Source Notes

[301] Chapter 9: The Early U.S. Space Program



1. Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, Vanguard, A History (NASA SP-4202, 1970), pp. 34-36.


2. In addition to Green and Lomask, Vanguard, other sources for Vanguard and its precursor, Viking, are: The Martin Co., The Vanguard Satellite Launching Vehicle: An Engineering Summary, report 11022, Apr. 1960; Kurt K. Stehling, Project Vanguard (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961); Milton Rosen, The Viking Rocket Story (New York: Harper, 1955); John P. Hagen, "The Viking and Vanguard," in Eugene M. Emme, ed., The History of Rocket Technology (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1964), pp. 122-41; Alfred Rosenthal, Venture into Space: Early Years of Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA SP-4301, 1968), pp. 16-25.


3. Green and Lomask, Vanguard, pp.165-82, 196-98, 206-09.


4. There are numerous accounts of von Braun's role in developing the A-4 (V-2) missile and the U.S. action to bring German rocket experts to the U.S. For example, see: Walter Dornberger, V-2 (New York: Viking Press, 1958); James McGovern. Crossbow and Overcast (New York: William Morrow, 1964); Walter Dornberger, "The German V-2," in History of Rocket Technology, pp.29-45; and Clarence Lasby, Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War (New York: Atheneum, 1971).


5. Wernher von Braun, "The Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," in History of Rocket Technology, pp. 108-10.


6. Ibid., p. 111; John- B. Medaris and Arthur Gordon. Countdown for Decision (New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1960), p. 147.


7. Robert L. Perry, "The Atlas, Thor, Titan, and Minuteman," in History of Rocket Technology, pp.142-61; interview with Karl J. Bossart, La Jolla, CA. 27 Apr. 1974.


8. Report of the Air Force Strategic Missiles Committee, Dr. John von Neumann, Chairman, 10 Feb. 1954, NASA History Office, reprinted in "Documents in the History of NASA: An Anthology" (NASA Hisiory Office, Washington, D.C., 1975), pp, 24-29; Dwight D. Eisenhower, The While House Years: Waging Peace, 1956-1961 (Garden City. NY: Doubleday, 1965), p. 208.


9. Eisenhower, White House Years: Waging Peace, p.257.


10. Eugene M. Emme, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space, 1915-1960 (NASA. 1961), p. 96.


11. Telephone interview with D. A. Young, Waldport, OR, 8 Aug. 1973.


12. Interview with Richard S. Cesaro. TCOM Corp Rockville, MD, 12 Mar. 1974.


13. Memo by Herbert F. York, Chief Scientist. ARPA, 2 June 1958, copy in the retired files of A. O. Tischler, NASA, Federal Records Center. Suitland, MD. accession 20-A-3765, record group 255. The 9 panels and members were listed also in a DOD press release 1 June 1958, ARPA 69A3623(2).


14. Interview with Richard B. Canright, Pennsylvania Health Research Institute, Camp Hill, PA, 7 Mar. 1974; interview with Cesaro, 12 Mar. 1974.


15. Statement by James H. Doolittle. Chairman of the NACA, 26 Feb. 1958, as quoted by Emme in Aeronautics and Astronautics: A Chronology, p.96.


16. Interview with Bruce T. Lundin, NASA-Lewis. Cleveland, 30 May 1974.


17. Interviews with Abe Silverstein, Cleveland. 29 May, and Bruce T. Lundin, 30 May 1974.


18. Bruce T. Lundin, "Some Remarks on a Future Policy and Course of Action for the NACA," 9 Dec. 1957, NASA History Office.


19. Robert Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963 (NASA SP-4101, 1966): interview with Walter T. Olson. NASA-Lewis, 11 July 1974.


20. From retired files of A. O. Tischler, NASA. Federal Records Center, Suitland, MD, accession 70-A-3765, record group 255.