SP-4402 Origins of NASA Names

 

[211-227] Index

 

 

AAP (Apollo Applications Program), 109
Able (launch vehicle upper stage), 5 il., 9 il., 12
ABMA. See Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Ad Hoc Committee to Name Space Projects and Objects, 67 n., 183, 199
Advanced Mercury(Gemini program), 104
Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory (AOSO), 84
Advanced Planetary Probe, 90
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 5, 6, 11, 12, 15, 17, 76, 88
Advanced Saturn (Saturn C-5; renamed Saturn V), 20
Advanced Synchronous Orbit Satellite, 36
Advanced Synchronous Satellite, 36
Advanced Syncom (synchronous communications satellite), 36
Advanced Technological Satellite, 36
AE (Atmosphere Explorer, scientific satellite), 51 il.
Aeolus ( mythological Greek god), 41
Aerobee ( sounding rocket), 122-124
Aerobee 150 and 150A, 122 il.-123
Aerobee 170 and 170A, 123, 133
Aerobee 200 and 200A, 123, 133
Aerobee 350, 122 il., 124, 127, 133
Aerobee-Hi, 123
Aerobee (Vanguard launch vehicle stage), 79
Aerojet Engineering Corp. (later Aerojet-General Corp.), 123
Aerolab Co. (later division of Atlantic Research Corp.), 125
Aeronaut ( balloon pioneers), 107
Aeronautical Satellite(AEROSAT), 47
Aeronomy Explorer (scientific satellite), 49
Aeros (GRS-A-2; aeronomy satellite), 33 il.
Aeros 2 (Aeros-B), 33, 38 n.
Aeros (mythological Greek god), 33, 69
Aeros (Synchronous Meteorological Satellite project), 33, 69-71, 79
AEROSAT (Aeronautical Satellite), 47
Aerospaceplane, 111-114
AES (Apollo Extension System), 112
AFBMD (Air Force Ballistic Missile Division), 94
AFCRL (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories), 133
Agena (Beta Centauri; star), 6-7
Agena (launch vehicle upper stage), 6 il.-7 il., 9 il., 22, 152
Agena A, 7
Agena B, 7
Agena D, 7
Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes, 103
Agriculture, Department of, 42-45, 142
Air Density Satellite (Explorer), 48
Air Force Ballistic Missile Division (AFBMD), 88-89
Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL), 133
Air ForceOne(aircraft), 103
Air Research and Development Command (ARDC), 22, 25
Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory, NACA (renamed Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory Sept. 1948), 152
Aldrin, Edwin E., Jr., 98 il.
Algol(Scout first stage), 20
Algol (star), 20
AlLpurpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings (sounding rocket). See Arcas.
Allegany Ballistics Laboratory, 131, 188
Alouette (topside sounder satellite), 7, 35
Alouette 1, 34 il., 35, 58
Alouette 2, 35, 58
Altair (Scout fourth stage), 21
Altair (star), 21
AMB (Astronomy Missions Board, NASA), 52
America (CSM-114, on Apollo 17), 100
American Indian, 125, 131, 133
American Telephone & Telegraph Co. (AT&T), 75
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 40, 75
Ames, Joseph S., 138 il., 139
Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, NACA (became Ames Research Laboratory, NASA, Oct. 1958), 139
Ames Research Center (ARC), 62, 137, 138 il., 139
AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space) laboratory, 118
AMR (Atlantic Missile Range, USAF; formerly Long Range Proving Ground; now Eastern Test Range), 149-150
AMROO (Atlantic Missile Range Operations Office, MSFC), 149
AMSAT OSCAR 7 (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio), 15, 55
Anderson, O. E., 58
Anik (Canadian Telesat telecommunications satellite), 75
Anik 1 (Telesat-A), 75
Anik 2 (Telesat-B), 75
Anik 3 (Telesat-C), 75
ANS (Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; also Netherlands Astronomical Satellite), 34 il.
ANS Program Authority, 35
Antares (LM-8, onApollol4), 100
Antares (Scout third stage), 20
Antares (star), 20
AOSO (Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory), 84
Apache (American Indian tribe), 125
Apache (sounding rocket upper stage), 124 il.-125, 138
APL (Applied Physics Laboratory), 126
Apollo (manned space program; Project Apollo), 62, 97, 98-101, 109, 113
launch vehicle, 3, 18-20, 58, 155-158
planning for, 85, 91, 104
program names, ix-x, 99-101
Center responsibility, 147, 149, 155-158
Apollo (mythological Greek god), 98 il., 99
Apollo (spacecraft), 16, 19, 98 il.-101, 102 il.104, 111
Apollo 1 (AS-204), 100
Apollo 4 (AS-501), 100-101
Apollo 7 (AS-205), 19
Apollo 8 (AS-503), 18 il., 20, 101
photo by, 96 il., 146 il.
Apollo 9 (AS 504), 100
Apollo10 (AS-505), 100
Apollo 11 (AS-506), 98 il., 100, 101, 103, 158
Apollo 12 (AS 507), x, 100
Apollo 13 (AS-508), 100
Apollo 14 (AS 509), 100
Apollo 15 (AS 510), 100
Apollo 15 Subsatellite, x
Apollo 16 (AS 511), 100
Apollo 17 (AS-512), 20, 100, 101
Apollo Applications Program (AAP), 109
Apollo Extension System (AES), 109
Apollo Saturn (AS; Apollo space vehicle and flight), x
Apollo Saturn IB
AS-201, x, 100
AS-202, 100
AS-203, 100
AS-204 (Apollol), 100
AS 205 (Apollo 7), 19
AS 210 (ASTP), 19, 97, 101-104, 147, 155
Apollo Saturn V
AS-501 (Apollo4), 100-101
AS-503 (Apollo 8), 18 il., 20, 96, 98, 101, 146
AS-504 (Apollo 9), 100
AS-505 (Apollo 10), 100
AS-506 (Apollo 11), 98 il., 100, 101, 103, 158
AS-507 (Apollo 12), x, 100
AS-508 (Apollo 13), 100
AS-509 (Apollo 14), 100
AS-510 (Apollo 15), x, 100
AS-511 (Apollo 16), 100
AS-512 (Apollo 17), 20, 100, 101
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), 19, 97, 101-102 il.-104, 147, 155
Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM, on Skylab 1), 109-110 il., 155
Apollo X (Extended Apollo), 109
Applications Explorer (satellite), 52
Applications Technology Satellite (ATS), ix, 12, 25, 30, 36-37 il., 71
Applied Physics Laboratory(APL), 123
Aquarius (LM-7, on Apollo 13), 100
Aquila ( constellation), 21
ARC. See Ames Research Center.
Arcas(soundingrocket), 123, 125
Boosted Arcas, 125
Boosted Arcas II, 125
Super Arcas, 125
Arcon(soundingrocket), 125
ARDC (Air Research and Development Command), 22, 25
Argo (mythological Greek ship), 125
Argo (sounding rocket), 125-127
Argo D-4 (Javelin), 123, 126 il.-127
Argo D-8 (Journeyman), 126 il.-127
Argonaut (Greekmythology), 107
Argus (builder of Argo, mythology), 125 n.
Ariel (ionospheric research satellite), 15, 35-36
Ariel 1 (UK-1), 35
Ariel 2 (UK-2), 36
Ariel 3 (UK-3), 3
Ariel 4 (UK-4), 34 il., 36
Ariel 5 (UK-5), 36
Ariel (spirit of the air), 35
Aries (constellation), 127
Aries (sounding rocket), 123, 127
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), 15, 17, 49, 88-89, 144, 154-155.
Development Operations Division (transferred to MSFC March 1960), 17, 154-155
ARPA. See Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Arritt, Robert D., 127
AS. See Apollo Saturn.
Asp (sounding rocket), 127, 128 il.
Asteroid Belt, 90
ASTP (Apollo-Soyuz Test Project), 19, 97, 101-102 il.-104, 147, 155
Astrobee (sounding rocket), 122-124
Astrobee 1500,122 il., 124
Astrobee F, 124
Astronaut, derivation of term, 107
Astronaut, Project (proposed name), 107
Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS; also Netherlands Astronomical Satellite), 34 il., 35
Astronomy Missions Board (AMB), NASA, 53-54
X-Ray and Gamma Ray Panel, 54
AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph Co.), 75
Atlantic 2 (Intelsat II-C; Intelsat-II F-3), 57
Atlantic 3 (Intelsat-III F-2), 57
Atlantic Missile Range, USAF (AMR; formerly Long Range Proving Ground, now Eastern Test Range), 149-150
Atlantic Missile Range Operations Office (AMROO), MSFC, 149
Atlantic Research Corp., 125
Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), 9
Atlas (launch vehicle first stage), 5, 6-7, 8 il., 9 il., 10, 11-12
Atlas (mythological Greek god), 8 il., 9
Atlas-Able (launch vehicle), 5,9 il.
Atlas-Agena, 6-7, 9 il.
Atlas-Centaur, 3, 9 il., 11il.-12, 54
Atlas-Centaur 2 (development flight), ix
Atlas-Centaur 3, ix
Atlas-Centaur 4, ix
Atlas Corp., 9
ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount), 109-110 il., 155
Atmosphere Explorer (AE; scientific satellite), 51 il.
Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space (AMPS) laboratory, 118
Atmospheric Sounding Projectile (sounding rocket). See Asp.
ATS (Applications Technology Satellite), 25, 36-37, 71
ATS 1 (ATS-B), ix, 37, 71
ATS 2 (ATS-A), ix
ATS 3 (ATS-C), 37 il, 71
photo by, 30 il.
ATS 5 (ATS-E),12
ATS 6 (ATS-F), 25, 37 il.
Aurora 7 (Mercury-Atlas 7), 108-109
Aurorae (ESRO IA satellite), 45-46 il.
Austria, 117
Auxiliary Flight Research Station, NACA (forerunner of Wallops Flight Center), 158
Azur (GRS-A; German Research Satellite-A; later renumbered GRS-A-1), 38, 39 il.
 
Bailey, Glenn F., 104
Baker, Norman L., 114 n.
Baykonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, U.S.S.R., 100
Belgium, 117
Bell Aerosystems Co., Textron Corp., 114
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., AT&T, 40, 75
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 142
Beltsville Space Center, NASA (renamed Goddard Space Flight Center May 1959), 142
Bentsen, Sen. Lloyd M., 147
Beta Centauri (star), 7
Big Joe (launch vehicle), 10 il.
Bios. See Biosatellite.
BIOS (Biological investigation of Space; reentry spacecraft), 38
Biosatellite (biological satellite), 38-39 il, 139
Biosatellite 1, 39
Biosatellite 2, 39
Biosatellite 3, 39
Black Brant (goose), 129
Black Brant (sounding rocket), 123, 128-129
Black Brant II, 129
Black Brant IVA, 129, 133
Black Brant VB,129
Black Brant VC, 128 il.-129
Blagonravov, Anatoly A., 103
Blue Scout (launch vehicle), 20
BMwF (German Ministry for Scientific Research), 33, 38, 84
Bono, Philip, 113
Boreas (ESRO IB satellite), 46,
Bossart, Karel J., 9
Bristol Aerospace Ltd., Canada, 128
British Interplanetary Society, 83, 114
Broglio, Luigi, 67, 188
Brown, John Y., 104
Brucker, Wilbur M., 49
Bumblebee (USN rocket project), 123
Buongiorno, Carlo, 67, 188
Bureau of Ships, USN, 127
Burgess, Eric, 83
Burritt, Elija H., 6-7
Byrd, Sen. Robert C., 147
 
Cajun (a Louisiana people), 131
Cajun (sounding rocket upper stage), 125, 130 il., 131, 133
California Institute of Technology (Caltech), 143-144
Callisto (Jovian moon), 90
Caltech (California Institute of Technology), 143-144
Canada, 35, 58, 75, 129
Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE), 129
Canadian Defence Research Board, 35, 58
Canadian Department of Communication, 58, 75
"Canary Bird" (nickname for Intelsat II-C; Atlantic 2), 57 n.
Canary Islands earth station, 57 n.
Cannonball (proposed passive satellite), 58
Cape Canaveral (Cape Kennedy 1963-1973), 16 il., 17 il., 35, 149
Cape Kennedy. See Cape Canaveral.
CARDE (Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment), 129
Carpenter, M. Scott, 108
CAS (Cooperative Applications Satellite), 41, 58
CAS-A (Eole), 41il., 53
CAS-C (renamed CTS-A), 58
Casper (CSM-113, on Apollo 16), 100
Castor (mythological Greek twin), 20, 104, 105 il.
Castor (Scout second stage), 20
Castor (strap-on rocket motor), 13, 15
Centaur (launch vehicle upper stage), ix, 3, 9 il., 11il.-12, 54, 56 il., 71, 152
name, 11-12
Centaur (mythological man-horse), 11-12il.
Centaurus (constellation), 6
Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES; French National Center for Space Studies) 41, 52, 72
CEPT (Conference Europeene des Postes et Telecommunications Satellite; also CETS and ECS), 47
Ceres (mythological Greek goddess; proposed satellite name), 45
CETS (Conference on European Telecommunications Satellite; also CEPT), 47
Chaffee, Roger B., 100
Challenger (LM-12, on Apollo 17), 100
Chapman, John, 58
Charles II, King of England, 159
Charlie Brown (CSM-106, on Apollo 16), 100
Chesapeake Bay Ecological Test Program, 160
Christian Science Monitor, 113
CIFAS (Consortium Industriel France-Allemand pour le Satellite Symphonie), 72
Clark, John F., 37
CM (command module). See Command and service module.
CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), 41, 52, 72
CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, CNR; National Research Council of Italy), 68
Colliers magazine, 113
Columbia (CSM-107, on Apollo II), 98il, 100
Comision Nacional de Investigacion del Espacio (CONIE), 54
Command and service module (CSM), x, 98 il, 99-100,104
CSM-104 (Gumdrop; Apollo 9), 100
CSM-106 (Charlie Brown; Apollo 10), 100
CSM-107 (Columbia; Apollo 11), 98il., 100
CSM-108 ("Yankee Clipper"; Apollo 12), 100
CSM-109 (Odyssey; Apollo 13), 100
CSM-110 (Kitty Hawk; Apollo 14), 100
CSM-111 (ASTP), 101-102 il-104
CSM-112 (Endeavour; Apollo 15), 100
CSM-113 (Casper; Apollo 16), 100
CSM-114 (America; Apollo 17), 100
Command module (CM). See Command and service module.
Commerce, Department of, 77, 158
Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), 167
Communications Satellite Corp., 56
Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), 58
Conference Europeene des Postes et Telecommunications Satellite (CEPT; also CET), 47
Conference on European Telecommunications Satellite (CETS; also CEPT), 47
Congress, U.S., 99, 137, 143, 147, 152, 154
House, 147
Committee on Public Works, 144 n.
Senate, 147
CONIE (Comision Nacional de Investigacion del Espacio, Spain), 55
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR; National Research Council of Italy), 68
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. (Convair; later Convair/Astronautics Division,General Dynamics Corp.), 9, 11-12, 22
Consortium Industriel France-Allemand pour le Satellite Symphonie (ClFAS), 72
Constellation (aircraft), 6
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp.; later Convair/Astronautics Division, General Dynamics Corp.), 9,11-12,22
Cooper, L. Gordon, Jr., 107, 109
Cooper Development Corp., 127
Cooperative Applications Satellite (CAS), 41, 53, 58
Copernicus (astronomer), 62
Copernicus (lunar crater), 85 il.
Copernicus (OAO 3, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory), 12, 61 il., 62
Cortright, Edgar M., 60, 83, 87, 93, 94, 191
COS-B (Cosmic Ray Observation Satellite), 47
COSPAR (Committee on Space Research), 167
Cross, C.A., 83
CSM. See Command and service module.
CTS-A (Communications Technology Satellite; formerly ISlS-C and CAS-C), 58
Cummings, Clifford D., 90
 
"Daughter" (lSEE-B International Sun-Earth Explorer), 52
Daytona Beach Operations, NASA, 150
Deacon (rocket motor), 131
Deal, Project, 49
Deep Space Network (DSN), 145
Defense/Space Business Daily (newsletter), 114
Defense, Department of (DOD; see also Advanced Research Projects Agency, Naval Research Laboratory, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army), 3, 5, 6, 20, 67, 68, 73, 76-77, 112, 115, 131, 167
Research and Development Board, Committee on Guided Missiles, 9
Saturn Vehicle Evaluation Committee, represented on, 17 n.
Delta (launch vehicle upper stage), 3, 12-13 il., 15, 22-23 il., 27, 75, 79, 80 il., 143
name, 22-23
Denmark, 117
DFRC (Dryden Flight Research Center new name for Flight Research Center), 140 n.
Diana (proposed name for GemIni program), 104
Dieulot, Gerard, 73
Direct Measurement Explorer (DME; scientific satellite), 50, 58
DME (Direct Measurement Explorer; scientific satellite), 50, 58
DOD. See Defense, Department of
Donnelly, John P., 43 n.
Dornberger, Walter R., 114
Douglas, Donald, Jr., 22
Douglas Aircraft Co., 5, 22, 113
Dryden, Hugh L., 106-107, 140 n.
Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC; new name for Flight Research Center), 140 n.
DSN (Deep Space Network), 145
Dyna-Soar (hypersonic boost-glide vehicle), 111
 
Eagle (LM-5, on Apollo 11), 98 il., 100
Early Bird (Intelsat I), 56-57
Earth, full-disc photo, 30 il.
Earth (proposed satellite name), 45
Earth and ocean physics applications program (EOPAP), 51, 58, 68
Earth Observations Programs, 43
Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS), 45
Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP), 43
Earth Resources Laboratory, MTF (NSTL after June 1974), 156-158
Earth Resources Observation Program, 43
Earth Resources Observation Satellite (EROS), 43
Earth Resources Program, 43
Earth Resources Survey Program, 43
Earth Resources Survey Satellite (ERS), 43
Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS; renamed Landsat), 15, 42 il.-45
Eastern Test Range, USAF (ETR; formerly Atlantic Missile Range; earlier Long Range Proving Ground), 73, 149-150
Eccentric Geophysical Observatory (EGO; satellite),63
Echo (passive communications satellite), 15, 40-41
Echo 1, 21-22, 40il.-4l
Echo 2, 7, 41
ECS (European Communications Satellite), 47
Edwards Air Force Base (Muroc AFB before Feb. 1950), 140
EGO (Eccentric Geophysical Observatory satellite), 63
Ehricke, Krafft, 11-12
Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 144 n., 154
ELDO (European Launcher Development Organization), 73
Electronics Research Center (ERC), 137, 139 ll.-140
Endeavour (CSM-112, on Apollo 15), 100
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), 153
ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi; state-owned oil agency, Italy), 67
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 158
Environmental Research Satellite (ERS), 43
Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), 48-49, 60, 77
Environmental Survey Satellite (ESSA), 48 il.-49, 60,77
Eole (CAS-A; FR-2; meteorological satellite), 41 ll., 53
EOPAP (earth and ocean physics applications program), 51, 58, 68
EOS (Earth Observatory Satellite), 45
EOS-A, 45
EOS-B, 45
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 160
ERC (Electronics Research Center), 137, 139 il.-140
ERDA (Energy Research and Development AdmInistration), 153
EREP (Earth Resources Experiment Package), 43
EROS (Earth Resources Observation Satellite), 43
ERS (Environmental Research Satellite, USAF), 43
ERS (Earth Resources Survey Satellite), 43
ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite; renamed Landsat), 42-45
ERTS 1 (ERTS-A; Landsat 1), 15 ,42 il.-43
photo by, 44 il.
ERTS-B (Landsat B), 43
Eskimo tribe, 133
ESRO. See European Space Research Organization and ESRO satellites.
ESRO (European Space Research Organization satellite), 45-47
ESRO 1A (Aurorae), 45-46 il.
ESRO 1B (Boreas), 46
ESRO 2A, 45-46, 57
ESRO 2B (IRIS I), 46-47, 57-58
ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration), 48-49, 60, 77
ESSA (Environmental Survey Satellite), 48-49, 60,77
ESSA 1, 48, 77
photo from, 48 il.
ESSA 2, 77
ESSA 5, 48 il.
ETR (Eastern Test Range, USAF; formerly Atlantic Missile Range; earlier Long Range Proving Ground), 76, 151-152
Europa II (European launch vehicle), 73
Europe, Western, 67, 72, 97, 114, 116-118, 129
European Communications Satellite (ECS), 47
European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO), 73
European Space Council, 117
European Space Research Organization (ESRO), 45-47, 51, 52, 54, 57-58, 71, 75
EXOSAT (x-ray astronomy satellite), 47
Explorer (balloon), 49
Explorer (scientific satellite), 15, 20-31, 49-52, 63, 66n., 144, 183
Aeronomy, 49
Air Density, 41, 49-50
Applications, 52
Atmosphere (AE), 51 il.
Direct Measurement (DME), 50, 58
Geodetic (GEOS), 47, 50 il.-52, 64
Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), 52
Heavy, 54
High Energy, 54
International Magnetosphere (IME), 52
International Sun-Earth (ISEE), 47, 52
International Ultraviolet (IUE), 47, 52
Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP), 50, 51 il.
Ionosphere (IE), 35, 50
Meteoroid Technology Satellite (MTS), 50
Radio Astronomy (RAE), 50
Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS), 50,52
Solar, 50
Super, 54
X-ray Astronomy, 50
Explorer I, 14 il., 15, 49, 50 il., 79, 89, 144, 167
Explorer 2 (ionosphere direct measurement satellite),35
Explorer II (gamma ray astronomy satellite), 50 il.
Explorer 20 (lE-A; "Topsi"; Ionosphere Explorer),35
Explorer 25 (Injun 4; Air Density Explorer), 52
Explorer 29 (GEOS I; GEOS-A; Geodetic Satellite), 50 il.-51
Explorer 31 (DME-A; Direct Measurement Explorer), 58
Explorer 32 (AE-B; Atmosphere Explorer), 51 il.
Explorer 34 (IMP-F; Interplanetary Monitoring Platform), 51 il.
Explorer 36 (GEOS 2; GEOS-B; Geodetic Satellite), 51
Explorer 40 (Injun 5), 52
Explorer 42 (Uhuru; SAS-A), 50, 68
Explorer 52 (Hawkeye I), 21, 52
Extended Apollo (Apollo X), 109
 
FAA (Federal Aviation Administration, 47
Faget, Maxime A., 10, 15-16
Fairchild Stratos Corp., 66
Faith 7 (Mercury-Atlas 9), 109
Falcon (LM-l0, on Apollo 15), 100
"Fat Albert" (sounding rocket), 127
FCC (Federal Communications Commission), 79
Federal Aviation AdmInistration (FAA), 47
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 79
Fiorio, Franco, 67, 188
Fletcher, James C., 117, 158
Flight Research Center (FRC; renamed Dryden Flight Research Center, 1976), 137, 140, 141 il.
FOE (Frog Otolith Experiment), 62
FR-1 (FR-1A; French Satellite No. 1), 52-53 il.
FR-1B, 53
FR-2. See Eole.
France, 41, 52-53, 72-73, 117
FRC (Flight Research Center; renamed Dryden Flight Research Center, DFRC, 1976), 137, 140, 141il.
Freedom 7 (Mercury-Redstone 3), ix, 16 il., 107-108
French Guiana 73
"French Satellite." See Eole.
"French Satellite No. 1." See FR-1.
Friendship 7 (Mercury-Atlas 6), ix, 8 il., 108 il.
Frog Otolith Experiment (FOE), 62
 
Galactic Jupiter Probe, 90
GALCIT (Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, Caltech; forerunner of Jet Propulsion Laboratory), 143
GALCIT Rocket Research Project, 143-144
GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Project), 71
GATE (GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment), 71
GATV (Gemini Agena Target Vehicle), 7 il., 25
Gemini (constellation), 20, 104
Gemini (manned space program; Project Gemini), ix-x, 7, 25, 97, 104-106, 147
program names, ix-x, 104-106, 200
Gemini (mythological Greek twins), 104-105 il.-106
Gemini (spacecraft), 25, 104-106, 107 il.
Gemini 3 ("Molly Brown"), 106
Gemini 4, 106
Gemini 6, photo from, 105 il.
Gemini 7, 105 il.
Gemini 8, photo from, 7 il.
Gemini Agenda Target Vehicle (GATV), 7 il., 25
Gemini-Titan 1, x, 24 il.
Gemini-Titan 2, x
General Dynamics Corp., Convair/Astronautics Division, 11, 22
General Electric Co., 38
Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite. See GEOS (NASA).
Geodetic Explorer Satellite. See GEOS (NASA).
Geodetic Satellite. See GEOS (NASA).
Geodynamic Experimental Ocean Satellite (GEOS-C, NASA), 47, 51-52, 68
Geography of the Heavens (book), 6
GEOS (ESRO Geostationary Scientific Satellite), 47, 52
GEOS (NASA Geodetic Satellite; Geodetic Explorer Satellite; Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite), 47, 50-52, 64
GEOS 1 (Explorer 29), 50 il.-51
GEOS 2 (Explorer 36), 51
GEOS-C (NASA Geodynamic Experimental Ocean Satellite), 47, 51-52, 68
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), 71
Geostationary Scientific Satellite (GEOS, ESRO), 47, 52
German Ministry for Scientific Research (BMwF), 33, 38, 84
German Research Satellite (GRS)
GRS-A (GRS-A-1). See Azur.
GRS-A-2. See Aeros.
Germany, West (Federal Republic of Germany), 12, 33, 38-39, 72-73, 84, 117, 127
Gesellschaft fur Weltraumforschung (GFW; West German Space Agency), 72
GFW. See Gesellschaft fur Weltraumforschung.
Gilruth, Robert R., 107
GlSS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies), 143
Glenn, John H., Jr., 8, 108 il.
Glennan, T. Keith, 106-107
Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP), 71
Goddard, Robert H., 2 il., 83, 121, 142 il., 143
Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GlSS), 143
Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), 35, 73, 84, 124, 137, 142-143 il., 158
Launch Operations Division, 150
name, 142-143
Theoretical Division, 143
Space Task Group, 104, 107, 147
GOES-A (SMS-C; Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), 71
Golden Fleece (Greek mythology), 107, 125
Goldstone antenna, 145 il.
Greb (DOD satellite), 167
Grissom, Virgil l., 100, 105, 108
GRS-A (GRS-A-l). See Azur.
GRS-A-2. See Aeros.
GSFC. See Goddard Space Flight Center.
Gualtierotti, Torquato, 62
Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, Caltech (GALClT; forerunner of Jet Propulsion Laboratory), 143
Gumdrop (CSM-I04, on Apollo 9), 100
 
Hawaii, 57
Hawk (antiaircraft missile), 131
Hawk (sounding rocket), 130 il., 131, 133
Hawkeye 1 (Explorer 52), 21, 52
HCMM (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; Applications Explorer satellite), 52
HEAO (High Energy Astronomy Observatory), 54
HEAO-A, 54
Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM; Applications Explorer satellite), 52
Heavy Explorer. See High Energy Astronomy Observatory.
"Heliocentric" (ISEE-C; International Sun-Earth Explorer), 52
Helios (mythological Greek god), 84
Helios (Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory, AOSO), 84
Helios (solar probe), 25, 84
Helios 1, 12, 25, 84il.
Helios B, 84
HEOS (Highly Eccentric Orbit Satellite), 54
HEOS 1, 47, 54-55 il.
HEOS 2, 54
Hercules Powder Co., 133
Hermes (mythological Greek god), 106
HEX (Heavy Explorer; High Energy Explorer; proposed names), 54
High Energy A. See High Energy Astronomy Observatory.
High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO), 25, 53 il.-54
High Speed Flight Research Station, NACA (High Speed Flight Station, 1954-1958; HSFS, NASA, Oct. 1958; Flight Research Center, Sept. 1959; Dryden Flight Research Center, Jan. 1976), 140
Highly Eccentric Orbit Satellite (HEOS), 47, 54, 55 il.
Hirsch, Richard, 49
HL-10 (lifting body), 111
Homing All the Way Killer (Hawk antiaircraft missile), 131
Hughes Aircraft Co., 36, 79, 113
Human Factor Systems program, 63
Huntsville Facility (became Marshall Space Flight Center March 1960), 154
Hurricane Alma 61, il.
 
IE (Ionosphere Explorer; scientific satellite), 35, 50
IGY (International Geophysical Year), 27, 40, 49, 78-79, 88, 121
lME (International Magnetosphere Explorer) program, 52
IMP (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform; Explorer satellite), 50, 51 il.
Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS), 49, 60, 71, 76-78
India, 37
Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 104
Injun 1 (scientific satellite), 52
Injun 2, 52
Injun 3, 52
Injun 4 (Explorer 25), 52
Injun 5 (Explorer 40), 52
Injun F (redesignated Hawkeye 1; Explorer 52), 52
Instituto Nacional de Technica Aeroespacial (INTA), 55
INTA (Instituto Nacional de Technica Aeroespacial), 55
INTASAT (Spanish ionosphere research satellite), 15, 54-55 il.
INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite Organization; Consortium before Feb. 1973), 56-57
Intelsat (communications satellite), 15, 56-57
Intelsat I (Early Bird; communications satellite), 56-57
Intelsat Il series, 57
Intelsat II-A (Lani Bird), 57
Intelsat II-B (Pacific 1), 57
Intelsat II-C (Intelsat-II F-3; Atlantic 2), 57
Intelsat II-D (Intelsat-II F-4; Pacific 2), 57
Intelsat III series, 57
Intelsat Ill-A (Intelsat-III F-1), 57
Intelsat-III F-2 (Atlantic 3), 57
Intelsat IV series, 12, 56 il., 57
Intelsat-IV F-2, 57
Intelsat-IV F-8, 57
Interim upper stage (IUS; for Space Shuttle), 115
Interior, Department of the, 42-45, 153, 158
International Council of Scientific Unions, 167
International Geophysical Year (IGY), 27, 49, 49, 78-79, 88, 121
International Magnetosphere Explorer (IME) program, 52
International Radiation Investigation Satellite (IRIS 1; ESRO 2B), 46-47, 57-58
International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS), 35, 58, 59 il.
International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE; scientific satellite), 47, 52
International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Consortium before Feb. 1973; INTELSAT), 56-57
International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE; originally SAS-D), 47, 52
International Years of the Quiet Sun, 121
Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP; Explorer satellite), 50, 51 il.
Intrepid (LM-6, on Apollo 12), x, 100
Io (Jovian moon), 89 il.
Ionosphere Explorer (IE; scientific satellite), 35, 50
Iowa, Univ. of, 52
Iris (sounding rocket), 58, 125
IRIS 1 (ESR0 2B; International Radiation Investigation Satellite), 46-47, 57-58
ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer; scientific satellite), 47, 52
ISEE-A ("Mother"), 52
ISEE-B ("Daughter"), 52
ISEE-C ("Heliocentric"), 52
Isis (ancient Egyptian goddess), 58
ISIS (International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies) project, 35, 58
ISIS 1, 58
ISIS 2, 58, 59 il.
ISIS-C. See CTS-A.
ISIS-X (launch), 58
Italian National Research Council (Consiglio Nacionale delle Ricerche, CNR), 68
Italian Research-Oriented Satellite (SIRIO). 68-69
Italian Space Commission, 67, 188
Italy, 62, 67-68, 117, 188
ITOS (Improved Tiros Operational Satellite), 49, 63, 71, 76-78
ITOS 1 (Tiros-M), 63, 77
ITOS-A (NOAA 1), 49, 63, 77
ITOS-B, 76 il.
ITOS-D (N0AA 2),77
ITOS-F (N0AA 3), 77
ITOS-G (N0AA 4), 15, 55, 77-78
IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer), 47, 52
IUS (Space Shuttle interim upper stage), 115
 
Jacobowski, Walter, 94
Jahn, Gunnar, 155 il.
Japan, 71
Jason (Greek mythology), 125
Jason (sounding rocket), 125
Javelin (Argo D-4; sounding rocket), 123, 126 il.-127, 133
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 15, 49, 89, 93, 121, 137, 143-145
name, 143-145
Johns Hopkins University, 123, 139
Johnson, President Lyndon B., 146 iI, 147, 149
Johnson Space Center (JSC; Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973), 103, 137, 146 Il., 147, 158
Mission Operations Control Room, 146 il.
name, 147
Jones, Alton E.,73
Jones, Lloyd E., Jr., 67 n.
Journeyman (Argo D-8; sounding rocket), 126 il.- 127
JPL. See Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
JSC. See Johnson Space Center.
Juno (launch vehicle), 14-15,16
Juno I, 14 il., 15, 49
Juno II, 15, 17
Juno III (concept), 17
Juno IV (concept), 17
Juno V, 15, 17
Juno (mythological Roman goddess), 14 il., 15
Jupiter (intercontinental ballistic missile), 15, 16, 17
Jupiter C (Jupiter Composite Reentry Test Vehicle), 15, 17, 49
Jupiter (mythological Roman god), 15
Jupiter (planet), 17,87, 89 il., 90
 
Kaesmeier, Karl, 84
Keefer, Eugene C., 12
Keldysh, Mstislav V., 103
Kennedy, President John F., 97, 99, 147, 148 il., 149
Kennedy, Cape. See Cape Canaveral.
Kennedy Space Center (KSC), 105, 137, 148 il., 149-150
Launch Complex 34, 18 il.
NASA Daytona Beach Operations, 150
Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), 98 il., 148 il.
Western Test Range Operations Division, 150
Kenya, Africa, 50
Kissinger, Henry A., 103
Kitty Hawk (CSM-110, on Apollo 14), 100
Koelle, Heinz H., 111
Kosygin, Premier Aleksey N. (U.S.S.R.), 103
Kronos (proposed name for Saturn V), 20
KSC. See Kennedy Space Center.
Kupperian, James E., Jr., 63
 
LAGEOS (Laser Geodynamic Satellite), 58-59 il.-63, 68
Landsat (Earth Resources Technology Satellite, new name, see also ERTS)
Landsat 1 (formerly ERTS 1), 43n.
Landsat 2 (formerly ERTS-B), 43 n.
Langley, Samuel P., 150, 151il.
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, NACA (Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 1920-1948; Langley Research Center, NASA, Oct. 1958), 20, 49, 149, 150
Auxiliary Flight Research Station, 158
Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD), 131, 158
Station, 159
Langley Research Center (LaRC), 10, 15, 94, 131, 137, 149, 147, 150, 151 il.
name, 150
Lani Bird (Intelsat II-A), 57
LaRC. See Langley Research Center.
Large Space Telescope (LST), 116
Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS), 58-59 il.-63
Launch Operations Directorate, MSFC (became Launch Operations Center March 1962; Kennedy Space Center Nov. 1963), 149
Test Support Office, 152-153
LDEF (Long-Duration Exposure Facility; satellite), 116
LEM (lunar excursion module), 100
Leonov, Aleksey A., 102
LeRC. Sec Lewis Research Center.
Lewis, George W., 152, 153il.
Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, NACA (became Lewis Research Center, NASA, Oct. 1958), 152
Lewis Research Center (LeRC), 137, 152il.-153
Plum Brook Station, 153
Liberty Bell 7 (Mercury-Redstone 4), 105-106, 108
Little Joe (launch vehicle), 10, 14 il., 15-16
Little Joe II,16
LM. See Lunar module.
Lockheed Aircraft Corp., 113
Lockheed Missiles Systems Division (now Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., Inc.), 6-7
Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), 116
Long Range Proving Ground (became Atlantic Missile Range, then Eastern Test Range), 149
Low, George M., 43 n., 100, 103, 111 n.
LRV (lunar roving vehicle, Rover), 100, 101 il.
LST (Large Space Telescope), 116
LTTAT (long-tank thrust-augmented Thor), 13, 22-23 il.
LTTAT-Delta (long-tank thrust-augmented Thor-Delta), 13, 22-23 il.
Lunar excursion module (LEM), 100
Lunar module (LM), 98 il., 99-100
LM-3 (Spider; Apollo 9), 100
LM-4 (Snoopy; Apollo 10), 100
LM-5 (Eagle; Apollo 11), 98 il., 100
LM-6 (Intrepid; Apollo 12), x, 100
LM-7 (Aquarius; Apollo 13), 100
LM-8 (Antares; Apollo 14), 100
LM-10 (Falcon; Apollo 15), 100
LM-11 (Orion; Apollo 16), 100
LM-12 (Challenger; Apollo 17), 100
Lunar Orbiter (space probe), 83, 84-85 il., 91, 150
Lunar Orbiter 2, photo by, 85il.
Lunar roving vehicle (LRV; Rover), 100, 101il.
 
M2 (lifting Body), 111
McDonnell Aircraft Corp., 101
McGolrick, Joseph E., 115
MAF (Michoud Assembly Facility), 155-156il.
Mailgram, 79
Major (missile), 16
Malemute (sounding rocket upper stage), 132 il., 133
Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). See Johnson Space Center.
Mariner (interplanetary probe), 12, 83, 86-87, 145
Mariner 2 (P-38), 87
Mariner 4 (Mariner D), 87
Mariner 5 (Mariner E), 87
Mariner 6 (Mariner F), 87
Mariner 7 (Mariner G), 87
Mariner 8 (Mariner H), 87
Mariner 9 (Mariner I), 86 il., 87
photo by, 86 il.
Mariner 10 (Mariner J), 87
photo by, 86 il.
Mariner Jupiter-Saturn, 87
MAROTS (Maritime Orbital Test Satellite), 47
Mars (planet), x, 15, 25, 87, 93-94
Mars 2 (U.S.S.R. space probe), x
Mars 3, x
Marshall, Gen. George C. (USA), 154-155 il.
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), 66, 111-112, 116, 137, 149, 154 il.-157
Launch Operations Directorate, 149, 150
Atlantic Missile Range Operations Office (AMROO), 149
Missile Firing Laboratory, 149
Test Support Office, 150
name, 154-155
"The Martian Probe" (symposium paper), 83
Martin Co., 22, 25
Mathews, Charles W., 43 n.
Mercury (manned space program: Project Mercury), ix-x, 9, 10, 16, 97, 99, 101, 106-107 il.-109, 147, 199
Advanced Mercury (Gemini), 101
Mercury Mark II (Gemini), 104-105
program names, ix-x, 106-109, 199
Mercury (mythological Roman god), 106,108 il.
Mercury (planet), 86il., 87
Mercury (spacecraft), 10, 14 il., 15, 104-106, 107 il.-108 il.
Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7), ix, 8 il., 108il.
Mercury-Atlas 7 (Aurora 7), 108-109
Mercury Atlas 8 (Sigma 7), 109
Mercury-Atlas 9 (Faith 7), 109
Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7), ix, 16 il., 107-108
Mercury-Redstone 4 (Liberty Bell 7), 105-106, 108
Merritt Island Launch Area ( MILA), NASA, 149
Meteoroid Technology Satellite (MTS; Explorer), 50
METEOSAT (meteorological satellite), 47
Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), 155-156il.
Michoud Operations (renamed Michoud Assembly Facility July 1965), 155
Michoud Ordnance Plant, 155
MILA (Merritt Island Launch Ares, NASA), 149
Milan, University of, 62
Minuteman (intercontinental ballistic missile), 20, 127
Miranda (UK-X4; experimental satellite), 36
Mississippi Test Facility (MTF; became National Space Technology Laboratories June 1974), 156-157 il. -158
Mississippi Test Operations (renamed Mississippi Test Facility July 1965), 156
Moffett Field Laboratory, NACA (forerunner of Ames Research Center), 137
"Molly Brown" (Gemini 3), 105-106
"Mother" (lSEE-A; International Sun-Earth Explorer), 52
MSC (Manned Spacecraft Center). See Johnson Space Center.
MSFC. See Marshall Space Flight Center.
MTF (Mississippi Test Facility), 159-161
MTS (Meteoroid Technology Satellite; Explorer), 50
Mueller, George E., 19, 114
Muroc Air Force Base (Edwards AFB after Feb. 1950), 149
Muroc Flight Test Unit, NACA (forerunner of Flight Research Center), 149
Muroc test facility, USAF, 149
MX-1593 (USAF Atlas project), 9
 
NACA. See National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Nagy, Alex P., 101, 200
NAS (National Academy of Sciences), 62
NASA/Industry Program Plans Conference, 99
NASC (National Aeronautics and Space Council),147
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 62, 167
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), 20,49, 49, 111, 132, 139, 149, 150, 152, 158-159
National Aeronautics and Space Council (NASC), 147
National Defense Research Council, 131
National Geographic Society, 49
National Launch Vehicle Program, 3
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 48-49, 63, 68, 71, 77, 153
National Operational Environmental Satellite System, 71 n.
National Operational Meteorological Satellite System (NOMSS), 71
National Science Foundation, 153
National Security Council, Ad Hoc Committee on Outer Space, 49
National Space Club, 114
National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL; Mississippi Test Facility before June 1974), 137, 157 il.-158
Natural Resources Program, 43
Naugle, John E., 87 n.
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 79, 127, 142
Netherlands, 35, 117
Ministry of Economic Affairs, 35
Ministry of Education and Science, 35
Netherlands Astronomical Satellite (Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, ANS), 34 il., 35
Newell, Homer E., 36-37
Nike (antiaircraft missile), 133
Nike (mythological Greek goddess), 132il, 133
Nike (sounding rocket first stage), 124 il., 127, 128il, 130il., 131, 132il., 133
Nike-Apache (sounding rocket), 123, 124 il., 133
Nike-Asp, 127, 128il.
Nike-Cajun, 123, 124, 130il., 133
Nike-Hawk, 123, 31, 133
Nike-Javelin, 127
Nike-Malemute, 123, 132il., 133
Nike-Tomahawk, 123, 132il., 133
Nimbus (meteorological satellite), 7, 63
Nimbus 1 (Nimbus A), 60, 61il.
Nimbus 2 (Nimbus C), 63
Nimbus 3 (Nimbus B2), 63
Nimbus 4 (Nimbus D), 63
Nimbus 5 (Nimbus E), 63
Nix Olympica (Martian mountain), 92il.
Nixon, President Richard M., 103, 114-115, 116, 147
NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NOAA satellites.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite), 49, 63, 77
NOAA 1 (ITOS-A), 49, 63, 77
NOAA 2 (ITOS-D), 77
NOAA 3 (ITOS-F), 77
NOAA 4 (ITOS-G), 15, 55, 77-78
Nobel Peace Prize, 155
NOMSS (National Operational Meteorological Satellite System), 71
North Eastern Office, NASA, 149
NRL (Naval Research Laboratory), 79, 127, 142
NSTL (National Space Technology Laboratories), 137, 157 il.-158
 
OA (Office of Applications, NASA), 43 n., 58
OAO (Orbiting Astronomical Observatory), 63-62
OAO 1 (OAO-Al), 62
OAO 2 (OAO-A2), ix, 12, 62
OAO 3 (Copernicus; OAO-C, 12, 61 il., 62
OART (Office of Advanced Research and Technology, NASA), 37
Ocean (a Titan, Roman mythology), 25 il.
Odyssey (CSM-109, on Apollo 13), 100
Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART), NASA, 37
Office of Applications (OA), NASA, 43 n., 58
Office of International Affairs, NASA, 58
Office of Launch Vehicles, NASA, 115
Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF), NASA, 19, 100, 104-105
Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), NASA, 36-37
Office of Space Vehicle Research and Technology, NASA, 66
OFO (Orbiting Frog Otolith satellite), 62il.-63
OGO (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory), 7, 63 il.
Ohio National Guard, 153
Olympia (proposed West German satellite), 73
OMSF (Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA), 19, 100, 104-105
OOS (Space Shuttle orbit-to-orbit stage), 115
Orbit-to-orbit stage (OOS; for Space Shuttle), 15
"Orbital Radio Relays" (article), 40
Orbital Test Satellite (OTS), 47
Orbital Workshop. See Skylab.
Orbiter. See Lunar Orbiter, Pioneer, Space Shuttle, Viking (Mars probe).
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), ix, 12, 63-61 il.-62
Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) satellite, 62 il.-63
Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO), 7, 63
Orbiting Observatory series, 60-61
Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAR), 15, 55
Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO), 15, 60-61 il.
Orion (LM-11, on Apollo 16), 100
Orpheus (proposed name for Gemini program), 101
OSCAR (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio)
OSCAR 7 (AMSAT OSCAR 7), 15, 55
OSO (Orbiting Solar Observatory), 15, 63-64
OSO 1 (S-16), 61
OSO 3 (OSO E), 64 il.
OSO 7 (OSO-H), 65
OSSA (Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA), 36-37
O'Sullivan, William J., Jr., 40-41
OTS (Orbital Test Satellite), 47
Ousley, Gilbert W., 84
 
Pacific 1 (Intelsat II-B), 57
Pacific 2 (Intelsat II-D; Intelsat-II F-4), 57
Pacific Launch Operations Office (PLOO), NASA, 150
Pacific Missile Range, USAF (PMR; now Western Test Range), 35, 150
Test Support Office, Launch Operations Directorate, 150
PAGEOS (Passive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite) project, 64-65
Pageos 1, 41, 65 il.
Paine, Thomas O., 103, 116-117
PARD. See Pilotless Aircraft Research Division.
Passive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite (PAGEOS), 41, 64-65 il.
Pearl River Test Site (early designation for Mississippi Test Facility), 156 n.
Pegesus (meteoroid satellite), 65 il.-67
Pegasus 1 ,67
Pegasus 2, 67
Pegasus 3, 67
Pegasus (winged horse, Greek mythology), 66
Perseus (constellation), 20
Pickering, William H., 15, 90
Pierce, John R., 40
Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD), Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 131, 158-159
Pilotless Aircraft Research Station (became Wallops Station, NASA, Oct. 1958), 159
Pioneer (space probe), 12, 15, 83, 88-90,139
Pioneer 1, ix, 88-89
Pioneer 2, 89
Pioneer 3, ix, 89, 144
Pioneer 4, 89, 144
Pioneer 5 (F-3), 89
Pioneer 6 (Pioneer A), 89
Pioneer 7 (Pioneer B), 89-90
Pioneer 8 (Pioneer C), 89-90
Pioneer 9 (Pioneer D), 89-90
Pioneer 10 (Pioneer F), 90
photo by, 89 il.
Pioneer 11 (Pioneer G), 88 il., 90
Pioneer Saturn. See Pioneer 11.
Pioneer Venus, 90
Planetary Programs Office, NASA, 94
PLOO (Pacific Launch Operations Office, NASA), 150
Plum Brook Station, LeRC, 153
Space Power Facility, 153
PMR (Pacific Missile Range, USAF; now Western Test Range), 35, 150
POGO (Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory),63
Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), 63
Polaris (intercontinental ballistic missile), 7, 20
Pollux (mythological Greek twin), 104, 105 il.
Pollux (rocket motor), 16
Pressly, Eleanor, 125
Project Designation Committee, NASA, 183-184
launch vehicle names, 19, 20
manned space flight names, 100, 103, 109, 111 n., 116
satellite names, 38, 43 n., 44-45, 52, 66
space probe names, 94, 183-184
Purser, Paul E.,16
 
Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE; scientific satellite), 50
Radio Corporation of America (now RCA Corp.), 76
RAE (Radio Astronomy Explorer; scientific satellite), 50
RAM (Research and Applications Module; Spacelab forerunner), 116
Ranger (lunar probe), 83, 84, 90-91, 93, 145
Ranger 4 (P-35), 91
Ranger 7 (Ranger B), 91 il.
Ranger 8 (Ranger C), 91
Ranger 9 (Ranger D),91
photo by, 91 il.
Ranger (program; Project Ranger), 84, 90-91, 145
Ranger (truck), 90
RCA Corp., 76
"The Recoverable, Reusable Space Shuttle" (address), 114
Recruit (rocket), 16, 22
Redstone (intermediate-range ballistic missile), 16, 149
Redstone (launch vehicle first stage), ix, 15, 16 il., 105-108
Redstone Arsenal, 16, 154
Relay (active repeater communications satellite), 15, 31, 66 il.
Relay 1 (A-15), 67
Relay 2 (A-16), 67
Rendezvous (periodical), 114
"Rendock" (rendezvous and docking mission), 103
Research and Applications Module (RAM; Spacelab forerunner), 116
Reusable Orbital Module Booster and Utility Shuttle (ROMBUS), 113
Rockwell International Corp., 111 n.
Rogers, William P., 103
Roman, Nancy G., 60
ROMBUS (Reusable Orbital Module Booster and Utility Shuttle), 113
Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 139
Rosen, Josephine (Mrs. Milton W.), 79
Rosen, Milton W., 12, 79
Rover (lunar roving vehicle; LRV), 100, 101il.
Rowland, Joe, 22, 25
 
S-I (Saturn I first stage), 19, 187
S-IB (Saturn IB first stage), 19, 155
S-IC (Saturn V first stage),20, 155-156il.-158
S-II (Saturn V second stage),20, 156-158
S-IV (Saturn I second stage), 19, 187
S-IVB
Saturn IB second stage, 19, 20, 109
Saturn V third stage, 20, 109
S-V (Saturn C-1 stage), 187
Saint Mark, 67
Saliga, Stephen A., 88
San Marco launch platform, 50, 67-68
San Marco (U.S.-Italy satellite project), 20, 22, 67-68, 188
San Marco 1 (Italian satellite), 66 il., 67-68
San Marco 2, 67-68
San Marco 3, 68
San Marco 4, 68
Sandia Laboratories, 127, 133
SAROS (Satellite de Radiodiffusion pour Orbit Stationnaire), 73
SAS (Small Astronomy Satellite; Explorer), 50, 52
SAS-A (Explorer 42; Uhuru), 50, 68
SAS-D (International Ultraviolet Explorer; IUE), 47, 52
Satellite de Radiodiffusion pour Orbit Stationnaire (SAROS), 73
Satellite ltaliano Ricerche Orientate (SIRIO), 68-69
Saturn (launch vehicle), 17-21, 58, 109, 155-158
Advanced Saturn (see also Saturn V), 20
Saturn A, 19
Saturn B, 19
Saturn C,19
C-1 (see also Saturn I), 19, 187
C-1B (see also Saturn IB), 19, 187
C-3, 19
C-4, 19
C-5 (see also Saturn V), 19-20
Saturn I, x, 15, 17 il., 19, 66, 109
Uprated Saturn I (see also Saturn IB), 19
Saturn IB, x, 3, 17-18 il., 19, 20, 100, 104, 155
Saturn V, x, 3, 18 il., 19-20, 94 n., 100, 109, 111-112, 148 il., 155-158
Saturn (mythological Roman god), 17, 18 il.
Saturn (planet), 17, 87, 90
Saturn Apollo, x
Saturn Vehicle Evaluation Committee (Silverstein Committee), 17-19
Schilling, G. F., 60
Schirra, Walter M., Jr., 109
Schumann, Maurice, 73
Schumann, Robert, 73
Science Advisory Committee, President's, 113
Scorpio (constellation), 21
Scout (launch vehicle), 3, 20-21il., 35, 38, 47, 150, 160
Blue Scout, 20
San Marco Scout 1, 67
Scout E, 21
Seamans, Robert C., Jr., 20, 37, 104, 200
SEASAT (Specialized Experimental Applications Satellite), 43 n., 68-69il.
SEASAT User Working Group, 68
SEOS (Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite), 45
Sergeant (launch vehicle first stage), 22
Service module (SM). See Command and service module.
SEX (Super Explorer, proposed name), 54
Sheldon, Courtney, 113
Shepard, Alan B., Jr., 16, 108
Shotput (launch vehicle), 21 il.-22, 40, 188
Sigma 7 (Mercury Atlas 8), 109
Silverstein, Abe, 17 n., 67, 99, 106
Silverstein Committee (Saturn Vehicle Evaluation Committee), 17-19
Simpson, George L., Jr., 20
SIRIO (Satellite ltaliano Ricerche Orientate), 68-69
Skylab (Orbital Workshop program; Project Skylab), 19, 43, 68, 97, 109-111, 129, 147, 155, 158
name, 109-111
Skylab 1 (SL-1; Orbital Workshop), 20, 97, 109-110 il.-111, 129, 155
Skylab 2 (SL-2; manned mission), 19, 109
Skylab 3 (SL-3), 19, 111
Skylab 4 (SL-4), 19, 111
Skynet (U.K. military communications satellite), 36
Skynet I series, 36
Skynet II series, 36
SL-1, SL-2, etc. See Skylab 1, etc.
Slayton, Donald K., 102 il.
SM (service module). See Command and service module.
Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS; Explorer), 50, 52
Smith, Rep. H. Allen, 144 n.
Smith, H. Allen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (proposed name), 144 n.
Smithsonian Institution, 150
SMS (Synchronous Meteorolgical Satellite), 33, 69-71
SMS 1 (SMS-A), 71
SMS-B, 70 il., 71
SMS-C (GOES-A), 71
Snoopy (LM-4, on Apollo 10), 100
Solar Explorer (scientific satellite), 50
Sortie Can (Spacelab forerunner), 116
Sortie Lab. See Spacelab.
Soviet Academy of Sciences, 103
Soyuz (Soviet spacecraft), 101-102 il.-104
Space Flight Research Center (proposed), 159
Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment satellite (SPHlNX), 71
Space Shuttle, 3, 45, 54, 58, 97, 111-112 il.-113 il., 118, 147, 150, 155-158
Conference, 114, 117
name, 111-114
Steering Group, 114
Task Group, 114
"Space Shuttle of the Future: The Aerospaceplane" (article), 114
Space Task Group, NASA (forerunner of Manned Space Center), 104, 107, 147
Space Task Group, President's, 101, 114, 115, 116
Space Technology Laboratories, Inc., 5, 89
Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN; now STDN), 143
Space Transporter (European proposal), 114
Space Tug, 115-116
Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN; formerly STADAN), 143
Spacelab, 97, 115, 116-117 il.-118
Spaceplane (proposed name), 111 n., 115 n.
Spain, 54-55 ,117
Specialized Experimental Applications Satellite (SEASAT), 43 n., 68-69 il.
SPHINX (Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment satellite), 71
Spider (LM-3, on Apollo 9) , 100
Sputnik I (U.S.S.R. satellite), 49, 167
STADAN (Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network; now STDN), 143
START (USAF reentry program), 114
STDN (Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network; formerly STADAN), 143
Steelman, Donald L., 109
Stoney, William E., Jr., 20
Super Explorer. See High Energy Astronomy Observatory.
Survey (proposed satellite name), 45
Surveyor (lunar probe), 12, 83, 84, 85, 91, 92 il., 93, 145
Surveyor 1 (Surveyor A), 93
Surveyor 3 (Surveyor C), 93
Surveyor 5 (Surveyor E), 92il., 93
Surveyor 6 (Surveyor F), 93
Surveyor 7 (Surveyor G), 93
Surveyor Orbiter, 85
Switzerland, 117
Symphonie (Franco-German communications satellite), 72 il.-73
Symphonie I (Symphonie-A), 72 il., 73
Symphonie B, 73
Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite (SEOS), 45
Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS), 33, 69-70 il.-71
Syncom (synchronous communications satellite), 15, 72 il., 73
Syncom 1 (A-25), 73
Syncom 2 (A-26), 73
Syncom 3 (A-27), 73
 
TAD (thrust-augmented Delta). Sec Thor-Delta.
TAlD (thrust-augmented improved Delta). See Thor-Delta.
TAT (thrust-augmented Thor). See Thor and Thor-Delta.
TAT-Delta. See Thor and Thor-Delta.
TD (ESRO Thor-Delta solar astronomy satellite) project, 75
TD-1 (satellite), 75
TD-2, 75
TD-1A, 47, 74 il., 75
TE-364-4 (Thor-Delta third stage), 135
Telesat (Canadian telecommunications satellite), 75
Telesat-A (Anik 1), 74 il., 75
Telesat-B (Anik 2), 75
Telesat-C (Anik 3), 75
Telesat Canada (corporation), 75
Television and Infra-Red Observation Satellite (TIROS, later Tiros; meteorological satellite), vii, 7, 15, 31, 48, 69, 76-78
name, vii, 76-78
Telstar (active repeater communications satellite), 15, 75
Telstar 1 (A-40), 23il., 75il.
Telstar 2 (A-41), 75
The Tempest (play), 35
Tennessee, University of, Space institute, 114
Terrier (antiaircraft missile), 133
Terrier (sounding rocket first stage), 133
Terrier-Malemute (sounding rocket), 123, 133
Textron Corp., Bell Aerosystems Co., 114
Thibodaux, Joseph G.,Jr., 131
Thiokol Chemical Corp. (later Thiokol Corp.), 125, 133
Elkton Division, 131
Thor (intermediate-range ballistic missile), 22
Thor (launch vehicle first stage), 5 il., 6 il., 7, 12-13 il., 15, 22-23 il.
name, 22-23
thrust-augmented (TAT), 12, 13 il., 22
long-tank thrust-augmented (LTTAT, or Thorad), 13, 22-23 il.
Thor (mythological Norse god), 22, 23 il.
Thor-Able (launch vehicle), 5 il., 12, 188
Thor-Agena, 6 il.-7, 22, 58
thrust-augmented, 22
Thor-Delta, 3, 12-13 il., 15, 22-23 il., 75, 79, 143
name, 12-13, 22-23
long-tank thrust-augmented (LTTAT-Delta), 13, 22-23 il.
Straight Eight, 13 il.
Super Six, 13
thrust-augmented (TAD), 12, 22
thrust-augmented improved (TAID), 13 il.
Thorad (long-tank thrust-augmented Thor). See Thor.
Thorad-Agena, 22
Tinnan, Leonard M.,112
Tiros (originally TlROS; Television and InfraRed Observation Satellite), vii, 7, 15, 31, 48, 60, 69, 76-78
name, vii, 76-77
Tiros 1 (A-1) through Tiros 8 (A-53), 77
Tiros 9 (Tiros-I[eye]), 77
Tiros 10 (OT-1), 77
Tiros-K, 71
Tiros M (ITOS 1), 60
Tiros Operational Satellite (TOS; meteorological satellite), 15, 48, 49, 76-77
Titan (giant, Roman mythology), 25 il.
Titan (intercontinental ballistic missile), 22, 25
Titan I, 25
Titan II, 25
Titan (launch vehicle), 24-25
Titan II, 24 il.
Titan III, 12, 25
IIIC, 25
IIID, 25
IIIE, 12, 24 il., 25, 54
Titan-Centaur (launch vehicle), 3, 25, 71
Titan IIIE-Centaur, 12, 24 il., 84, 94
Tomahawk (sounding rocket upper stage), 132 il., 133
Top Kick (proposed satellite name), 49
"Topsi" (Explorer 20; IE-A lonosphere Explorer), 25
Topside sounder (ionospheric satellite), 35, 58
TOS (Tiros Operational Satellite), 15, 48-49, 76-77
Improved TOS. See ITOS.
Transit II-A (DOD satellite), 167
Transportation, Department of, 140, 158
Transportation Development Center (formerly Electronics Research Center), 140
 
UE (Redstone No. 29), 15
Uhuru (Explorer 42; Small Astronomy Satellite A), 50, 68
UK-1 through UK-5. Sec Ariel.
UK-X4 (Miranda), 36
United Kingdom, 35-36, 47, 52
Ministry of Defence, 36
United Nations, 167
The Unsinkable Molly Brown (musical comedy), 105
Uranus (planet), 90
Ursa (missile), 16
U.S. Air Force, 153
Air Research and Development Command (ARDC), 22, 25
Ballistic Missile Division (AFBMD), 88-89
Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL), 133
Edwards Air Force Base, 140
launch vehicles and missiles, 6, 9, 12, 17n., 20, 22, 25
Muroc Air Force Base (Edwards AFB after Feb. 1950), 140
satellites and probes, 35-36, 43, 52, 88-89
sounding rockets, 123, 129, 133
Space Shuttle, 111-114, 115
U.S. Army (see also Army Ballistic Missile Agency, ABMA), 15, 16, 49, 89, 131, 153, 158
Ordnance, 121, 133, 144, 155
Guided Missile Center, 154
Experimental Missiles Firing Branch, 149
Missile Firing Laboratory (transferred to MSFC, 1960), 149
Plum Brook Ordnance Works, 153
U.S. Army Air Forces, 159
U.S. Army Air Service, 49
U.S. Navy (see also Naval Research Laboratory), 123, 129, 133, 153
Bureau of Aeronautics, 159
Bureau of Ships, 127
U.S. Weather Bureau (USWB), 77
USNS Croatan, 128 il.
U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), x, 19, 49, 71, 97, 101-104
USWB (U.S. Weather Bureau), 77
 
V-2 (German rocket), 149
VAB (Vehicle Assembly Building, KSC), 98 il., 148 il.
Valiant (proposed name for Gemini program), 104
Van Allen, James A., 123
Vanguard (launch vehicle), 5, 12, 26 il.-27, 78, 79, 188
Vanguard (program; Project Vanguard), 27, 78-79, 142
Vanguard 1 (scientific satellite), 79, 167
Vanguard 2, 78 il.-79
Vanguard 3, 79
Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), KSC, 98 il., 148 il.
Venus (planet), 15, 25, 87, 90
Viking (launch vehicle first stage), 79, 93 n., 150
Viking (Mars probe), 25, 71, 83, 93 il.-94
Viking (Navy sounding rocket), 93 n.
von Braun, Wernher, 17, 113, 154
von Karman, Theodore, 144
Voyager, Project, 93, 94 n.
 
Wac Corporal (sounding rocket), 121
Wallop, John, 159
Wallops Flight Center (WFC; Wallops Station before April 1974), 21 il., 67, 131, 137, 158-159il.-160
high-gain antenna, 120 il.
name, 158-160
Wallops Main Base, 159
Wallops Station (WS). See Wallops Flight Center.
Webb, James E., 19
Westar (Western Union communications satellite), 79-80
Westar 1 (Westar-A), 79-80 il.
Westar 2 (Westar-B), 80
Westar-C, 80
Western Test Range (WTR; formerly Pacific Missile Range, USAF), 58, 150
Western Union Telegraph Co., 79-80
White, Edward H., 11, 100, 106 il.
White Sands Missile Range, USA, 129, 147-149
White Sands Test Facility, NASA (White Sands Operations before June 1965), 147-149
Williams, Allen E., 131
Williams College, 68
Wilson, President Woodrow, 150
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 88
WS (Wallops Station). See Wallops Flight Center.
WTR (Western Test Range; formerly Pacific Missile Range, USAF), 58, 150
 
X-1 (rocket research aircraft), 140
X-15 (rocket research aircraft), 111, 140, 141 il.
X-24 (lifting body), 111, 140
X-248 (launch vehicle upper stage), 22, 199 n.
X-ray Astronomy Explorer (scientific satellite), 50
 
Yankee Clipper (CSM-108, on Apollo 12), x, 100
Young, John W., 105

 
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