DESTINATION MOON: A History of the Lunar Orbiter Program
Chapter 7 notes
1. See Minutes of the Planetology Subcommittee of the Space Sciences Steering Committee in the NASA Historical Office Lunar Orbiter History files. The meetings of the Subcommittee were conducted periodically during the entire course of the Lunar Orbiter Program.
2. MacDonald's words understate the significance of the selenodetic data which the five Lunar Orbiters eventually gave. The discoveries made of the Moon's gravitational field by tracking the five spacecraft, especially Orbiter V, revealed the existence of large mass concentrations under the ringed maria on the nearside of the Moon. This orbital data enabled NASA scientists to construct a gravimetric map of the Moon is nearside in 1968, and the discovery of ìmasconsî by scientists of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory confirmed the presence of gravitational anomalies for both the Lunar Orbiter Program and the Apollo Program. The orbital behavior data of the five Lunar Orbiters convinced Apollo Program management it should redesign the Apollo 8 mission and plan an orbital mission for Apollo 10 rather than a landing, so that more precise tracking area could be gained before actually landing men on the Moon. it
For a precise summary of the "mascon" phenomenon see: "Mascons: Lunar Mass Concentrations," by P. M. Muller and W. L. Sjogren of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Science, Vol. 161, No. 3842 (August 16, 1968), pp. 680-684. Refer also to the annotated bibliography in this history.
3. Lunar Orbiter Discussion with Dr. Gordon MacDonald, September 24, 1963, Memorandum to the Record, October 2, 1963.
4. Minutes: Working Group on Selenodesy, NASA Headquarters. May 4, 1962.
5. Ibid.
6. Telephone interview with Dr. Samuel Katzoff, Langley Research Center, August 24, 1967.
7. Originally the Lunar Orbiter Program had envisioned two blocks of spacecraft, but the lack of funds ended the development of more sophisticated Orbiters of Block II. A sixth flight spacecraft existed and could have flown after Lunar Orbiter V, but funds did not permit the flights.
8. Trutz Foelsche "Radiation Measurements in LO I-V (Period August 10, 19626 January 30, 1968)" NASA Langley Research Center, paper to be presented at Manned Spacecraft Center Seminar, Houston., Texas., June 21, 19681 p.l.
9. Ibid. See schematic diagram on following page [page 140- Chris Gamble, html editor].
10. C. A. Gurtler and Gary W. Grew, "Meteoroid Hazard Near Moon," Science, Vol. 161 (August 2, 1968), p.462.
11. Memorandum from Dr. Homer E. Newell, Associate Administrator for Space Sciences, to Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, Langley Research Center, October 23, 1964
12. Martin J. Swetnick. "Unmanned Lunar Scientific Missions, a Summary," November 17, 1964. Dr. Swetnick was a Lunar Program Scientist.
13. Memorandum to the Record, Summary of Lunar Orbiter Trajectory Meeting, Langley Research Center, April 15, 1964 (document dated April 17, 1964).
14. Information was not enumerated in the document.
15. Summary of Lunar Orbiter Trajectory Meeting.
16. Letter, Rechtin to Emme, November 18, 1969.
17. Memorandum from Floyd L. Thompson, Director of the Langley Research Center, to Homer E. Newell, Subject: Request for additional support for Lunar Orbiter from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, April 2, 1964.
18. Ibid., p. l.
19. Letter, Rechtin to Emme, November 18, 1969.
20. Ibid.
21. Summary of Lunar Orbiter Trajectory Meeting, pp. 1-2.
22. Memorandum to the Record from Martin J. Swetnick, Subject: Summary Minutes, Lunar Orbiter Meeting at NASA Headquarters, June 10, 1964, document dated June 22, 1964.
23. Ibid.
24. Ibid., p. 5.
25. Summary of First Quarterly Review, August 26-27, 1964.
26. OSSA Review -- April 13, 1965, p. 1. See diagram on the next page. [page 157 - Chris Gamble, html editor].
27. Memorandum, from Lee R. Scherer, Lunar Orbiter Program Manager, to Oran W. Nicks and Edgar M. Cortright, Subject: Immediate need for JPL support for Orbiter, July 10, 1964.
28. Robert J. Helberg and Clifford H. Nelson, "The Lunar Orbiter ó An Integrated Design," paper presented at the XVIII International Astronautical Congress, Belgrade, Yugo slavia, September 27, 1967, pp. 607. Helberg was Assistant Division Manager-Spacecraft Systems, Space Division, The Boeing Company, and Nelson was Lunar Orbiter Project Manager at Langley Research Center.
29. Ibid. See figure, Lunar Orbiter Test Program., on next page. [page 161 - Chris Gamble, html editor].
30. Letter, Rechtin to Emme, November 18, 1969.
31. Helberg and Nelson, "The Lunar Orbiter -- An Integrated Design." p. 8.
32. Interview with Gerald Brewer, Chief of Mission Assurance, Lunar Orbiter Project Office, Langley Research Center, July 18, 1967.
33. Refer to Project Organization Chart in Appendixes.
34. Martin J. Swetnick, Lunar Orbiter Pro ram Scientist, Report on Trip to Boeing on October 27-29, 1964, report dated November 5, 1964, p. 2.
35. Ibid., p. l.
36. Report of the LRC and LeRC Lunar Orbiter Shroud and Adapter Meeting, January 5, 1965, p.1. See also Lewis Research Center4News Release 65-2. January 6. 1965.
37. Ibid., p.2.
38. Ibid.
39. Lunar Orbiter Project Office, Langley Research Center, Project Lunar Orbiter, Narrative Analysis, February 8, 1965.
40. Ibid., March 17, 1965.
41. Ibid. April 16, 1965.
42. Ibid., April 28, 1965.
43. Ibid., December 9, 1964.
44. Ibid., January 25, 1965.
45. Third Quarterly Review. February 24-26, 1965, reported March 2, 1965, pp. 1-2.
46. Ibid., p. 2.
47. OSSA Review -- March 9, 1965, p. 2.
48. Memorandum from SL/Engineer, Lunar Orbiter Program., Lunar & Planetary Programs, to Langley Research Center., Attention: Mr. I. Taback, Lunar Orbiter Project Office, March 4, 1965.
49. D. D. Lloyd and R. F. Fudali, "Lunar Orbiter Mission Planning," Bellcomm TR 65 211 1, January 25, 1965.
50. Memorandum from SL/Engineer, March 4, 1965.
51. Ibid., p. 2. See also memorandum from SL/Engineer, Lunar Orbiter Program, to SL/Manager, Lunar Orbiter Program, March 11, 1965.
52. OSSA Review -- March 9,. 1965., p. 1, and OSSA Review April 13, 1965.