Day 1: The Green Team and Separation
Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2002 by W. David Woods and Frank O'Brien. All rights reserved.
Last updated 2019-03-18
002:56:22 Anders (onboard): S-IVB will maneuver to orb-rate, heads down at 0.3 of a degree per second.
002:56:27 Anders (onboard): Okay, record VI.
002:56:30 Lovell (onboard): VI.
002:56:31 Anders (onboard): Give it to me.
002:56:32 Lovell (onboard): I'll give it to you. VI was 34 - 35452.
002:56:34 Anders (onboard): 35452. H-dot?
002:56:37 Lovell (onboard): 04550.
002:56:40 Anders (onboard): H-pad?
002:56:41 Lovell (onboard): Plus 01791.
002:56:44 Borman (onboard): Let's not go out of there. You leave it like it is.
At 2 hours and 57 minutes here. All the sources again are being looked at and compared. All are exactly what we had hoped to see and more than once we've heard Chris Kraft, the Director of Flight Operations say, 'You're on your way. You're really on your way now.' We don't have an exact cut-off figure yet feet per second, but we should be getting it very soon from the Flight Dynamics Officer.
002:56:46 Anders (onboard): Okay, Key Release.
002:56:47 Lovell (onboard): I've got to go to my Key Release [garble].
002:56:49 Anders (onboard): [Verb] 16 [Noun] 92 (means 62) for Key Release?
002:56:50 Lovell (onboard): Yes.
002:56:52 Anders (onboard): Key Release was [Verb] 16 [Noun] 83.
002:56:55 Lovell (onboard): Okay, [Verb] 16 [Noun] 83; Delta-VX is 9,548.5 [fps, 2,910.3 m/s].
002:57:02 Anders (onboard): Y?
002:57:03 Lovell (onboard): Minus 1,683.3 [fps, 513.1 m/s].
002:57:07 Anders (onboard): Z?
002:57:09 Lovell (onboard): Plus 4,112.4 [fps, 1,253.5 m/s].
002:57:13 Anders (onboard): And Delta-VC, Frank?
002:57:16 Lovell (onboard): What's Delta-VC, Frank?
002:57:16 Borman (onboard): Minus 20.6.
002:57:19 Lovell (onboard): Okay, this - this...
002:57:22 Anders (onboard): The Flight Recorder is Off; Tape Recorder is stopped...
002:57:27 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Looks like a good cut-off. Everything is looking real good down here. [Long pause.]
002:58:04 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
002:58:06 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
002:58:07 Collins: Your cut-off looked very good down here. We have a whole room full of people that say you look good.
002:58:11 Borman: Roger. Thank you. The only situation we have here is the O2 flow is pegged high, O2 flow pegged high.
002:58:22 Collins: Roger. Understand; O2 flow high. [Pause.]
002:58:24 Lovell: We'll get you the burn status report here shortly.
002:58:26 Collins: Roger. [Long pause.]
002:58:57 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Your booster configured normally, and we're not concerned with the O2 high flow. We think its normal.
002:59:05 Borman: Okay. [Long pause.]
002:59:52 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.
002:59:54 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8.
002:59:56 Lovell: Roger. The Delta-TIG looked like it was right on. Burn time appeared to us to be about 2 seconds longer, 517. VGX was reading 95485 when we got it. The attitude was nominal. VI was reading 35452 at cut-off, H-dot 04552, and H is 01791. Delta-VC on the EMS was minus 20.6.
This is Apollo Control. We are getting a post TLI report from the crew. I apologize. I reported some erroneous figures during the course of the burn. Our present altitude is about 240 [nautical] miles [444 kilometres] and very shortly we will get a more precise fix on that. I believe in the course of the burn they quoted some features in thousands of miles which should have been in thousands of feet. I apologize. Our new displays are getting a good workout and some of the people reading those displays are getting a very good workout.
003:00:35 Collins: Roger. We copy that, Jim, and I've got some times here for you.
003:00:41 Lovell: Roger. Go ahead.
003:00:42 Collins: Booster begins maneuver to Sep[aration] attitude at 03:10:55. Takes 5 minutes, so it arrives at 03:15:55, and Sep time, 03:20:55. Your Sep attitude, the gimbal angles on the PAD remain good.
003:01:06 Lovell: Roger. I have those times. The Sep time will be 03:20:55.
003:01:10 Collins: Right.
This is Apollo Control here. We're watching the altitude plot now. Now it's a good solid trace coming to us through Goldstone. We're up to 879 [nautical] miles. Our present ground elapsed time into the flight is 3 hours, 3 minutes. At the same time we are already beginning to see the velocity begin to recede slightly. It's now 32,418 feet per second, and we'll continue to see that slight lowering in the velocity reading and a constant elevation of the apogee [means altitude]. Now 934, 961, and every 10 seconds it seems to be adding about 30 to 40 miles. That spacecraft right now, in relation to the Earth, is just south of the Goldstone station which has it in solid lock. We are now seeing our first midcourse charts, early estimates of what we will be working with, numbers at midcourse, and like so many of our data displays, by the time we get locked up on it with our own eye balls it moves to another channel. At 3 hours and 5 minutes into the flight, this seems to be a convenient stopping point for the action right now. We will be back shortly.
003:03:08 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.
003:03:10 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
003:03:12 Anders: Roger. Going to start charging battery B.
003:03:15 Collins: Okay. Battery B.
003:03:17 Anders: And would you keep a special eye on the surge tank and cryo O2 tank 1 Delta-P for us since our flowmeter is pegged out, we got no warning on O2 high flow.
003:03:29 Collins: Roger, Bill. We'll do that for you.
003:03:31 Anders: Thank you.
003:11:08 Borman: Okay. Maneuver's started to separation attitude.
003:11:12 Collins: Roger, Apollo 8. [Pause.]
003:11:21 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. How do you read?
003:11:23 Collins: Yes, reading you loud and clear, Frank. Understand you've started the maneuver to Sep attitude.
003:11:27 Borman: Roger.
003:11:28 Collins: Are you reading us all right?
003:11:30 Borman: Loud and clear.
003:11:31 Collins: Thank you.
This is Apollo Control Houston, we estimate another 7 or 8 minutes before the spacecraft will separate from the S-IVB. We have not heard from the crew in the last few minutes, they're busy doing post TLI duties and we are looking at data here and everything we see is quite comforting. That is the next major event, separation from the booster. ...
003:14:16 Collins: Apollo 8. Houston.
003:14:18 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
003:14:19 Collins: Okay. Coming up on 3 hours and 15 minutes as per Flight Plan; we have you Go.
003:14:26 Borman: Roger. Go.
003:14:29 Borman: You got any reading on that O2 flow?
003:14:32 Collins: Stand by one. [Long pause.]
003:14:50 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:14:51 Borman: Go ahead.
003:14:52 Collins: We're reading about the same as we were before that oxygen flow. The reason it's that high is due to the cabin gas changeover. According to Apollo 7, if your data repeats theirs, you can expect it to be high for another few hours.
003:15:10 Borman: Roger. Thank you. [Long pause.]
003:15:43 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:15:47 Borman: Go ahead.
003:15:48 Collins: You can expect that the S-IVB will be 10 degrees off in pitch at Sep attitude; however, that is Go. There is no problem involved.
003:15:57 Borman: Roger.
|Vehicle Configuration||0||No DAP|
|2||CSM & LM|
|3||CSM & S-IVB|
|6||CSM & LM (ascent stage only)|
|Quad A/C||0||Fail A/C|
|Quad B/D||0||Fail B/D|
|Rotation Rate Select||0||0.05° per second|
|1||0.2° per second|
|2||0.5° per second|
|3||2.0° per second|
|Roll Quad Select||0||Use B/D|
003:19:57 Anders (onboard): Manual Attitude, three, Rate Command.
003:19:58 Borman (onboard): Rate Command.
003:20:01 Anders (onboard): Okay, turn controller counterclockwise, plus X, and hold at zero.
003:20:03 Lovell (onboard): Going to zero.
003:20:04 Anders (onboard): Turn it clockwise...
003:20:05 Lovell (onboard): Now, wait a second. (Garble.)
003:20:14 Lovell (onboard): Yes.
003:20:15 Borman (onboard): What, this?
003:20:16 Anders (onboard): Let me attempt to turn it Off. Give me a 10-second warning on the flight recorder.
003:20:20 Lovell (onboard): Yes. Okay.
003:20:23 Anders (onboard): 13920 [garble]...
003:20:25 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:20:25 Anders (onboard): ...30.
003:20:27 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
003:20:28 Collins: Roger. We have you about 30 seconds prior to separation, and everything's looking good.
003:20:33 Borman: Roger.
003:20:39 Lovell (onboard): Okay, I'm coming up on 15 seconds to Sep.
003:20:42 Borman (onboard): Alright.
003:20:45 Lovell (onboard): 10 seconds to go.
003:20:48 Anders (onboard): You in Auto?
003:20:50 Borman (onboard): Yes, Auto, Auto, right.
003:20:52 Anders (onboard): Okay, at zero, turn Hand Controller counterclockwise, plus-X, and hold.
003:21:00 Anders (onboard): 3 seconds, Launch Vehicle Tank Pressure indicator, zero; CM/LV Sep; Translational Contr, Neutral; plus-X, Off; TVC Servo Power 1, Off.
003:21:09 Borman (onboard): Alright.
003:21:10 Anders (onboard): Okay, Verb 62, Enter.
003:21:12 Lovell (onboard): Verb 62, Enter.
003:21:13 Anders (onboard): Verb 49, Enter.
003:21:14 Lovell (onboard): Verb 49, Enter.
003:21:16 Anders (onboard): Okay, desired gimbal angles and proceed.
003:21:20 Lovell (onboard): Roger; proceed, now.
003:21:22 Anders (onboard): Okay, you're notched up by 30 seconds so a minus-X of 2½.
003:21:26 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] Sep.
003:21:27 Anders (onboard): Okay, you put your other - you're not around by 30 seconds, so minus-X is your roll.
003:21:31 Borman (onboard): Why can't you call it yaw?
003:21:31 Anders (onboard): Because we're not - see, we're not...
003:21:37 Lovell (onboard): There's one [SLA] panel.
003:21:39 Anders (onboard): After this camera [garble].
003:21:46 Borman (onboard): Man, where's the S-IVB? Anybody see it, now?
003:21:49 Lovell (onboard): There it is!
003:21:50 Borman (onboard): You found it?
003:21:51 Lovell (onboard): Right in the middle. Right in the middle of my window. There's not a panel around.
003:21:55 Borman: What a view!
003:21:58 Collins: Looks pretty good, huh?
003:21:58 Lovell (onboard): Give me the camera.
003:21:59 Anders (onboard): Well, we've got some still pictures we can take...
003:22:01 Lovell (onboard): Could you pitch a little more?
003:22:02 Borman (onboard): Yes.
003:22:03 Anders (onboard): We haven't got in here, yet.
003:22:08 Anders (onboard): f/11, 1/250th.
003:22:10 Lovell (onboard): f/11.
003:22:12 Anders: We've Sep'd Houston. We got the IVB, right in sight.
003:22:16 Collins: Roger, Apollo 8. [Long pause.]
AS08-16-2581 - The Earth has already shrunk to show a distinct curve at the top left of the image. Jamaica and Cuba are to the bottom.
AS08-16-2582 - The S-IVB with the camera looking directly onto the Lunar Test Article. The stage is beyond it.
AS08-16-2583 - The form of the LTA is clearer and one of the APS modules at the base of the stage is also well shown. Note the swarm of particles drifting around the stage.
AS08-16-2584 - The S-IVB is further into the distance and more side on.
AS08-16-2585 - The S-IVB and the Lunar Test Article after they have drifted some distance.
AS08-16-2585 - The S-IVB and the Lunar Test Article after they have drifted some distance.
003:22:19 Anders (onboard): Could you pitch just a little more or [garble].
003:22:21 Borman (onboard): Which way?
003:22:22 Anders (onboard): Pitch up, pitch up a little more.
003:22:27 Borman (onboard): How's that?
003:22:33 Lovell (onboard): I don't see the [garble]. Maybe I can get it in a minute.
003:22:46 Lovell (onboard): Easy on the thrusters.
003:22:48 Anders (onboard): Don't you think that's enough pictures of it?
This is Apollo Control Houston. 3 hours, 22 minutes into the flight. Exactly 1 minute ago we observed separation from the S-IVB. The crew immediately turned around and had a look at the S-IVB and we are watching that pitch - pitch attitude right now and telemetry coming through over the Eastern Test Range. And as the vehicle climbs it will - from a flat map projection appear to swing to the south and west which, of course is a little unusual for our pass flight - the Earth orbital tracks which invariably take us to the east. But we will observe a swing down starting across the Atlantic and back across the upper part of South America. We are now trying to establish a call with Apollo 8. Let's - let's see what we can get.
003:22:52 Anders: Houston, do you read Apollo 8?
003:22:53 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8. [Pause.]
003:22:55 Lovell (onboard): How far away do you think it is?
003:22:59 Anders (onboard): [Garble].
003:23:00 Borman (onboard): How about the S-band, Bill?
003:23:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]
003:23:02 Anders (onboard): Let me switch the antenna here.
003:23:07 Borman (onboard): I'm not going to fly around the damn thing. I don't think there's any - do you?
003:23:12 Lovell (onboard): No.
003:23:16 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over. [Pause.]
003:23:23 Borman (onboard): You got lock-on?
003:23:24 Anders (onboard): Yes.
003:23:26 Borman: This it Apollo 8 on VHF and S-band. How do you read?
003:23:29 Collins: Hear loud and clear, Bill. How me?
003:23:31 Borman: Read you loud and clear. We have Sep'd and looking good.
003:23:34 Collins: Roger. Looking good here.
003:23:35 Anders (onboard): You read him loud and clear? I don't...
003:23:37 Borman (onboard): Turn your VHF up and your [garble].
003:23:44 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's make sure we've done everything here. Get that Flight Recorder, Off.
003:23:49 Borman (onboard): Off or On?
003:23:50 Anders (onboard): Off. Okay, about 23:50, I want it Off.
003:23:53 Lovell (onboard): Okay.
003:23:54 Anders (onboard): 23:50, Off.
003:23:57 Anders (onboard): At 35:50, I turn it back On. [Garble] 23:50 [garble].
003:24:05 Lovell (onboard): Okay, let me see here.
003:24:07 Anders (onboard): Okay...
003:24:09 Lovell (onboard): Our EDS Power is Off?
003:24:10 Borman (onboard): EDS Power is going Off.
003:24:12 Anders (onboard): Att 1/Rate 2.
003:24:14 Borman (onboard): Att 1/Rate 2.
003:24:15 Anders (onboard): Okay, Tape Recorder is stopped...
This is Apollo Control here. No additional communications with crew, but while we have been sitting here in the last few minutes, the Mission Control Center has gone to what we call the translunar phase map. The new display - those of you watching in the News Center will observe that the elongated figure 8 map which shows the Earth-Moon transit and it also shows the numbers, the small flashing light now being portrayed to us in black and white. And we would estimate our distance at something on the order of 3,350 [nautical] miles [6,200 km] from Earth. It will carry us out in increments of 20,000 [nautical] miles out to - on out to lunar distance. And we will be able to observe the declination or the general angle in relation to the Earth-Moon system for the entire flight path of the spacecraft. Again, we confirmed S-IVB spacecraft separation at about 3 hours, 21 minutes into the flight. And at this time, 3 hours, 27 minutes into the flight, all looks satisfactory. This is Apollo Control, Houston.
003:28:23 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. How do you read?
003:28:25 Collins: Read you loud and clear, Frank. How us?
003:28:27 Borman: Roger. Loud and clear. We are taking pictures of the S-IVB; the post-separation sequence is completed, and we seem to have a High Gain [Antenna].
003:28:39 Collins: Okay; fine.
S68-52190 - Apollo 8's High Gain Antenna seen during pre-launch preparations.
HGA controls on panel 2 of Odyssey.
003:29:41 Lovell (onboard): There she is [garble].
003:30:29 Lovell (onboard): 03:36 [garble] 03:36 [garble].
003:30:38 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:30:40 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
003:30:41 Collins: Roger. Is Bill ready for his VHF test? We can configure any time he is.
003:30:48 Borman: Okay. Stand by.
003:35:21 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:35:22 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
003:35:24 Collins: Roger. We would like to ask whether you did a Verb 66 Enter to transfer the state vector from CSM to LM slot. We didn't copy that down here.
003:35:32 Borman: We did not.
003:35:33 Collins: Okay.
003:35:34 Borman: Do you want us to do that now?
003:35:36 Collins: At your convenience.
003:35:38 Lovell: Roger. [Pause.]
003:35:44 Borman: We see the Earth now, almost as a disk.
003:35:49 Collins: Good show. Get a picture of it.
003:35:51 Borman: We are.
AS08-16-2587 - Partial Earth, showing the Atlantic Ocean and the northwest coast of Africa; Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia.
AS08-16-2588 - Partial Earth, showing the Atlantic Ocean and the northwest coast of Africa; Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia.
AS08-16-2589 - Partial Earth, showing the Atlantic Ocean and the northwest coast of Africa; Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia.
AS08-16-2590 - Partial Earth, showing the Atlantic Ocean and the northwest coast of Africa; Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia.
003:35:54 Borman: Tell Conrad he lost his record.
003:35:59 Lovell: We have a beautiful view of Florida now. We can see the Cape, just the point.
003:36:05 Collins: Roger.
003:36:06 Lovell: And at the same time, we can see Africa. West Africa is beautiful. I can also see Gibraltar at the same time I'm looking at Florida.
003:36:20 Collins: Sounds good. Get a picture of it. What window are you looking out?
003:36:29 Lovell: The center window.
003:36:30 Collins: Roger. [Pause.]
003:36:39 Collins: Are your windows clear so far? [Long pause.]
This is Apollo Control, Houston. The crew seems to be pretty settled down after their Translunar Injection burn and they are getting some time on the window. We just heard Jim Lovell report he could see Florida perfectly. By the way, they are at about 6,500 [nautical] miles [12,000 km] above the Earth now. He said he had a beautiful view of Florida and then his gaze roamed a little bit to the other side of the window and he could also see Gibraltar. The crew reminded the Control Center here that Pete Conrad and Dick Gordon would have to step aside. Their altitude record has been exceeded.
003:37:08 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:37:10 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
003:37:11 Collins: How about your VHF check? We would like to get that done before you get too much further away.
003:37:34 Borman: Okay.
003:37:38 Borman: We are listening on VHF Alpha Simplex.
003:37:42 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Say again.
003:37:45 Borman: We are listening for VHF Alpha Simplex.
003:37:48 Collins: Okay, good. Thank you. VHF Alpha Simplex, and we will get configured for it; and in between times, give us a clue as to what it looks like from way up there.
003:38:00 Lovell: Roger. Well, Mike, I can see the entire Earth now out of the center window. I can see Florida, Cuba, Central America, the whole northern half of Central America, in fact, all the way down through Argentina and down through Chile.
003:38:25 Collins: They picked a good day for it.
003:38:30 Borman: Stand by. We are going through the separation maneuver checklist here.
003:38:34 Collins: Roger. Standing by. [Long pause.]
003:39:20 Borman: Houston, this is Apollo 8. We've lost sight of the S-IVB here. The separation maneuver may be delayed slightly, or else we will go ahead and make it without having her in sight.
003:39:30 Collins: Roger. Understand, Frank.
003:41:58 Borman: Houston, this is Apollo 8.
003:42:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
003:42:03 Borman: When does the S-IVB do that blowdown maneuver?
003:42:05 Collins: Stand by one. [Long pause.]
003:42:42 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:42:46 Borman: Go on.
003:42:48 Collins: Your blowdown will be 1 hour from now, a little more that 1 hour from now.
003:42:51 Borman: Roger. We have the S-IVB in sight again now. We have done the separation maneuver.
003:42:55 Collins: Good show. Thank you. [Long pause.]
AS08-16-2591 - S-IVB.
AS08-16-2592 - Final shot of the S-IVB.
003:43:25 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:43:31 Anders: Go ahead, Houston.
003:43:32 Collins: We would like to take control of the DSE for a while, Bill.
003:43:35 Anders: Go ahead.
003:43:36 Collins: Thank you. [Long pause.]
003:43:54 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. We would like to get an approximate GET of your Sep maneuver to use for our ephemeris tracking data.
003:44:06 Borman: Roger. It was 3 hours, 40 minutes, zero seconds.
003:44:10 Collins: Good, 03:40 and a foot and a half - feet per second. Right?
003:44:15 Borman: Roger. About that...
003:44:16 Collins: Okay.
003:44:18 Borman: ...We have the - Mike, we have the exact call-out here for you and a burn status report.
003:44:22 Collins: Alright.
003:44:28 Borman: Alright, Delta-VX minus 00011, Delta-VY plus 00002, Delta-VZ minus 00002; roll, 0; pitch, 180; yaw, 0. Over.
003:44:46 Collins: Roger, Apollo 8.
003:46:25 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:46:29 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
003:46:31 Collins: Roger. At your convenience, would you please go P00 and Accept? We're going to update to your W-matrix.
Collins (continued): And also when you get a chance, we would like to know about the SLA panels. Did they all depart? And do you have any comments about the SLA?
003:46:43 Borman: They all departed, and they worked fine.
003:46:47 Collins: Okay. Thank you.
003:46:58 Unidentified speaker: We are in P00 and Accept.
003:47:00 Collins: Thank you.
003:48:26 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. Will you give us the information when you want us to stop the venting and so on?
003:48:32 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger.
003:50:39 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:50:42 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
003:50:44 Collins: Roger. What is the venting information are you inquiring about: the O2 flow high out through the waste tank or waste compartment, or are you talking about your evaporator?
003:50:53 Borman: Evaporator. We are configuring now to stop boiling.
003:50:56 Collins: Okay.
003:50:58 Collins: We concur in that.
003:51:02 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. You can go back to Block. We have gotten in the load to the W-matrix update.
003:51:10 Borman: Roger. [Long pause.]
003:51:58 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. The back pressure valve is closed, and the water flow (to the evaporator) is Off.
003:52:03 Collins: Back pressure valve closed, and water flow, Off. Thank you. [Long pause.]
003:53:04 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8 here.
003:53:05 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
003:53:07 Borman: Roger. It looks like I might have to do a couple more small maneuvers to stay away from the front of this S-IVB, the way we are ending up now. Do you want me to do these with our P47 if we have to do them?
003:53:19 Collins: Stand by one, Frank. [Pause.]
003:53:28 Collins: That's affirmative, Frank, on this P47.
003:53:30 Borman: Okay. And give me the time again when it [the S-IVB] starts to dump [its LOX], please.
003:53:35 Collins: Roger. We're working on an exact GET [Ground Elapsed Time] of that, Frank.
003:53:48 Borman: Roger.
003:54:54 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
003:54:57 Borman: Go ahead.
003:54:58 Collins: I'd like to give you some idea about your trajectory. It looks like a midcourse correction number 1, projected out to TLI plus 6 hours, would be only 7 feet per second. So, of course, any further maneuvers you do would add to that, which is probably good.
003:55:24 Borman: I just want to stay from away from in front of this thing.
003:55:27 Collins: Roger. We concur. Looks like it is chasing you, huh?
003:55:32 Borman: Yes. [Long pause.]
003:55:53 Anders: Omni-D. [Pause.]
003:56:01 Borman: Boy, it's starting to vent now, blowing down.
003:56:07 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Say again.
003:56:09 Borman: The S-IVB is really venting.
003:56:13 Collins: Roger. Understand; that is supposedly a nonpropulsive vent. The big blowdown maneuver, it starts maneuvering to blowdown attitude at 04:44:55, and the vent occurs at 05:07:55.
003:56:32 Borman: 05:07:55.
003:56:34 Collins: Roger.
003:56:35 Borman: That is the nonpropulsive vent, but it's pretty spectacular. It's spewing out from all sides like a huge water sprinkler.
003:56:45 Collins: Roger. Get some pictures of it.
003:56:48 Borman: We are. [Long pause.]
003:57:07 Borman: Say again that big vent time, so I can write it down please, Houston.
003:57:11 Collins: Roger. Big vent time 05:07:55, and it will (be) maneuvering to vent attitude beginning at 04:44:55. Bill has got the tape recorder back.
003:57:32 Borman: Thank you. Roger. [Long pause.]
003:58:31 Borman: We're receiving VHF music now, Houston. Thank you.
003:58:35 Collins: Yes, you took the words right out of my mouth, Frank, and we would like to know also how far away from the S-IVB you are now.
003:58:48 Borman: I guess we are between 500 to 1,000 feet.
003:58:51 Collins: Roger. [Pause.]
003:58:57 Borman: Herb Alpert seems pretty good.
003:59:00 Collins: Roger.
004:01:42 Borman (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8. I [garble] suggest [garble] essentially separation maneuver, if it's all right with you.
004:02:04 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8.
004:02:06 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:02:10 Borman: Roger. I believe we are going to have to vent or thrust away from this thing; we seem to be getting closer.
004:02:18 Collins: Roger. Understand, Frank; go ahead whenever - just give us some idea of when you did it and how much.
004:02:24 Borman: Roger.
004:02:32 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Could you stand by one? We are working on something here.
004:02:37 Borman: Okay.
004:05:10 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. [Pause.]
004:05:16 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over. (No answer.)
004:05:18 Borman (onboard): Go ahead, Houston.
004:05:21 Borman (onboard): Go ahead, Houston; Apollo 8.
004:05:31 Borman (onboard): Go ahead, Houston; Apollo 8.
004:05:39 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.
004:05:40 Borman: You are loud and clear, Mike. Go ahead.
004:05:43 Collins: Okay, Frank. On your additional separation maneuver, we recommend that you make a radial burn, point your plus-X axis toward the Earth and thrust minus-X for 3 feet per second. Over.
Diagram showing CSM coordinate system.
004:05:57 Borman: I don't want to do that; I'll lose sight of the S-IVB.
004:06:01 Collins: Okay. The reason we want a radial burn is to increase your midcourse correction so we can use the SPS. Stand by on it. [Long pause.]
004:06:33 Collins: Apollo 8. Houston.
004:06:35 Borman: Go ahead.
004:06:36 Collins: How close to a radial burn can you get without losing sight of the S-IVB, Frank?
004:06:41 Borman: Well, I don't know because I can't see the Earth now, Mike.
004:06:43 Lovell (onboard): The Earth's out here. Can you see it?
004:06:44 Collins: Okay. [Pause.]
004:06:48 Borman (onboard): Yes.
004:06:51 Borman: We can pitch down some. Jim has the Earth in the optics so we could pitch some and get pretty close to one (a radial burn), I guess. [Long pause.]
004:07:18 Borman (onboard): You got the Earth focused in?
004:07:22 Lovell (onboard): [Garble.]
004:07:31 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:07:32 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
004:07:34 Collins: We can give you a pitch gimbal angle on radial direction if that would be a help. It's 181 degrees; pitch gimbal angle would be exactly radial at 4 hours and 10 minutes. I don't know whether that solves your visibility problem or not.
004:07:46 Borman: 181?
004:07:47 Collins: That's affirmative.
004:07:54 Borman: Well, then zero would be just as good, wouldn't it?
004:08:05 Collins: Frank, if you use zero, then make the Sep if possible in the plus-X thrusters. That's the direction of the burn we'd like.
004:08:13 Borman: Well, can't do that. I'll thrust right square into that S-IVB.
004:08:16 Collins: Yes, okay, understand,
004:08:21 Borman (onboard): What effect...
004:08:22 Borman: What will he [the S-IVB] maneuver to, as far as the gimbal angle for this blowdown? [Long pause.]
004:09:03 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. At blowdown, that S-IVB should be oriented to perform a retrograde blowdown along the local horizontal.
004:08:58 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] that S-IV ought [garble].
004:09:22 Collins: Is it still chasing? Does it look like it is closing on you, Frank?
004:09:25 Borman: It is about the same. The trouble is it is pointed at us pretty well.
004:09:30 Collins: Roger. Understand. [Long pause.]
004:09:52 Borman (onboard): So...
004:09:58 Borman (onboard): Has it maneuvered yet?
004:10:01 Borman (onboard): No.
004:10:00 Collins: Frank, what we want to do is get a radial upward burn; and as long as you can, through the optics or some other means out the window, figure out where the Earth is, then use the appropriate thrusters to thrust upward, radially upward for 3 feet per second. That is what we are looking for, for trajectory reasons.
004:10:18 Borman: Okay. Understand. I just - as I say, I just can't very well do that now. I don't want to lose sight of this S-IVB.
004:10:26 Collins: Roger. We concur with that. I just thought perhaps Jim, through his optics, or you could get some feel for where the Earth is. That's what we want to do, is radially upward.
004:10:35 Borman: Okay. As soon as we find the Earth, we will do it.
004:10:37 Collins: Thank you. [Long pause.]
004:10:38 Anders (onboard): [Garble] would you please pitch outside?
004:10:44 Lovell (onboard): No, the Earth's below us, now.
004:10:49 Anders (onboard): Why don't you roll to your left? That way, you could put the Earth out of your [garble].
004:10:56 Borman (onboard): Do you see the Earth with your sextant, Jim?
004:10:58 Lovell (onboard): No, I don't [garble] S-IVB [garble].
004:11:03 Borman: Houston. The venting on the S-IVB is terminated.
004:11:08 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
004:11:28 Lovell (onboard): I think you ought to roll [garble].
004:11:49 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] should be right on the optics.
004:13:27 Borman (onboard): I'm not getting a zero, [garble].
004:13:53 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:13:55 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
004:13:56 Collins: Roger. Frank, do you think you are going to be able to do this burn radially? We would like to add to its magnitude if you are going to make it in some other direction. Over.
004:14:08 Borman: No, I am not even sure we are going to do it yet, Mike. If I can get - we seem to be drifting away from this thing a little bit, although it is still pointing at us quite closer than I'd like.
004:14:20 Collins: Roger. Understand. [Pause.]
004:14:25 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. We would like you to do some additional maneuver; it is just a question of how much and in which direction.
004:14:33 Borman: Okay. Well, right now, our gimbal angles are about - roll's about 190 and pitch is about 320 and yaw is about 340. We could certainly do it in this position. That would be Alright.
004:14:51 Collins: Stand by. We will check those.
004:15:30 Borman (onboard): And it started to [garble].
004:15:40 Borman (onboard): How high are the temperatures, Jim?
004:16:05 Lovell (onboard): Hey, you started to [garble] there, huh?
004:17:06 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] which way it's going to pitch with respect to the Earth.
004:17:06 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:17:09 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
004:17:11 Collins: Roger, Frank. You could help us out if you would explain where you are relative to the booster. In other words, with respect to the Earth and the radius back there, are you above or below or one side, or where exactly is the booster relative to you?
004:17:27 Borman: Well, it's as I said before. We can't definitely find the Earth. I think we are in front and a little bit above - a little bit above the - almost in front of the - directly in the front of the booster.
004:17:41 Collins: Roger. Understand; almost directly in front of the booster.
004:17:45 Borman: Perhaps a little bit horizontally displaced towards the - let's see...
004:18:02 Lovell (onboard): The Earth should be right over there. Is the Earth over there?
004:18:09 Lovell (onboard): Okay, we'll take it to the other side. We don't know [garble].
004:18:21 Borman: Houston, to help you, we are looking right directly above the S-IVB with - the Sun is - it's on the right side of the S-IVB and on our - coming in our left number 1 window.
004:18:34 Collins: Okay. Understand; the Sun is on the right side of the S-IVB and coming in your number 1 window. And are you - when you give us those angles, that means that your plus-X axis is pointed at it with those angles. Is that affirm?
004:18:47 Borman: Roger.
004:18:48 Collins: Okay. [Pause.]
004:18:52 Lovell (onboard): Oh, here it is. There's the Earth over here [garble].
004:18:54 Borman (onboard): To the right?
004:18:55 Anders (onboard): Yes, the Earth's kind of low. That will be - It's in our plus-Y, plus-Z direction.
004:19:04 Borman: The Earth is in our plus-Y, plus-Z direction now, Mike.
004:19:09 Collins: Thank you. Earth is plus-Y, plus-Z.
004:19:12 Borman: Right, and a little minus-X.
004:19:16 Collins: Okay.
004:19:24 Anders (onboard): [Garble], do you want to do a realign?
004:19:36 Lovell (onboard): GDC align, IMU is [garble].
004:20:13 Anders (onboard): What did you do? Did you do the P50 [means P52 realignment]?
004:20:15 Lovell (onboard): Yes.
This is Apollo Control Houston at 4 hours, 21 minutes into the flight. In the last half-hour, we've had a very interesting interchange with the crew. They've given us a good description of what has been going on; but more than that, we've been occupied with trying to understand what the proper maneuver would be to give us added separation from the S-IVB. Borman reported some 15 to 20 minutes ago, that he thought the S-IVB was staying a little bit to close for comfort. He estimated that its distance from the spacecraft 500 to 1,000 feet and he said he was viewing quite a lot of venting, not propulsive venting, but just great clouds of venting coming from the S-IVB. He later reported that it had stopped. In the course of the last 20 to 25 minutes, we have been playing music on the VHF by VHF out of California, and the crew reports Herb Alpert sounds great. It's being beamed to him just a little bit north of his native Tijuana. So that system, we are trying, to find out just how far out in space the VHF will carry. Certainly the quote that stopped us all, more so than anything else came from Borman. I'm sure it was by accident, but at one point he, in trying to configure for a slight burn to give him added separation from the S-IVB, Borman says 'as soon as we find the Earth, we'll do it', and that brought a loud clap of laughter here. ...
004:20:52 Lovell: Houston, for information, I am looking through the scanning telescope now, and I see millions of stars; most of them - the venting from the S-IVB.
004:21:02 Anders (onboard): There you are, Frank.
004:21:04 Collins: Right. Are you having any trouble telling which are the stars and which are the S-IVB particles?
004:21:09 Lovell: Definitely; we are in sunlight, and it looks like they are all S-IVB, but we don't know. I am going to attempt a P52 realign at this time and see what I can do.
004:21:18 Collins: Understand you.
004:21:22 Borman (onboard): Let me talk about the [garble].
004:22:31 Anders (onboard): Are you through with this?
004:22:37 Anders (onboard): Jim always falls that way.
004:24:28 Lovell (onboard): Okay, two balls 54. You see, when you read them [garble] three balls [garble] minus 00086, plus 00141, [garble]. Okay, [garble].
004:26:37 Borman: Mike, anything more on this separation maneuver you're on?
004:26:41 Collins: We are working on it, Frank. We are trying to compute what radially outward will be in close terms. Now, you still have the Earth - as I understand plus-Y and plus-Z quadrant. In other words, it's down below you on your right and slightly to your rear? Is that still true?
004:26:59 Borman: That's right. Quite a bit to our rear and down below us. Off to the right.
004:27:03 Collins: Okay. Well, we - of course, in that attitude, you want to burn some upward and some to the left, and we are trying to be more precise than that. Frank, is it still about the same distance away? Are you opening or closing?
004:27:17 Borman (onboard): [Garble] of us and slightly below us.
004:27:23 Borman: It sure is staying close to us.
004:27:25 Collins: Understand. [Long pause.]
004:27:27 Borman (onboard): Jim, doesn't it look slightly below us and slightly?
004:27:55 Lovell (onboard): Which way does the - Does anyone know which way the S-IVB pitches?
004:28:03 Borman: Mike, can you just tell us which way the S-IVB pitches and how far it will pitch to the sling shot maneuver attitude?
004:28:11 Collins: Roger. Stand by. [Long pause.]
004:28:46 Collins: Frank, the S-IVB is within 10 degrees of its final attitude at this time.
004:28:52 Borman: Okay. Thank you. [Pause.]
004:29:00 Anders: Houston, are you ready to copy the IMU align information?
004:29:03 Collins: Go ahead.
004:29:05 Anders: Alright. Star ID is 03, and star 36, star angle difference 0.01, torquing angle; X, minus 00034; Y, minus 0027; Z, plus 00100. Over.
004:29:33 Collins: Okay. Thank you. For Y, I just got four digits here: 0027.
004:29:39 Anders: Roger. Three zeros: 00027.
004:29:43 Collins: Thank you.
004:29:46 Lovell: Houston, we are going to have to hold up on the cislunar navigation until after this next little maneuver.
004:29:53 Collins: Roger, Jim. We understand.
004:29:56 Lovell (onboard): What did you say your [garble] was?
004:30:14 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] 00016 [garble].
004:31:20 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:31:22 Borman: Go ahead now, Mike.
004:31:23 Collins: Can you give us an updated read-out of your gimbal angles. When your plus-X axis is pointed toward the booster, please?
004:31:29 Borman: Roger. Stand by.
004:33:48 Lovell (onboard): Okay.
004:34:08 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:34:11 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
004:34:12 Collins: Could you give us those gimbal angles, Frank, when you have a chance?
004:34:14 Borman: I'm getting the COAS right on it now so it will be accurate.
004:34:18 Collins: Thank you. [Pause.]
004:34:28 Borman: Okay. With the COAS right on the S-IVB, the roll reads 105, the pitch is 275, and the yaw is about 325.
004:34:47 Collins: Roger. Copy roll 105, pitch 275, and yaw 325.
004:34:53 Borman: Roger. That should be 115 for the roll. [Long pause.]
004:35:46 Collins: Thank you. 115 roll.
004:35:52 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.
004:35:58 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
004:36:00 Anders: Roger. If it will help you any, Mike, the Earth is plus-Y about 45 degrees in a minus-X. I can see it out my side window, and it's a beautiful view with numerous cloud vortex.
AS08-16-2593 - Whole Earth favouring South America. This is the first image of the whole Earth taken by a human in space.
004:36:15 Collins: Roger, Bill. Thank you. Understand; plus-X 45 degrees halfway between plus-Y and plus-Z and slightly minus-X.
Diagram showing relationship between CSM coordinate system, the S-IVB and Earth.
004:36:26 Anders: Negative. It's 45 degrees in the plus-Y, in the X-Y plane towards minus-X. Over.
004:36:37 Collins: Roger. Understand in the X-Y plane, toward X 45 degrees.
004:36:43 Anders: Forty-five degrees from plus-Y to minus-X.
004:36:48 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
004:36:51 Anders: It's behind us to the right, if that will help.
004:36:54 Collins: Roger. [Long pause.]
004:37:15 Borman: I can still see the Cape and isthmus of Central America.
004:37:22 Collins: Roger. Understand. Frank, what we want on this burn is 8 feet per second now, 8 feet per second. We want it radially upward, and we want you to use whatever thrusters are required to burn radially upward at 8 feet per second.
004:37:37 Borman: Why do you want to use - do so much, Mike?
004:37:42 Collins: Because of the separation distance we would like to achieve between now and the time of S-IVB blowdown.
004:37:53 Borman: Okay.
004:37:55 Anders (onboard): Why don't you attempt to yaw - Yaw right [garble]. See the Earth [garble].
004:38:16 Anders (onboard): No, all you got to do is just [garble] yaw - yaw to the right, and, you'll be [garble] You'll be over in this direction [garble].
004:38:56 Borman: Mike, do you want me to go ahead and try to do this, or are you going to give me some gimbal angles?
004:39:05 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead and do it without gimbal angles, if you can do that. Over.
004:39:11 Borman: Okay. I don't understand why you want so many feet per second on it, but I think I can - with just a little maneuvering, I can get away from it a lot simpler than that.
004:39:22 Collins: Well, we would like the radial upward for trajectory reasons, and the magnitude we'd like because of the separation distance which we're predicting you will have at S-IVB blowdown.
004:39:31 Borman: Okay. [Long pause.]
004:39:54 Borman: VHF sounds good.
004:39:57 Collins: Roger. On the VHF.
004:40:02 Borman (onboard): Could you yaw about 10 degrees to your - your left?
004:41:25 Lovell: Omni-B.
004:41:27 Collins: Understand; Omni-B Baker. [Long pause.]
004:41:59 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:42:01 Anders: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
004:42:03 Collins: Roger. About 12 minutes before your big blowdown, there is a small continuous vent which opens at a GET of 04:55:55. You may notice that on the booster, 12- or 15-pound thrust.
004:42:19 Anders: Okay.
004:42:25 Collins: And, Apollo 8, could you give us your burn information whenever you have it?
004:42:30 Anders: Roger. We are maneuvering to the attitude now.
004:42:33 Collins: Okay.
004:43:10 Lovell (onboard): That look pretty good now?
004:43:12 Borman (onboard): Yes.
004:43:18 Borman: Okay. Houston. I understand you want 8 feet per second burn, is that right?
004:43:21 Collins: Right. Eight feet per second, radially upward.
004:43:33 Borman: Well, we are as close to being radially upward as we can determine.
004:43:36 Collins: Roger.
004:xx:xx Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Are you going to use P47 to monitor the burn?
004:44:07 Lovell: Roger, Houston. We're putting it in now.
004:xx:xx Collins: Thank you.
004:45:05 Borman: We're maneuvering now.
004:45:06 Collins: Thank you. [Long pause.]
004:45:46 Anders (onboard): Okay, why don't you... window and do that P47?
004:45:54 Borman: Houston, we made the burn at 7.7 plus-X, plus 00001 Y, and Z's are all zeros. Gimbal angles: roll, 180; pitch, 310; and yaw, 020.
004:46:19 Anders (onboard): Okay, Frank, whenever you're ready [garble].
004:46:19 Collins: Roger. I copy plus-X, 7.7; Y, 0.1; and roll, pitch, and yaw 180, 310, and 20.
004:46:30 Borman: Did you get that information, Houston?
004:46:33 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. How are you reading?
004:46:36 Borman: Read you loud and clear. Did you get the information?
004:46:38 Collins: That's affirmative. I say again, we copied plus-X, 7.7; one-tenth in Y, no Z; roll, pitch, and yaw; 180, 310, and 020.
004:46:52 Borman: Roger. The burn was made at - initiated at 04:45.
004:47:06 Collins: Roger. Copy 04:45. [Long pause.]
004:47:15 Anders (onboard): We're in good shape. Roll right. [Garble] back where the Earth used to be.
004:47:30 Borman: Okay. Do you want us to transfer that to the CS - to the LM state vector or just leave it alone? You...
004:47:39 Collins: Affirmative, Frank. We would like you to transfer from the CSM to the LM state vector.
004:47:43 Borman: Roger.
004:47:45 Anders (onboard): You got Verb 66 entered?
004:48:59 Borman (onboard): You still got it [the S-IVB], Bill?
004:49:04 Anders (onboard): We're going right to it. (Garble.)
004:49:14 Borman (onboard): Can you roll at all?
004:49:19 Anders (onboard): Huh? I don't want to.... now.
004:49:44 Anders (onboard): It's about - in the XYZ plane, it's about 10 degrees [garble]. Yes, right out here [garble].
And this is Apollo Control. That brings us up to the live action at 4 hours, 49 minutes into the flight. You heard Jim Lovell say we would have to postpone his navigation - cislunar navigation task which involved plotting several stars, which had been planned during this last one-half hour and [in] its place went the separation maneuver, an 8 foot per second separation maneuver to ensure adequate separation from the S-IVB. In the course of the last half hour, we lost, the ground lost lock with beacon on the S-IVB. That was a VHF beacon. Our present altitude, their distance from Earth is 17,200 [nautical] miles [31,850 km] and they are still hearing VHF, which is being piped music via VHF out of the Goldstone, California, station. Now we are asking them again about the booster. Let's listen.
004:50:33 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
004:50:35 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
004:50:37 Collins: How is that booster looking now? Is it drifting away rapidly, or how does it look?
004:50:41 Borman: Bill is the only one that can see it. Just a minute.
004:50:45 Borman: We're 90 degrees from its X-axis, and we must be out 1,000 feet [300 metres] and moving out.
004:50:33 Collins: Roger. Understand; 90 degrees from its X-axis and about 1,000 feet and separating.
004:50:59 Anders: Plus or minus a couple of thousand.
004:51:03 Collins: Understand. [Long pause.]
Houston, this is Apollo 8. I think we've got clearance now; we got a little behind on our P23s
, but I suggest we go ahead and start those now.
004:52:06 Collins: Roger. Stand by. [Long pause.]
Apollo Control here. As we started to say, the distance from Earth, 17,400 [nautical] miles [32,200 km]. Our velocity now has slowed in relation to the Earth down to 14,384 feet per second [4,384 m/s] and constantly slowing. We just heard from the Command Pilot [means Commander] and he says they will resume the Flight Plan now with their navigation tasks. At 4 hours and 52 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control Houston.
004:52:38 Borman: We're well clear of the S-IVB now, Houston.
004:52:40 Collins: Roger, Bill. Thank you, and at your convenience, could you give us the PRD reading?
Collins (continued): And as far as the P23 goes, that's just fine to get started with it. It looks like your first star, which is number 14, should be good until about 05:15 GET. Over.
004:53:02 Anders: Roger. We'll start P23.
Diagram to explain the geometry of P23 navigation sightings.
004:54:18 Anders: Houston. Apollo 8 with a PRD reading.
004:54:21 Collins: Go ahead.
004:54:23 Anders: Roger. At 4 hours, 4 minutes; Commander is 0, CMP 0.64, LMP 0.02.
004:54:34 Collins: Got that. Copy left to right: 0, 0.64, and 0.02 at 4 hours and 4 minutes. Thank you.
004:54:43 Anders: Roger. At 04:53, it was 0.01, 0.64, 0.03, and negligible on the survey meter.
004:54:53 Collins: Roger. Thank you. [Long pause.]
004:55:12 Borman: I have a beautiful view of the S-IVB and the Earth here in one. I'll try and get a picture for you.
004:55:18 Collins: Hope so. [Pause.]
AS08-16-2594 - Earth and S-IVB, both cropped at the edge of frame.
AS08-16-2594 with expanded image of the S-IVB which was cropped at the edge of frame.
004:55:27 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. We've got you about a minute away from the Continuous Vent, Open, and 14 minutes away from the big dump, and we would like an estimate on your distance now if you can give it.
004:55:46 Borman: Stand by. Our distance is about 3,000 feet [900 metres] we would estimate.
004:55:50 Collins: Thank you. [Long pause.]
004:56:38 Borman: And we can see the vent.
004:56:44 Collins: Apollo 8. Houston. Say again.
004:56:47 Borman: We can see the vent.
004:56:49 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
004:58:31 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.
004:58:33 Collins: Go ahead, Jim.
004:58:35 Lovell: Boy, it's really hard to describe what this Earth looks like. I'm looking out my center window, which is a round window, and the window is bigger than the Earth is right now. I can clearly see the terminator. I can see most of South America, all the way up to Central America, Yucatan, and the peninsula of Florida. There is a big swirling motion just off the East Coast, and then going on over toward the east, I can still see West Africa, which has a few clouds right now. We can see all the way down to Cape Horn in South America.
004:59:21 Collins: Good grief, that must be quite a view.
004:59:24 Borman: Yes. Tell the people in Tierra Del Fuego to put on their raincoats; looks like a storm is out there.
004:59:31 Collins: Roger. Will do. Do you care to give them a 24-hour forecast?
004:59:41 Borman: Probably as good as any other.
This is Apollo Control Houston 5 hours, 3 minutes into the flight. The spacecraft is 18 - nearly 19,000 [nautical] miles [35,000 km] from Earth nearing the synchronous point, which it will just start on through, of course. Velocity continues to slow, it's now 13,860 feet per second [4,225 m/s]. In the last 10 minutes we had another beautiful view type statement from the crew. We heard from both Lovell and Frank Borman, and the view indeed must be extraordinary. They described the cloud cover over Africa, over all of South America, and the effects over much of North America. Frank Borman issued a special little weather warning. He suggested the people in Tierra del Fuego area at the tip of South America better get their rain coats out...
005:05:13 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8.
005:05:17 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
005:05:22 Borman: Roger. You might be interested to know the center window is pretty well fogged up, but the other four seem to be in pretty good shape.
AS17-145-22272 from Apollo 17 showing layout of windows on an Apollo Command Module.
005:05:29 Collins: Glad to hear you've got four out of five [windows], and your big dump will be coming up in 2 minutes or so.
005:05:35 Borman: Roger. We're standing by.
005:06:48 Borman: The S-IVB has started [to] dump. [Long pause.]
005:07:19 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.
005:07:20 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8.
005:07:22 Lovell: Roger. Mike, did you say star 14 was good till about 05:30 or something?
005:07:27 Collins: Yes. Stand by while I give you that time again. Star number 14 should be good for about another 8 minutes, Jim - 7 minutes.
005:07:41 Lovell: Okay. Now be advised, the optics calibration is very difficult to do because of all the other little stars floating around here. I'm going to - bypass it and do it at the end of this.
005:07:59 Collins: Roger, Apollo 8. Understand. [Pause.]
Schematic of the Apollo Sextant optical system.
005:08:10 Collins: You should have the LOX dump now, Apollo 8. [Pause.]
005:08:21 Lovell: Houston, this is 8. I'm looking through the scanning telescope and that LOX dump and just blanked out completely the entire scanning telescope.
005:08:30 Collins: Understand.
005:08:32 Borman: It's a fantastic sight, Bill. Looks like the S-IVB, [made] a small attitude excursion while it's dumping.
005:08:38 Collins: Roger. Understand.
Apollo Control here. We are 5 hours, 9 minutes into the flight and we, as you heard the crew record, the S-IVB is doing its propulsive vent and now we should see pretty dramatic separation between the two vehicles. The S-IVB will remain on a path which will take it essentially, if you consider the Moon straight ahead of you for analogy purposes, it will take the S-IVB to the right of the Moon while the spacecraft will veer into the left and slightly ahead of the Moon. Earlier in that conversation you heard Anders reporting his PRD reading and it's the Personal Radiation Dosimeter, and perhaps another dosimeter and they were down on the negligible range as we anticipated they would be. Although the crew at this point has passed through the thickest portion of the van Allen radiation belt as it departs the Earth. It will continue to go through some...
005:11:31 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:11:34 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
005:11:36 Collins: Roger. I've got a Flight Plan update for Bill if he's ready to copy.
005:11:41 Borman: Stand by.
005:11:42 Lovell: Stand by. [Long pause.]
005:11:54 Lovell: Ready to copy.
005:11:55 Collins: Okay. We are about 05:10 GET where we will record the block data, TLI plus four and TLI plus 11. The TLI plus four PAD that we gave you before is perfectly all right. We will not require that one, and we will have the TLI plus 11 hour PAD for you shortly, then at 05:45 or 6 hours on that High Gain Antenna checkout. Roger. Standing by.
005:12:28 Borman: We are on Omni-D, and we heard - we lost you after - TLI plus four was okay.
005:12:32 Collins: Okay. The TLI plus 4-hour PAD is okay. We will have the TLI plus 11-hour PAD for you shortly, and at 05:50, for your High Gain Antenna checkout, we would like you to leave that switch in Wide Beam with reference to our conversation the other day; leave it in Wide.
005:12:52 Borman: Roger. Don't want to zap your receivers.
005:12:55 Collins: No, it has to do with some loss of tracking data, so it is better to leave it Wide.
005:13:00 Borman: Okay.
005:16:41 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8. Are you recording what we are getting out of (P)23?
005:16:44 Collins: Stand by one, Jim; I'll check. [Long pause.]
005:17:27 Collins: That is affirmative, Jim; we are copying your P23.
005:17:32 Lovell: Pretty big numbers there.
005:17:34 Collins: Well, we think that is because you bypassed the trunnion check.
005:17:40 Lovell: Roger.
005:22:18 Lovell: Houston, we are getting some really big numbers in Delta-R and Delta-V.
005:22:23 Collins: Roger. Understand, Jim.
005:22:25 Lovell: Do you want us to proceed with this, or should we just leave them alone?
005:22:32 Collins: Apollo 8, say again.
005:22:34 Lovell: Do you want us to accept these, or should we leave them alone?
005:22:37 Collins: Stand by.
005:23:46 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:23:49 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.
005:23:50 Collins: Roger. We do not wish you to accept those marks. This is due to the fact that in bypassing the trunnion bias check, you still have big numbers left in those registers, so you go ahead when - after you do the trunnion bias check. Those numbers will become small later, but do not accept them right now.
005:24:11 Borman: Understand, Houston.
005:24:13 Collins: We have a TLI plus 11-hour update for you when you are ready to copy.
005:24:20 Borman: Stand by. [Long pause.]
005:25:00 Anders: Roger. Ready to copy TLI plus 11.
005:25:04 Collins: Roger, Bill. TLI plus 11, and this assumes no midcourse correction number 1: it's an SPS/G&N; 63330; minus 1.63, plus 1.29. Are you with me so far?
005:25:30 Anders: Roger.
005:25:32 Collins: Okay. 013:56:47.59; minus 0048.9, plus 0000.0, plus 4725.0; 177, 144, 000; not applicable, plus 0019.7; 4725.3, 5:54, 4705.0; 12, 127.8, 25.6; 023, up 26.5, left 1.8. Are you with me so far?
005:27:03 Anders: Roger.
005:27:05 Collins: Okay. Plus 11.97, minus 165.00; 1268.1, 35608, 050:46:53; GDC align north set stars; roll, 068; pitch, 097; yaw, 356; ullage none; other: one, fast return, P37, Delta-V equals 7,900 for Indian Ocean; number 2, high-speed procedure not required; number 3, assumes no midcourse corrections number 1. Over.
005:28:38 Anders: Roger. TLI plus 11. SPS/G&N; 63330; minus 1.63, plus 1.29; 013:56:47.59; minus 0048.9, plus 0000, plus 4725.0. You copy so far?
005:29:06 Collins: Yes. I'm with you so far. [Pause.]
005:29:11 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston, affirmative. I'm with you.
005:29:14 Anders: Roll 177, 144, 00; N/A, plus 0019.7; 4725.3, 5:54, 4705.0; 12, 127.8, 2.6 - correction - 25.6; 023, up 26.5, left 1.8. Copy so far?
005:29:49 Collins: Yes, I'm with you so far, Bill; go ahead.
005:29:54 Anders: Plus 11.97, minus 165.00; 1268.1, 35608, 050:6 - correction - 050:46:53; north set, 068, 097, 356; zero ullage. Note one: fast return, P37, Delta-V Indian Ocean; two, high-speed procedure not required; three, PAD assumes no MCC 1. Over.
005:30:42 Collins: That's all correct, Bill.
005:30:49 Anders: Roger. [Long pause.]
005:31:08 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.
005:31:10 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8.
005:31:13 Lovell: Roger, Mike. I'd like to give some comments on P23 data. The auto maneuver was quite accurate. Looks like we got some substellar point in the maneuver; auto optics put Canopus straight where it should be; minimum impulse control worked as advertised.
Diagram comparing coupled RCS control with minimum impulse control.
Lovell (continued): At the altitudes at which I started to do the sightings, they have a definite hazy band line. The filter gives the Earth a glow, sort of an orangey glow. It's very indefinite of where to put the star, but there does seem to be a solid line where you might expect the horizon to be that appears through the haze where we expect the atmosphere to be. I followed the procedure which we had done up at MIT, about two lines atop the haze layer a definite line for these sightings. In regards to the optics calibration, it was very difficult to find a star in the landmark line of sight in the venting of the S-IVB.
005:32:33 Collins: Roger, Apollo 8. We copied that, and we'd like for you to do that trunnion check, that calibration, prior to your next set of sightings.
005:32:44 Lovell: Roger. Will do. Canopus just disappeared from view, and maybe when we get a little time here, I'll try to get a calibration the first time.
005:32:56 Collins: Roger. Understand.
005:33:00 Anders: And, Houston. We've rewound the [DSE] tape; you can dump it at your convenience.
005:33:07 Collins: Roger, Bill. Thank you. Are you still picking up anything on the VHF?
005:33:15 Anders: Are you playing anything?
005:33:17 Collins: Affirmative. [Long pause.]
005:33:41 Anders: No, I'm not picking anything up.
005:33:43 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
This is Apollo Control Houston, 5 hours, 33 minutes into this flight. We are now 22,500 [nautical] miles [41,700 km] from Earth, our velocity 12,700 feet per second [3,870 m/s]. In the course of his recent remarks, Jim Lovell said that he had a lot of difficulty in finding the proper stars, various star checks from - because of the competition of the S-IVB venting. Apparently that is setting off big splashes of light, which drown out the stars; however, they should be separating. At the last reading they were 3,000 feet [900 metres] from the S-IVB, and that distance should he growing. The crew has just advised that they can no longer hear the music we have been piping to them by VHF out of California. At the last report, they were getting our 18 - 19,000 miles. We just cleared them and they said they were not hearing it. ...
005:33:44 Anders: What's our altitude now?
005:33:50 Collins: Well, you're about 22,000 miles.
005:33:55 Anders: Okay.
005:33:56 Collins: Give or take a thousand feet.
005:33:59 Anders: I'll go ahead and turn VHF-A off and High Gain.
005:34:03 Collins: Roger, Bill. Thank you.
005:34:06 Anders: It was some pretty nice music while it lasted.
005:34:09 Collins: Yes, I bet so. [Long pause.]
005:35:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:35:04 Lovell: Go ahead, Houston.
005:35:07 Collins: We're going to have to wait until we get the High Gain Antenna locked on again to dump the tape.
005:35:15 Borman: Okay. And you are about ready for us to go to the PTC attitude?
005:35:23 Collins: Stand by one.
005:35:26 Borman: Okay. [Long pause.]
005:35:57 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:36:00 Borman: Go ahead.
005:36:01 Collins: We'd like to hold off on the PTC and get some more P23 information. We'll have some more details of that for you shortly.
005:36:09 Borman: Alright.
005:36:10 Lovell: Mike, what I'm doing now, I'm going over to the star Sirius...
005:36:28 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. You faded out completely, Jim. I heard Frank, but it faded when you began talking. Say again.
005:36:38 Lovell: Roger. I have switched to Sirius, the second star in the first set, to see if I can't get an optics calibration on it, at least.
005:36:49 Collins: Roger. That's fine. We'll have some more good words for you shortly.
005:38:15 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:38:18 Lovell: Go ahead.
005:38:19 Collins: Jim, on your P23, we'd like to go ahead and do the calibration and then use star number 15 and take three sets, followed by star number 16, two sets. Over.
005:38:38 Lovell: Roger, Houston. That's what we're trying to do. I'm trying to get [star] 15 for an optics cal. It's been very difficult with the bright Earth to find a star that we can get into the sextant. I'm trying to use the auto optics in P23 to get the star. We have that now; we're trying to maneuver the spacecraft to bring the trunnion to zero so we can get the landmark line of sight.
005:39:01 Collins: Roger. Understand. And I also have your PTC attitude, which is different than you have. I'll give that to you whenever you get a free moment. [Pause.]
005:39:16 Borman: Ready to copy.
005:39:18 Collins: Alright. PTC attitude will be pitch, 242; yaw is 020. Over.
005:39:29 Anders: Pitch, 242; yaw, 020. Copy.
005:39:33 Collins: Very good; thank you.
005:50:56 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.
005:51:00 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
005:51:03 Anders: Roger. We'll hold up on the High-Gain check until we get out of P23.
005:51:07 Collins: Roger, Bill. Thank you. [Pause.]
005:51:15 Collins: You may have to delay your lunch a little bit. Are you hungry?
005:51:19 Anders: No.
005:51:22 Collins: First time I ever heard you say that. [Long pause.]
005:52:11 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
005:52:13 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
005:52:14 Collins: Roger. It looks to us like the S-IVB is behaving completely normally in regard to all the blowdowns and other sequential events that take place. It looks good.
005:52:24 Borman: Roger. How far away is it from us now?
005:52:29 Collins: We were going to ask you.
005:52:31 Borman: (Laughter) Okay.
005:52:33 Lovell: Fifty miles.
005:52:34 Collins: Roger. Copy.
005:52:41 Borman: Let's make that 80 kilometers, since there are some international aspects to this flight.
005:52:49 Collins: Roger.
This is Apollo Control, Houston; 5 hours, 52 minutes into the flight. You undoubtedly heard Frank Borman say that they would delay temporarily the checkout of the High Gain Antenna. And that - we just got an estimate from the crew on the distance of the S-IVB. Frank Borman estimates 50 miles, about 50 miles away. And then he corrected it and said in view of the international aspects of this flight let's make it 80 kilometers. Meanwhile, Lovell is checking his navigational programs and assuring that he can see the - making sure that his optics are operating properly. At 5 hours - the High Gain Antenna, by the way, is of course of considerable interest to many of our data transmission including the transmission of televised data. So it was programmed to be checked out at 5 hours and 40 minutes into the flight. It will be delayed slightly, perhaps 15 or 20 minutes. This is Apollo Control Houston.
005:53:52 Lovell: Okay, Houston. We did an optics calibration; we get zeros all the time.
005:53:58 Collins: Roger. Understand; optics calibration and zeros all the time. Good.
005:54:03 Lovell: It takes a lot longer to do it, though. I had to go to a star like Sirius to finally see it.
005:54:09 Collins: Roger. Understand. We are real glad you got that so we can get a horizon calibration to put in the computer. [Long pause.]
005:54:55 Borman: Looks like the number 5 window is starting to fog up, Houston.
005:55:01 Collins: Roger, Houston. Understand it's the number 5 that is fogging up. [Long pause.]
005:55:48 Lovell: Houston, P23 coming through with Sirius.
005:55:53 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
005:55:54 Lovell: A little better, these numbers are a little better.
005:55:57 Collins: We would expect so.
006:07:16 Borman: Houston, how do you read? Apollo 8.
006:07:18 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead.
006:07:21 Borman: Roger. Have you been getting the downlink on the P23?
006:07:25 Collins: That is affirmative.
006:07:28 Borman: Okay. Now how much longer do you want us to hold off going to PTC?
006:07:33 Collins: Stand by one, Frank.
This is Apollo Control Houston at 6 hours, 8 minutes into the flight. We're pretty settled here in the Control Center on the first midcourse correction, which is presently planned as an SPS burn. Purposely wanted to get some early indication of its performance, the Service Propulsion System, and fortunately, the other events seemed to have worked in their favor. We are presently planning an SPS burn of 2 to 3 seconds duration. We will be putting 24 feet per second into the overall velocity. This event is presently scheduled to occur at about 9 hours into the flight. Beyond that, we still have no other indication of - we don't know any better just when the High Gain Antenna checkout will be made, but it should be done shortly. ...
006:13:16 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.
006:13:18 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
006:13:24 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.
006:13:26 Lovell: Roger. Are you recording all of the data from 23, or do you want some read down to you?
006:13:37 Collins: Stand by, Jim. We think we are getting it all. We are confirming now. That is affirmative, Jim. We are getting all that is coming down. How is it going?
006:13:47 Lovell: It's working very nicely. I finished - one set was Sirius, three stars [means marks], and one set with Procyon, or two sightings; three sightings with Sirius and two with Procyon.
006:14:03 Borman: Okay, Houston. This is Apollo 8. We are ready to go to the PTC attitude.
006:14:10 Collins: Roger, Frank. Understand. And we understand you've completed all sets, three on one and two on another in P23. Is that right?
006:14:18 Borman: That's affirmative. But we've finished the five sightings, three on [star] 15 and two on [star] 16.
006:16:18 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
006:16:20 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
006:16:22 Collins: Roger, Frank. What we are doing down here is this. We'd really like the horizon calibration. We would like a total of 15 marks; you know, three sets on one star, two on the other. On the other hand, we are balancing that with the need to go to PTC, and we are not losing sight of the fact that you want to go to PTC right away. So if you will bear with us another couple of minutes, we are trying to decide whether to ask you to go back and do some more of P23 or whether to clear you at this time to go to PTC. Over.
006:16:50 Borman: Okay. We started maneuvering to PTC. We are getting kind of far behind, and what I am concerned about, Mike, Jim is now taking off his pressure suit.
006:17:00 Collins: Roger. Understand. How about you and Bill?
006:17:03 Borman: Well, we are standing by till he gets through.
006:17:04 Collins: Understand. And you are maneuvering to PTC. That's fine.
006:17:09 Borman: Well, I would prefer to do that, but we will...
006:17:14 Collins: Okay. Stand by just one.
006:22:12 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.
006:22:14 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.
Roger. We would like to hold off on the Passive Thermal Control until 7 hours GET and, in the meantime, to get as many more P23 marks as we can, starting with the first star and doing two sets of three marks each, and then going to the second star we gave you. And concurrent with that, if possible, we would like Bill to run this High Gain Antenna check-out if Lovell's attitude is compatible with that.
006:22:49 Borman: Okay. But they have not been to date. We are almost to the Passive Thermal Control attitude now, and Jim is just half way through taking his suit off.
006:22:58 Collins: Roger. Understand.
006:23:01 Borman: We'll have to hold off for a minute here. [Pause.]
006:23:10 Collins: Roger, Frank. And the reason for this is the horizon calibration requires a number of points to give you good data for the onboard NAV coming on.
006:23:21 Borman: Roger. We understand. We will be right back with you; just have to wait a minute here.
006:23:26 Collins: Roger. Thank you.
006:23:28 Borman: That failing to separate from the S-IVB kind of fouled us up a little.
006:23:32 Collins: Understand.
006:27:21 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. How do you read?
006:27:24 Collins: Apollo 8. Go ahead.
006:27:27 Borman: Roger. We are standing by. Are you about ready for the High Gain Antenna trial?
006:27:33 Collins: Okay. Just a second; we will check on that. Then are you in a position where you can go back to the star sightings?
006:27:40 Borman: Well, we will be, but we can't until Jim gets ready.
006:27:44 Collins: Okay. We will stand by, and you give us a mark on that. In just a second, I will check on the antenna. Okay. It looks like we are ready to go on the High Gain Antenna check. And we can either go with commands called out from the ground, and you can monitor it, or you can be talked through it, whichever you prefer.
006:28:11 Borman: Well, stand by. I guess we are not quite in a proper attitude yet.
006:28:15 Collins: Roger.
006:28:17 Borman: We are slowly getting it.
This is Apollo Control Houston. At 6 hours, 29 minutes into the flight. At the present time, here in Mission Control Center, we are in the process of changing shifts. Flight Director Milton Windler and his Maroon Team of flight controllers coming on to relieve Flight Director Clifford Charlesworth and the Green Team.