it was, see Chapter 2.

24. Perkin-Elmer is now called Raytheon Optical Systems.

25. "Axial" refers to the four instruments located in long modules along the "axis" of the telescope. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera, in contrast, was a wedge-shaped instrument that was located below these instruments, in the lower part of the cylindrical-shaped telescope.

26. Phenomena observed in ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths do not initially appear as a nice, pretty picture. Scientists take the data and enhance it with different colors to visually represent the contrasting intensities and patterns indicated

27. Joe Rothenberg, interview with author, NASA HQ, Washington, D.C., 15 January 1998; Frank Ceppolina, interview , 12 January 1998; John Klineberg, interview with author, Palo Alto, California, 26 November 1997; Tom Huber, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; George Pieper, interviews with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 October 1997 and 19 November 1997; Nancy Roman, phone interview with author, 23 February 1998; Hubble Space Telescope 1st Servicing Mission Reference Guide, published for NASA by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, 1993; Hubble Space Telescope 2nd Servicing Mission Media Reference Guide, published for NASA by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space, Sunnyvale, California, 1997; "NASA embarks on Historic Hubble First Servicing Mission," Goddard News, Special Edition, HST 1993; "Hubble Space Telescope Second Servicing Mission (SM-2)," Hubble Facts, Fact Sheet FS-96(12)-025-GSFC, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "Hubble Space Telescope New and Improved," Starcatcher, from the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, undated; "Planetary Nebula Gallery," Educational Resource Material EW-1997(12)-008-GSFC, published by GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1997; "Stars," Educational Resource Material EW-1997(02)-001-GSFC, published by GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1997; Kathy Sawyer, "Images of Stars' Dazzling Deaths Radiate a Message of Rebirth," The Washington Post, 22 December 1997, A3; Gloria B. Lubkin, "Stellar Techniques in Mammography," Physics Today, June 1995, 21-22; K.C. Cole, "Hubble Finds Biggest Star Yet," The Los Angeles Times, 8 October 1997, B2, B8.

28. Tom Huber, interview, 20 November 1997; Nancy Roman, phone interview, 23 February 1998; Les Meredith, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 21 October 1997; George Pieper, interviews with author, 14 October 1997 and 19 November 1997; Yoji Kondo, telephone interview with author, 24 June 1998; Yoji Kondo, "Space Astronomy and IUE," written comments, 17 April 1998; "The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)," Fact Sheet NF-189, June 1993, from GSFC Public Affairs Office; Jim Sahli, "IUE 'Lights Out'," Goddard News, November 1996, 5, 7.

29. Yoji Kondo, telephone interview with author, 24 June 1998; "EUVE: Probing a Newly Opened Window," Fact Sheet, undated, from GSFC Public Affairs Office; "EUVE Operations," Fact Sheet, March 1992, from GSFC Public Affairs Office.

30. Tucker, The Star Splitters, 7-8; 85; 99; 111-117; Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, 357-363; Steve Holt, interview, 14 January 1998; Nancy Roman, phone interview, 23 February 1998; Edward K.L. Upton, interview with author, Los Angeles, California, 12 April 1998.

31. Tucker, The Star Splitters, 24.

32. Margorie Townsend, interview with author, Washington, D.C., 22 November 1997; Tucker, The Star Splitters, 24; 129-132.

33. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 664-665, 720-721; Tucker, The Star Splitters, 27, 79-81.

34. Tucker, The Star Splitters, 103, 133-135, 147-150; "Medal Awarded to Early Black Hole Investigator, Donald Lynden-Bell," Press Release, from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 18 May 1998; "X-Ray Timing Explorer Clocks High-Energy Universe," NASA Facts Online Fact Sheet, from GSFC Internet World Wide Web Pages.

35. Tucker, The Star Splitters, 151-164; "Forecast for the Universe is Stormy, Professor Says," Press Release, from the University of Missouri, 16 April 1998; "Invader Galaxy Apparently Contains Much Dark Matter," Press Release, from the Johns Hopkins University, 13 February 1998; "Mysterious Glow from Colliding Galaxies," Press Release, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 23 February 1998.

36. Steve Holt, interview with author, 14 January 1998; Steve Maran, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 14 January 1998; "Strongest Known Magnetic Field? Magentar Said Discovered," Press Release from the University of Alabama, Huntsville, 20 May 1998; "Record-Setting Pulsar Said Found by NASA's RXTE Satellite," Press Release from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, 26 January 1998; Tucker, The Star Splitters, 81, 113; "X-Ray Timing Explorer Clocks High Energy Universe," NASA Facts Online Fact Sheet, June 1995, from GSFC Internet World Wide Web pages; "ASCA (Astro D): February 1993," Fact Sheet, undated, from GSFC Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics World Wide Web pages.

37. "Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory: Exploring the Mysteries of Time," Fact Sheet FS96(07)-015, July 1996, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

38. Mather, The Very First Light, 48-49; "Goddard Projects Summary August 1959 - December 1967," GSFC Booklet, undated, 8-9.

39. Tucker, The Star Splitters, 138-139.

40. Ralph A.M.J. Wijers, et. al, "Gamma Ray Bursts from Stellar Remnants: Probing the Universe at High Redshift," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 294, 11 February 1998, L13-L-17; "Gamma Ray Bursts Said to Come from Very Early Universe," Press Release, from the Royal Astronomical Society, 6 February 1998.

41. Steve Maran, interview, 14 January 1998; Al Opp, telephone interview with author, 25 February 1998; "Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)," fact sheet, 4 June 1997, from GSFC Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics World Wide Web pages; "Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory: Exploring the Mysteries of Time," fact sheet, July 1996, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory: Exploring the Mysteries of Time," NASA Facts On Line NF-180-June 1993, from GSFC World Wide Web pages; "Most Energetic Event in Universe Said to be Detected," Press Release, 30 April 1998, from the California Institute of Technology; "Most Powerful Explosion Since the Big Bang," NASA Headquarters Press Release, 5 May 1998.

 

Chapter 5

 

1. Rough photographs of Earth taken from Viking rockets at altitudes of 60-70 miles actually appeared in the October 1950 issue of National Geographic (Seeing the World from 80 Miles Up," National Geographic, 98:511-28, October 1959). The photos in Life magazine came a year later but were broader in coverage because they were taken from an altitude of 135 miles. (Life, 31:165-66, 15 October 1951); Les Meredith, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 21 October 1997.

2. Project Rand would later become the non-profit, research and development-oriented RAND corporation.

3. Andrew J. Butrica, ed., Beyond the Ionosphere, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1997), 96-103.

4. Homer Newell, Beyond the Atmosphere, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1980), 186-200, 332-3; Vincent V. Salomonson and Louis S. Walter, "The Contributions of Spaceborne Observing Systems to the Understanding of the Solid Earth and Land Surface Processes," Proceedings of the Symposium on the State of Earth Science from Space: Past, Progress, Future Prospects, Space Policy Institute of George Washington University, published in a compendium by the American Institute for Physics (G. Asrar, ed.), May 1994, 3-18; Paul Lowman, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Alfred Rosenthal, NASA Space Missions Since 1958, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1982), 182, 301, 648-9.

5. Beyond the Ionosphere, 100.

6. "The Goddard Space Flight Center Family of Satellites," GSFC Booklet, April 1963 from Roland Van Allen's files; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 32, 120; Beyond the Ionosphere, 99-105; Al Jones, phone interview with author, 23 February 1998.

7. This debate about which approach to take for communication satellites continues to this day. Numerous companies are currently investing in a new round of extremely high capability satellite systems that will vastly improve mobile phone and communications service, but they are taking three different approaches. Hughes is pursuing a geostationary orbit for its system, which will need 8 satellites. Two other companies are planning medium-Earth orbits for their networks, which will require 10-12 spacecraft. Several other companies are planning networks of low-Earth orbiting satellites, which will consist of anywhere from 28 to 840 satellites. (Al Jones, phone interview, 23 February 1998; William J. Cook, "1997: A New Space Odyssey," US News & World Report, Vol. , 3 March 1997, 45-52.

8. Beyond the Ionosphere, 100-124; Al Jones, phone interview, 23 February 1998; John W. Townsend, interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997; Harry Goett, interview with author, Los Altos Hills, California, 13 February 1998; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 81, 96, 100, 102, 107, 118, 129.

9. For more information on TDRSS, see Chapter 3.

10. Al Jones, interview, 23 February 1998; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 234, 249, 285, 328, 409, 571; L.J. Allison, ed., "Meteorological Satellites," NASA TM 80704, June 1980, 7-8; Keeping Track, 71-73, 107.

11. "Our Atmosphere," Fact Sheet, undated, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

12. This agency has, at different times, been known as both "ARPA," for the "Advanced Research Projects Agency," and "DARPA," for the "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency." At the time referenced here, the agency was known as ARPA.

13. William Bandeen, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 19 November 1997; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 15, 21-23, 29.

14. John W. Townsend, interview, 15 October 1997; William Bandeen, interview, 19 November 1997; John Clark, phone interview with author, 18 May 1998; Harry Goett, interview, 13 February 1998.

15. United States Department of Commerce Press Release, WB 61-20, 13 November 1961, from the files of William Bandeen.

16. William Bandeen, interview, 19 November 1997; John W. Townsend, interview with author, Cabin John, Maryland, 15 October 1997; "TIROS I Plus Ten," ESSA, Vol. 5, No. 1,January 1970, 17-23; L.J. Allison, ed., "Meteorological Satellites," NASA TM 80704, June 1980, 1-7.

17. Guenter Warnecke and Wendell S. Sunderlin, "The First Color Picture of the Earth Taken from the ATS-3 Satellite," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 49, No. 2, February 1968, 75-83.

18. The difference between geosynchronous and geostationary satellites is small. A geostationary satellite will remain in exactly the same spot as the Earth rotates. A geosynchronous satellite will remain in approximately the same spot, but its orbit will oscillate slightly north to south around the equator. How much the orbit varies depends on the satellite.

19. The satellite actually became known as GOES-8 after it was successfully launched. Satellites are typically referred to with letter designations in development and only given numerical designations once they reach orbit. I refer to this project as GOES 8 throughout to avoid confusion, since that is how the satellite is now known.

20. Rick Obenschain, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20 November 1997; Vincent V. Salomonson, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 19 November 1997; William Bandeen, interview, 19 November 1997; William Bandeen, phone interview, 1 July 1998; John Klineberg, interview with author, Palo Alto, California, 26 November 1997; Jim Greaves, phone interview with author, 1 July 1998; GOES 8 project report and Launch Date records,undated, from Jim Greaves files.

21. William Bandeen, interview, 19 November 1997; Les Meredith, interview, 21 October 1997; John Boeckel, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 17 October 1997; Rudy Hanel, interview with author, Brookeville, Maryland, 24 October 1997; Vincent V. Salomonson, interview, 19 November 1997; Lewis J. Allison, et. al., "Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere from Environmental Satellites, GSFC Report X-901-77-132 Preprint, June 1977, 25-26; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 511-512.

22. NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 594-95.

23. "Landsat: Time Present, Time Past, and Now Time Future," booklet NP-1997 (09)-025-GSFC, from Darrell Williams files.

24. William Bandeen, interview, 19 November 1997; Les Meredith, interview, 21 October 1997; John Boeckel, interview, 17 October 1997; Rudy Hanel, interview, 24 October 1997; Rick Obenschain, interview, 20 November 1997; Vincent V. Salomonson, interview, 19 November 1997; Donald T. Lauer, Stanley A. Morain, and Vincent V. Salomonson, "The Landsat Program: Its Origins, Evolution, and Impacts," Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vo. 53, No. 7, July 1997, 831-838.

25. Mark Schoeberl, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 January 1998; William R. Bandeen, "Experimental Approaches to Remote Atmospheric Probing in the Infrared from Satellites," GSFC Report X-622-68-146 preprint, May 1968, 1-2; "Clouds and the Energy Cycle," Fact Sheet NF-207, January 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; NASA Space Missions Since 1958, 23, 227, 253, 330, 364; Major NASA Satellite Missions and Key Participants, Vol.. IV - 1984 and 1985, (Greenbelt, Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1986), 25-26; Dr. Edward J. Hurley and Ruthie Jones, "Nimbus 7: Observing the Atmosphere and Oceans," GSFC Booklet, December 1983, from William Bandeen files, 12-13; "Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission," Fact Sheet FS-1997(03)-003-GSFC, April 1997, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "TRMM Mission Summary," Fact Sheet, from TRMM project web pages; "A Global Eye on Tropical Rainfall: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)," Booklet, undated, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

26. Although popularly known as a "hole" in the ozone layer, the phenomenon being researched is actually just a thinning in the layer. There is no place where the ozone is completely gone.

27. Mark Schoeberl, interview, 16 January 1998; W. Henry Lambright, "NASA, Ozone and Policy-Relevant Science: The Accelerative Process," NSF Report DIR-9009827, November 1993, 1-26; Dr. Edward J. Hurley and Ruthie Jones, "Nimbus 7," 22-25; "Ozone: What is It and Why Do We Care About It?" Fact Sheet NF-198, December 1993, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "NASA's Ozone Studies," Fact Sheet NF-208, February 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files, "Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Instrument," Fact Sheet 193, September 1995, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; Claire L. Parkinson, Earth From Above: Using Color-Coded Satellite Images to Examine the Global Environment (Sausalito, CA: University Science Books, 1997), 17-32.

28. Mark Schoeberl, interview, 16 January 1998; "UARS," booklet, 1998, from Mark Schoeberl files; "Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite," Fact Sheet, January 1994, from NASA Facts On Line, NASA GSFC Web Pages; "Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Earth Probe," Fact Sheet, 22 September 1997, from NASA Facts On Line, NASA GSFC Web Pages; "Volcanoes and Global Climate Change," Fact Sheet NF 220, March 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)," Fact Sheet NF-208, January 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; W. Henry Lambright, "NASA, Ozone and Policy-Relevant Science," 22-31, Kathy Pedelty, "UARS' Amazing Journey," Earth Science News, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring/Summer 1997, 2-3, 12.

29. Mark Schoeberl, interview, 16 January 1998.

30. "Our Oceans," Fact Sheet, from data compiled from the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibition and from Peter Benchley and Judith Gradwohl, Ocean Planet: Writings and Images of the Sea (New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.), undated, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

31. "Tony Busalacchi, phone interview with author, 28 February 1998; "Polar Ice," Fact Sheet NF 212, February 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files, Lewis J. Allison, et. al, "Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere from Environmental Satellites," 20-21, 33; Claire L. Parkinson, Earth From Above, 33-53.

32. For more information on the SeaWIFS project structure, see Chapter 2.

33. For more information on the Rapid Spacecraft Procurement Initiative, see Chapter 2; Jim Adams, phone interview with author, 16 July 1998.

34. Tony Busalacchi, interview, 28 February, 1998; Vincent V. Salomonson, interview, 19 November 1997; Dorothy Zukor, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 19 November 1997; Claire L. Parkinson, Earth From Above, 77-93; Lewis J. Allison, et. al, "Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere from Environmental Satellites," 20, 35-37; Dr. Edward J. Hurley and Ruthie Jones, "Nimbus 7," 1-13; "TOPEX-Poseidon: At-A-Glance," Fact Sheet, undated, from TOPEX/Poseidon Web Pages. "Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)," Fact Sheet FS-97(03)-004-GSFC, May 1997, from GSFC Public Affairs Office Files.

35. Tony Busalacchi, interview, 28 February, 1998; Claire L. Parkinson, Earth From Above, 77-84; Dorothy Zukor, interview, 19 November 1997; "Space Based Observation of Anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific," Fact sheet, undated, from GSFC World Wide Web pages, "El Nino," Fact Sheet NF 211, Rev. April 1996, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "El Nino," Fact Sheet, undated, from TOPEX/Poseidon Prime Mission Results Introduction Web pages; "ENSO Primer," Fact Sheet, undated, from GSFC Web pages.

36. Mark Schoeberl, interview, 16 January 1998; Tony Busalacchi, interview, 28 February 1998; "Biosphere," Fact Sheet NF-223, March 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "The Greenhouse Effect," Fact Sheet NF-182, June 1993, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files; "Global Warming," Fact Sheet NF-222, March 1994, from GSFC Public Affairs Office files.

37. Robert Price, interview with author, GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, 16 January 1998; Dorothy Zukor, interview, 19 November 1997; W. Henry Lambright, "Administrative Entrepreneurship and Space Technology: The Ups and Downs of 'Mission to Planet Earth,'" Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 2, March/April 1994, 97-104; Tony Busalacchi, interview, 28 February 1998; "Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth," 1997 Fact Book, from MTPE program office files; "GSFC MPTE Lead Center," viewgraph, June 1997, from Joe Rothenberg files.

38. Discovery 5 Space Mission astronaut, as quoted in Atlas of the World (Maplewood, NJ: Hammond Incorporated, 1993), back cover.

 

Chapter 6

 

1.:"The National Aeronautics and Space Act, As Amended," 13 October 1962, Sec. 102(a), as reproduced in Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA 1958-1963, (Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1966), 305.

2. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California is dedicated to scientific research, as well, but it is operated and staffed by CalTech under contract to NASA, not by NASA directly.


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