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Day 8, part 2: More Television and Stowage for Re-entry Journal Home Page Day 9, part 2: Entry and Splashdown

Apollo 11

Day 9, part 1: Approaching Earth

Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2010 - 2019 by W. David Woods, Kenneth D. MacTaggart and Frank O'Brien. All rights reserved.
Last updated 2019-08-06
Index to events
First communication from crew 189:28:35
Entry PAD 191:43:57
P52 platform realignment 192:12:00
P52 platform realignment 193:35:00
The crew of Apollo 11 waken about five hours before splashdown, to be told that the final Midcourse Correction in the Flight Plan, the seventh, is cancelled. They receive final details of their re-entry into the atmosphere and photograph the Earth as it expands rapidly in the windows of their spacecraft.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control. 183 hours, 25 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. Columbia spacecraft now 69,520 nautical miles [128,751 km] out from Earth, approaching at 6 thou - as you were - 7,262 feet per second [2,213 m/s]. Crew now in their rest period. Started their sleep period a little over an hour ago. To reiterate the change in landing point, this is a weather avoidance situation where thunderstorms are forecast for the aiming point - the original aiming point in the mid-Pacific. Therefore, after the normal Entry Interface, the lifting characteristics of the Apollo Command Module will be used to extend the entry range some 215 nautical miles [398 km] farther down range toward Hawaii to a preliminary aiming point. That is, the aiming point may shift around between now and entry which is some 11 hours, 36 minutes from now. But at any rate, the aiming point as calculated now is some 13 degrees, 19 minutes North latitude by 169 degrees, 10 minutes West longitude. The preliminary time of drogue deploy is 195 hours, 12 minutes - or as you were - yes, 195 hours, 12 minutes, 4 seconds. And the net extension over the earlier splash time is something like 40 seconds. At 183 hours, 27 minutes Ground Elapsed Time, this is Apollo Control.
Like most capsule-type spacecraft that have flown since the space age began, the Apollo Command Module is designed to actually fly, albeit very poorly, as it comes through the atmosphere. As it passes through the air, the blunt heatshield across its base is directed into the airflow, an attitude in which it is aerodynamically stable. However, its centre of mass is deliberately offset from its geometrical centre, being placed towards the Lower Equipment Bay (LEB) and opposite the hatch and the crew's heads. This forces the craft to tilt with respect to the flight path. The angle that the heatshield presents is enough to create a lift force or vector at right angles to the direction of travel. In aerodynamic parlance, the CM has a lift/drag ratio of 0.37, a very low value but one that is effective at the hypersonic speeds of a re-entering spacecraft.
Diagram showing how the CM's offset centre of mass results in a lift vector during entry.
The direction of this lift vector can be controlled merely by rolling the spacecraft around its X-axis. Heads down places the lift vector up and the spacecraft spends longer in the thinner parts of the atmosphere. This reduces the drag and therefore extends the flight path. Conversely, heads up places the lift vector down, digging the CM into the thicker layers of the atmosphere, increasing drag and shortening the distance travelled. It is even possible to cause the spacecraft to skip out of the atmosphere altogether using this technique.
Thanks to a weather system that has settled on their intended landing site, Apollo 11 will perform a slight skip out in order to extend their entry by 215 nautical miles [398 km].
Journal contributor Sean Potter of the NASA Office of Communications has written an essay, Weathering the Recovery of Apollo 11, about the used of early weather satellites to help arrive at this decision to move the landing site.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-127.
This is Apollo Control; 185 hours, 29 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. 9 hours, 33 minutes until entry. Crew is still asleep at this time; scheduled to wake up at 189 hours Ground Elapsed Time, some 3½ hours from now. We've had no word from the crew since the scheduled sleep period began. Apollo 11 now 61,034 nautical miles [113,035 km] out from Earth and a velocity of 7,815 feet per second [2,382 m/s]. At 185 hours, 30 minutes Ground Elapsed Time; this is Apollo Control.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-128.
This is Apollo Control; 186 hours, 28 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. 8 hours, 35 minutes to entry. Crew of Columbia still asleep at this time. Some 2½ hours away from wake-up time at 189 hours Ground Elapsed Time. Because of weather avoidance in the prime recovery zone in mid-Pacific, southwest of Hawaii, it has been decided some time ago to shift the landing point or aiming point some 215 nautical miles [398 km] downrange from the pre-mission aiming point. And all of the numbers concerned with entry and post-entry events have been generated, and we shall forward them at this time. Pencils ready? Command Module/Service Module separation; 194:48:07 Ground Elapsed Time, 11:20:08 Central Daylight Time. Entry Interface, that's 400,000 feet [121.92 km] above the Earth's surface; Ground Elapsed Time 195:03:07, 11:35:08 Central Daylight Time. Begin blackout; 195:03:25 Ground Elapsed Time, 11:35:26 Central Daylight Time. 05G [twentieth of a g]; 195:03:35 GET, 11:35:36 CDT. End of blackout; 195:06:56 GET, 11:38:57 CDT. Drogue chutes deploy; 195:12:04 GET, 11:44:05 CDT. Main chutes deploy; 195:12:52, 11:44:53 CDT. Touchdown; 195:17:49 GET, 11:49:50 CDT. Maximum g-loading to be pulled during the entry phase will be 6.12 g's. Entry velocity, that's at Entry Interface of 400,000 feet, will be 36,194 feet per second [11,032 metres/second]. Flight path angle, minus 6.5 degrees. Aiming point location; 13 degrees, 19 minutes North latitude; 169 degrees, 09 minutes West longitude. At 186 hours, 32 minutes Ground Elapsed Time; this is Apollo Control.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control; 187 hours, 28 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. 7 hours, 34 minutes to entry. Flight Surgeon Ken Beers reports that all three crew members are sleeping soundly at this time. Their sleep period will end probably at 189 hours although they may sleep an additional hour to 190 hours. Spacecraft being tracked now through the Guam station. A line projected out from Earth to what's called a sub-satellite point, or the point directly under the spacecraft, would put it over dead center of Australia. At 187 hours, 29 minutes Ground Elapsed Time; this is Apollo Control.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-129.
This is Apollo Control; 188 hours, 28 minutes Ground Elapsed Time. Apollo 11 now 46,254 nautical miles [85,662 km] out from Earth. Velocity continuing to increase; now 9,081 feet per second [2,768 m/s]. There'll be a dramatic increase in velocity as the spacecraft gets closer in. Here in Mission Control Center, the entry team headed up by Flight Director Milt Windler is beginning to come aboard. Hand-over in progress from Gene Kranz's White Team. Crew still asleep at this time. They're some 6 hours, 34 minutes from Entry Interface. And at 188 hours, 29 minutes Ground Elapsed Time; this is Apollo Control.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 188 hours, 43 minutes. Mid-Course Correction number 7 has been cancelled, and we will add one hour of rest time to the Flight Plan. Crew will be awakened at 190 hours elapsed time. To repeat, we have cancelled Mid-Course Correction number 7 and we will allow the crew to sleep until 190 hours elapsed time. This is Mission Control, Houston.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 189 hours, 28 minutes. Apollo 11 is 40,961 nautical miles [75,860 km] from the Earth, approaching at a velocity of 9,671 feet per second [2,948 m/s]. Mid-Course Correction number 7 has been cancelled, and as a result we will let the crew sleep until an elapsed time of 190 hours. Weather in the recovery area... Well, we're getting a call from Apollo 11, now. Let's listen to that.
189:28:35 Armstrong: Hello, Houston. Apollo 11.
189:28:39 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Go.
189:28:43 Armstrong: Roger. Good morning. What's the status on Mid-Course 7?
189:28:47 Evans: Roger. We were going to let you sleep in until about 190 hours. Mid-Course 7 is not required.
189:28:54 Armstrong: Okay. Thank you.
Very long comm break.
The crew gave us a call at 189 hours, 29 minutes. We advised them of the cancellation of the Mid-Course Correction. Weather in the recovery area: skies will be partly cloudy. Cloud base is at 2,000 feet scattered. Wind, east north east at 18 knots. 6-foot sea. Temperature near 80 degrees [27°C]. This landing area is 215 miles [400 km] to the northeast from the original landing area, moved because of thunder showers in the original area. This new location should allow the recovery ship USS Hornet to arrive in Hawaii 4 to 5 hours earlier than originally planned. We expect it may be possible for the carrier to arrive at Pearl Harbor somewhere between 8 and 9 o'clock, on July 26th, that's Saturday.
The crew is probably preparing breakfast now and it's not likely we'll hear a lot from them in the - right away, but we'll continue to stay up live for any conversation.
Visibility in the recovery area is 10 miles [18.5 km].
Clock shows we're 5½ hours away from Entry Interface, the point at which Apollo 11 will enter the Earth's atmosphere. That's scheduled to occur at an elapsed time of 195 hours, 3 minutes, 7 seconds. We expect landing at 195 hours, 17 minutes, 49 seconds.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control. Apollo 11 is now 38,793 nautical miles [71,845 km] from the Earth. Velocity, 9,947 feet per second [3,032 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-130.
This is Apollo Control at 190 hours, 10 minutes. Apollo 11's distance from the Earth, 36,956 nautical miles [68,443 km]. Velocity, 10,195 feet per second [3,107 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
190:19:07 Evans: Apollo 11. Good morning from Houston. Over.
190:19:12 Armstrong: Good morning, 11.
190:19:15 Evans: Roger. We saw you're up, stirring around, and we thought you're probably eating your breakfast there. Just in general, we'll probably start coming up with the uplink of the state vectors and the target loads and what have you at about 190:50, somewhere in that area, and get you started to work.
190:19:35 Armstrong: Okay.
190:19:36 Evans: And in the meantime, while you're eating your breakfast there, I've got the Maroon Bugle all standing by here to give you the morning news.
190:19:45 Armstrong: Glad to hear it.
190:19:48 Evans: Okay. Apollo 11 remains the prime story with the world awaiting your landing today at about 11:49 am Houston time. In Washington, House tax reformers have fashioned a provision which would make it impossible for wealthy individuals to avoid income tax entirely through tax-free investments or special allowances. Under the proposal tentatively adopted by the House Ways and Means Committee, everyone would pay taxes on at least half of their income.
190:20:25 Armstrong: Hang on a minute.
190:20:30 Evans: Roger. Standing by.
Comm break.
190:22:28 Armstrong: Okay. Okay, Ron. We're ready to go again. Thank you.
190:22:36 Evans: Roger. Continuing with the Maroon Bugle. President Nixon surprised your wives with a phone call from San Francisco just before he boarded a plane to fly out to meet you. All of them were very touched by your television broadcast. Jan and Pat watched from Mission Control here. The launch of Intelsat from the Cape was postponed for the fourth time last night. The problem was said to be a malfunctioning nitrogen regulator in the second stage of the Delta. A new attempt will be made to launch it tonight. The research submarine Ben Franklin, which is studying the Gulf Stream, set a record by drifting 24 hours from 10 to 100 feet [3 to 30 metres] above the ocean floor in 1,300 feet [400 metres] of water off the Georgia coast. The mission is lead by Jacques Piccard. Wally Schirra has been elected to a five-year term on the Board of Trustees of the Detroit Institute of Technology. He will serve on the Institute's development committee. Air Canada says it has accepted 2,300 reservations for flights to the Moon in the past five days. It might be noted that more than 100 have been made by men for their mothers-in-law. And finally it appears that rather than killing romantic songs about the Moon, you have inspired hundreds of song writers. Nashville, Tennessee, which probably houses the largest collection of recording companies and song publishers in the country, now reports it is being flooded by Moon songs. Some will make it. The song at the top of the best sellers list this week is, "In the year 2525." Morning Bugle. Out.
'In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)' was written by Rick Evans in 1964 and became a hit for Zager and Evans, a musical duo from Nebraska, in July 1969.
190:24:51 Armstrong: Thank you very much, Ron.
Long comm break.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
190:31:42 Armstrong: Houston, crew status report: 5.5, 7, 5.5.
These numbers are the crew's report on their sleep hours, in the order CDR, CMP, LMP.
190:31:52 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Roger. We copy. And I have your consumables update, if you're ready to copy.
190:32:00 Armstrong: Go ahead.
190:32:01 Evans: Roger. GET 189 plus 00: RCS total, minus 1 percent; Alpha, minus 11; Bravo, plus 10; Charlie, minus 1; Delta, minus 1. H2 total, minus 0.76 pounds; oxygen total, plus 17.6 pounds. Over.
190:32:41 Armstrong: Okay. It doesn't look like we're going to be able to get quite back on the Flight Plan.
190:32:46 Evans: Not quite. Just about, though.
Very long comm break.
This is Apollo Control at 190 hours, 34 minutes. Apollo 11's distance from the Earth, 34,622 nautical miles [64,120 km]. Velocity, 10,534 feet per second [3,211 m/s].
As the spacecraft approaches Earth, a series of photographs of the planet are being taken on magazine V. Using image measurement and some trigonometry, the distances and times can be calculated.
AS11-44-6676 - Earth at about 63,000 km or 34,000 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 190:39:00. North is down. The Sun is glinting off the western Indian Ocean. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Arabian peninsula visible as the brown patch at the extreme right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6677 - Earth at about 63,000 km or 34,000 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 190:39:00. North is down. The Sun is glinting off the western Indian Ocean. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Arabian peninsula visible as the brown patch at the extreme right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
190:45:13 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Request P00 and Accept, and we'll send you a REFSMMAT, state vector, and entry target load. Over.
190:45:23 Armstrong: You have it.
190:45:29 Evans: Roger. It'll be coming up.
Comm break.
Neil throws the Uptelemetry switch to Accept
CM UpTelemetry switch on Panel 2. (Click for wider context.)
This permits Mission Control to directly access the 2 Kwords of erasable memory in the computer so that important data relevant to the upcoming entry can be uploaded. This includes an updated state vector, a target for the guidance system to aim for during entry, and a new REFSMMAT.
By aligning the guidance platform per this Entry REFSMMAT, the FDAI displays will show the spacecraft's attitude relative to an orientation that relates to Entry Interface. This has the IMU X-axis pointed along the direction of travel but parallel to the horizontal at Entry Interface. The Z-axis points down the local vertical and the Y-axis points right to complete the right-hand coordinate system.
190:48:04 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Can you tell us where the visor assemblies ended up, there?
190:48:12 Armstrong: We're going to follow your suggestion and stow them under the right-hand couch.
190:48:17 Evans: Roger. Mighty fine. Break. The weather forecast in the landing area right now is 2,000 scattered, high scattered, 10 miles. The wind about 080 at 18 knots. You'll have about 3- to 6-foot waves. Your Delta-H is plus 10 feet. And it looks like you'll be landing about 10 minutes before sunrise. Over.
190:48:49 Armstrong: Okay. Sounds good.
In light of the expected ocean swell of up to 6 feet, Mike recalls that the crew took sea-sickness pills: "In deference to the waves, all three of us take an anti-motion-sickness pill, for we know that the keel-less Command Module wallows disastrously on the water, and there is no point in throwing up if we can avoid it." Carrying the Fire, W.Hh Allen, 1974, page 437.
190:48:52 Evans: Roger.
Comm break.
Ron Evans explains the Delta-H term more fully at 190:58:22. Delta-H in this context refers to the difference between actual sea level and zero feet as measured by the spacecraft's altimeter.
The Command Module Altimeter at the top of panel 1, as photographed in the cabin of Odyssey, the Apollo 13 CM.
The spacecraft's altimeter is very similar in operation to a conventional aviation altimeter that uses outside air pressure as a proxy for altitude. Therefore, if the air pressure at the landing site happens to be very different to that for which the altimeter is calibrated, then zero on the scale would not coincide with sea level. Aviation altimeters have an adjustment that allows the sea level air pressure to be dialled in, thereby calibrating them for a local area. When an aircraft reaches cruise altitude, the normal procedure is to readjust this calibration to a standard pressure of 29.92 inches or 760 mm of mercury, now equivalent to 1,013 millibars of pressure. The CM altimeter is already calibrated for this standard pressure.
190:50:31 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. All three loads are in. The computer is yours. Over.
190:50:38 Armstrong: Roger.
190:50:40 Evans: And Mike, if you're on loop there, to extend the range and the constant-g re-entry, here, I've got a little procedure, if you'd like to listen to it.
190:50:56 Collins: Stand by one.
190:50:57 Evans: Roger.
190:51:01 Collins: I'm right in the middle of my orange juice. Be with you in about 5 minutes.
190:51:04 Evans: Sure, no problem, standing by.
Comm break.
190:52:24 Aldrin: Houston, Apollo 11. Hey, Ron, I wonder if you could give us a good Navy explanation for this Delta-H term. Over.
190:52:35 Evans: Roger. Let me think about it, and I'll come back.
190:52:38 Aldrin: You too, huh?
There seems to be a little inter-forces rivalry going on here. Mike and Buzz are both Air Force, Neil and Ron Evans are both Navy. Referring to the calibration of the altimeter in terms of Delta-H is unusual.
190:52:41 Evans: [Laughter] Right.
190:52:48 Aldrin: Collins has got one, but I'm not sure I buy it.
Long comm break.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 190 hours, 56 minutes. Apollo 11's distance from Earth; 32,447 nautical miles [60,092 km]. Velocity; 10,876 feet per second [3,315 m/s].
190:58:16 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston.
190:58:21 Aldrin: Go ahead.
190:58:22 Evans: Roger, 11. We don't have to worry about it any more. The altimeter out there is now standard, 29.92. But basically what it means is that if I give you a plus 10 feet, for instance, that means that you will hit the water with the altimeter reading 10 feet. Over.
190:58:41 Collins: All right.
190:58:43 Aldrin: Ah, Collins was wrong.
Very long comm break.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-131.
This is Apollo Control at 191 hours, 15 minutes. Apollo 11 is now 30,469 nautical miles [56,429 km] from Earth, approaching at a velocity of 11,221 feet per second [3,420 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 191 hours, 38 minutes. Apollo 11's distance from Earth now 27,979 nautical miles [51,817 km]. Velocity; 11,689 feet per second [3,563 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
191:43:31 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. I have your Entry PAD. Over. [Pause.]
191:43:42 Armstrong: Stand by.
191:43:46 Evans: Roger. Standing by. [Pause.]
191:43:54 Armstrong: Okay, I'm ready to copy.
191:43:57 Evans: Roger. Entry PAD: area is the mid-Pacific; roll 000, 152, 001; GET 194:46:06, 267; latitude, plus 13.32, minus 169.17; 06.4; 36194, 6.49; range to go, 1404.5, 36275; 195:03:06, 00:28, DL max, 1.54, 0.84, 22400, 18000; D0 4.00, 02:13; 00:17, 03:51, 09:02; sextant star, 45, 018.9, 27.7; boresight star, none available; lift vector, Up. Comments: GDC align, Vega and Deneb, roll 078, pitch 223 [means 233 - corrects later], yaw 340. Additional comments: Use non-exit EMS pattern; EI minus 30 horizon check, GET 194:33:06; pitch 298. You'll get P65, but no P66. Additional note: Initial bank angle in P67 may not be full lift. Apollo 11, Houston. Read back. [Long pause.]
191:48:46 Armstrong: Okay, Ron. For MIDPAC: 000, 152, 001; 194:46:06, 267; plus 13.32, minus 169.17; 06.4; 36194, 6.49; 1404.5, 36275; 195:03:06, 00:28, 1.54, 0.84, 2240, 180, 4.00, 02:13; 00:17, 03:51, 09:02; 45, 018.9, 27.7; none available; lift vector, Up; GDC align, Vega and Deneb, roll 078, pitch 223, yaw 340. Use non-exit EMS. EI minus 30 horizon check, 194:33:06, pitch 298. Initial bank angle in P67 may not be full lift, and we will get P65 but no P66.
This is the final Entry PAD and it is entered into a standard form, like one to be found as page 2-18 of the Flight Plan. It is interpreted as follows:
Purpose: Entry.
Landing target: The landing target is in the Mid-Pacific.
IMU gimbal angles required for trim at 0.05g: Roll, 0°; pitch, 152°; yaw, 1°. This will be the spacecraft's attitude relative to the IMU at the moment they reach a deceleration of twentieth of a g. As aerodynamic forces build up, the CM will increasingly hold itself at a similar attitude.
Time of the horizon check: 194 hours, 46 minutes, 6 seconds GET. This check will occur 17 minutes before time of Entry Interface which is 195:03:06.
Spacecraft pitch at horizon check: 267°.
Splashdown point (Noun 61): 13.32° north latitude, 169.17° west longitude.
Maximum number of g's during entry: 6.4. Since the acceleration of one g is 9.81 metres/second, the crew will experience a deceleration of 62.8 metres/second.
Velocity at Entry Interface (400,000 feet altitude, Noun 60): 36,194 feet/second (11,032 metres/second).
Entry flight path angle at Entry Interface: 6.49°.
Range to go to splashdown point from 0.05g event: 1,404.5 nautical miles. To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel from the 0.05g event to landing. This figure will be decremented by the EMS based on signals from its own accelerometer. Since this is just a number to be entered into a counter, a SI conversion is not considered necessary.
Predicted inertial velocity at 0.05g event: 36,275 feet/second. This is another entry for the EMS. It is entered into the unit's Delta-V counter and will be decremented based on signals from its own accelerometer. It is interesting to note that their velocity is continuing to increase between EI and
Time of Entry Interface (RRT): 195 hours, 3 minutes, 6 seconds GET.
Time from Entry Interface to 0.05g event: 0:28 (seconds).
The next four items relate to the g-forces and velocities that pertain to the skip-out maneuver that this entry will perform.
Maximum drag level at skip-out maneuver (Noun 69): 1.54g
Minimum drag level at skip-out maneuver (Noun 69): 0.84g
Maximum skip-out velocity: 22,400 feet/second (~6,800 metres/second)
Minimum skip-out velocity: 18,000 feet/second (~5,500 metres/second)
Planned drag level (deceleration) during the constant g phase: 4.00g.
Time from Entry Interface until their velocity slows sufficiently to allow a circular orbit around the Earth: 2:13.
The practical implication of this is that this is the "capture point" where the CM cannot exit on an orbit around Earth. It is bound to reach the surface on this pass.
Time from Entry Interface that the communications blackout begins: 0:17.
Time from Entry Interface that the communications blackout ends: 3:51.
Time from Entry Interface that the drogue parachutes will deploy: 9:02.
Sextant star: 45 (Fomalhaut, Alpha Piscis Austrini.)
Sextant shaft angle at Entry Interface minus 2 minutes: 18.9°.
Sextant trunnion angle at Entry Interface minus 2 minutes: 27.7°.
The crew will not make an additional attitude check made using the COAS sighted on a star so the next three items are not applicable.
Lift vector at Entry Interface: Up.
Comments in addition to the PAD:
If the IMU fails prior to entry and they need to have a backup alignment on the Gyro Display Couplers, then they should use stars Vega and Deneb. This would require that the spacecraft be manoeuvred to present these stars through the telescope in a particular manner. At that attitude, the GDCs can be set to the following values to be relevant to the required REFSMMAT; roll, 078; pitch, 223; yaw, 340.
Although they are extending the length of the entry by invoking the skip-out software, they will not be exiting the atmosphere so therefore they should use the part of the EMS scroll that pertains to a non-exit entry.
When making a check of the horizon angle 30 minutes prior to Entry Interface, their pitch angle should be 298°.
In a conventional entry, P64 is followed by P67. For a skip-out re-entry, P65 and 66 are employed to handle the exit and entry parts of the skip. In this case, because they are extending the re-entry but not actually skipping out, P66 will not be invoked and instead, P65 will lead directly to P67. The crew are also informed that they may not be in a full-lift (heads-down) attitude when they enter P67.
191:50:30 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Roger. On your GDC align pitch, it should be 233, 233 in the pitch. Over.
191:50:41 Aldrin: Okay. I've got a 233.
191:50:47 Evans: Also your VL and - and Max and Min, I'm sure, are 22,400 and 18,000. Over.
191:50:56 Aldrin: Yeah. That's right.
191:50:58 Evans: Okay. If you'll dig out your entry checklist there on page E6-1, I'll update your Retro times there for the various altitudes. Over.
191:51:10 Aldrin: Okay. Go ahead.
191:51:14 Evans: Okay. On page E6-1, your RRT is 07:20, your 50k is 08:16; 40k is 08:30; your 24k is 09:02; and your 10k is 09:51. Over.
191:52:06 Armstrong: Okay. RRT, 07:20; 50,000, 08:16. That's - 07:20 is - is the time the steam pressure's pegged from RRT; and 40,000, 08:30; 24,000, 09:02; 10,000, 09:51.
191:52:48 Evans: 11, Houston. You started out right, and then the numbers you read back were correct, but I didn't get your comment in between there.
191:52:58 Armstrong: I assume that - all I want to know is that first time, 07:20, that's the time of steam pressure peg. Right?
191:53:04 Evans: That's affirmative.
191:53:06 Armstrong: Okay.
Long comm break.
The reference to 'steam pressure peg' relates to the use of the evaporator steam pressure gauge as a backup method of determining altitudes and when events should occur. When using the evaporator, the resulting water vapour is discharged to space through a steam vent. The pressure in that vent is proportional to how much heat the evaporation is losing and is displayed on a gauge. As they descend through the atmosphere, the pressure in the vent will increase due to the air and the point at which it hit the high end of the gauge could provide a reference point for backup timings.
Earth photography continues with five shots taken around now on magazine V.
AS11-44-6678 - Earth at about 49,000 km or 26,500 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 191:53:00. North is down. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline near the limb. Arabia is on the lower right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6679 - Earth at about 49,000 km or 26,500 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 191:53:00. North is down. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline near the limb. Arabia is on the lower right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6680 - Earth at about 49,000 km or 26,500 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 191:53:00. North is down. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline near the limb. Arabia is on the lower right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6681 - Earth at about 49,000 km or 26,500 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 191:53:00. North is down. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline near the limb. Arabia is on the lower right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6682 - Earth at about 49,000 km or 26,500 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 191:53:00. North is down. The southern African continent is at upper right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline near the limb. Arabia is on the lower right of the globe. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
191:58:05 Collins: Houston, Apollo 11. Ron, I'm ready to copy your message about the constant drag level.
191:58:13 Evans: Okay, Mike. Of course, this is in the event the G&N and the EMS quits and you have to fly the constant-g; and what we're trying to do is to extend the constant-g range from 1,100 to 1,500 miles. We've run this procedure in the simulator, and it works fine. Basically, I'll go through it - just go through it, and then if you have any questions, come back. But it's the same lift vector up until Max g, and then lift vector down, and then modulate the lift vector until g-dot goes to zero. Okay, this procedure is essentially the same so far. And then hold g-dot zero until you pass the Retro elapsed time of V-circular; and then after you pass this Retro elapsed time of V-circular, roll to a gimbal angle of 45 degrees, and then hold this constant bank angle of 45 degrees until you come to the Retro elapsed time of drogues. Over.
191:59:44 Collins: Okay. It sounds straightforward enough. Understand constant-g backup - back-up procedure, lift vector up until Max g and then lift vector down, then modulate until bank angle - until g-dot equals zero. Maintain g-dot equals zero until subcircular, then roll 45 degrees and hold until drogue time. Over.
Flight Plan, page 3-132.
192:00:07 Evans: Okay. That's mighty fine, Mike. That's correct.
Very long comm break.
This is Apollo Control at 192 hours, 2 minutes. This will be first time in Apollo that crews have flown 'lift vector Up' during re-entry. Normally, lift vector is Down. However, we want to extend the range by 215 miles [400 km] so for a short period, about a minute and 24 - 25 seconds during the blackout period, the spacecraft will be flown with lift vector Up. The computer program for that is number 65, Up control. Apollo 11 is now 25,301 nautical miles [46,857 km] from Earth, velocity has increased to 12,263 feet per second [3,738 m/s].
To interpret the instructions from Evans, the start of re-entry should have the lift vector up. In other words, they should be at a heads-down, feet-up attitude as they first meet the sensible atmosphere. This is as is stated in the Entry PAD. However, if Mike has to fly the entry manually, he should maintain this attitude up until the maximum deceleration is reached. Then he should rotate the CM to a feet-down attitude. This will cause the CM to dig into the thicker layers of the atmosphere. The requirement here is to slow the CM sufficiently that its speed is below that which would allow a circular orbit. He would then want to fly the CM in such a way that their continued deceleration is constant, the g-dot being zero. He would maintain this constant deceleration until they have passed the time given in the PAD for V-circular, 2:13 after Entry Interface. This would not necessarily be the V-circular time when flying in this manual regime but it is being used as a timing point in this case. He would then roll the craft to 45° and hold that attitude until they get to the PAD time for drogues. This is 9:02 after Entry Interface.
Collins, from the 1969 Technical debrief: "Normally we're targeted for 1,108 [nautical] miles from pointer K to the ship. Initially the weather in that area looked good, but as we got in closer, Houston started making grumbling noises about the weather in that recovery area. Finally they said there were thunderstorms there and they were going at 1,500 [nautical] miles. I wasn't very happy with that fact because the great majority of our practice and simulator work and everything else had been done on a 1,187 target point. The few times we fooled around with long-range targets, the computer's performance and the ground's parameters seemed to be in disagreement. Specifically, there's an exit velocity and exit-drag-level check that's got to be within certain bounds, and it rarely, if ever, was within those bounds. So, when they said 1,500 [nautical] miles, both Neil and I thought, 'Oh God, we're going to end up having a big argument about whether the computer is Go or No-Go for a 1,500-mile entry.' Plus 1,500 [nautical] miles is not nearly as compatible - it doesn't look quite the sane on the EMS trace. If you had to take over, you'd be hard-pressed to come anywhere near the ship. For these reasons, I wasn't too happy about going 1,500 [nautical] miles, but I cannot quarrel with the decision. The system is built that way and, if the weather is bad in the recovery area, I think it's probably advantageous to go 1,500 [nautical] miles than to come down through a thunderstorm."
Two photographs of the approaching crescent of Earth are taken around now.
AS11-44-6683 - Earth at about 46,000 km or 24,900 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:06:00. North is left. The southern African continent is to the right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean clearly seen. Arabia is on the left. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6684 - Earth at about 46,000 km or 24,900 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:06:00. North is left. The southern African continent is to the right with the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean clearly seen. Arabia is on the left. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
Around 192:12, a P52 platform realignment is carried out. It used stars 02 (Diphda, Beta Ceti) and 04 (Achernar, Alpha Eridani). The amounts by which the platform had to be rotated to restore alignment were -1.166° in X, -0.69° in Y and +0.456° in Z. The star angle difference, a test of sighting accuracy, was 0.00°, an excellent result and one of the few 'all balls' checks that Mike got on the mission. This is also when he realigned the platform to the Entry REFSMMAT.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 192 hours, 30 minutes. Apollo 11 now 22,130 nautical miles [40,985 km] from Earth. Velocity; 13,053 feet per second [3,979 km]. We're 2 hours, 32 minutes, 32 seconds away from Entry Interface.
Earth photography continues on magazine V.
AS11-44-6685 - Earth at about 41,000 km or 22,200 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:30:00. North is down. The southern African continent is clear including the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Arabia is on the lower right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6686 - Earth at about 39,750 km or 21,460 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:35:00. North is down. The southern African continent is clear including the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Arabia is on the lower right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6687 - Earth at about 38,600 km or 20,850 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:40:00. North is down. The southern African continent is clear including the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Arabia is on the lower right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6688 - Earth at about 38,350 km or 20,700 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 192:42:00. North is down. The southern African continent is clear including the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Arabia is on the lower right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 192 hours, 48 minutes. Apollo 11 is 19,914 nautical miles [36,881 km] from the Earth approaching at a velocity of 13,695 feet per second [4,174 m/s]. We're 2 hours, 14 minutes, 16 seconds away from entry into the atmosphere. And a U.S. Air Force C-135 crew will attempt to photograph this re-entry of the Command Module. Aircraft designated ALOTS, for 'airborne light-weight optical tracker system', will attempt to record the entry on 70-millimeter still film. Pilot of that aircraft is the ARIA Squadron Commander. Three of his ARIA aircraft will be in the entry area to provide communications during re-entry of the Command Module. Crew of ALOTS includes the aircraft Commander, Colonel Robert W. Hoffman of Wichita Falls, Texas. The pilot, who is the ARIA Squadron Commander, Colonel Oakley W. Baron of Kankakee, Illinois. Co-Pilot Lt. Col. Wallace L. Emory, San Angelo, Texas. Navigators are Lt. Col. Ervin O. Stewart, Jr., Greensboro, North Carolina, and Major Charles W. Hinton, Mt. Auburn, Illinois. The Photographic Specialist, Master Sergeant Paul T. Swieczkowski whose home town is not listed. Colonel Baron's nickname is the Red Baron who is a veteran of more than 10,000 flying hours, and has flown more than 80 different types of aircraft.
Normally the Mission Control Center here in Houston will not attempt to contact Apollo 11 after drogue chute deployment. We will stay off the air and let the recovery forces attempt to establish voice contact. If for some reason, CapCom does want to communicate with the crew, he will request clearance from the recovery forces before putting in a call.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 192 hours, 55 minutes. A few of the entry event times have changed from a second to 4 seconds. Others remain the same. Here's the updated times: Entry, 195 hours, 3 minutes, 7 seconds; begin blackout, 195:03:25; 05-g, 195:03:36; end blackout, 195:07:00; drogue chute deployment, 195:12:08; main chute deployment, 195:12:56; landing 195:17:53. Maximum g-load expected during entry, 6.20.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
Flight Plan, page 3-133.
193:01:57 Collins: This entry time line is my kind of time line. Nice and slow.
193:02:03 Evans: Okay, 11. Houston. Roger. It sure is. EECOM is anxiously awaiting his big moment here for the logic sequence check whenever you're ready.
193:02:14 Collins: Okay. We'll be ready for that in just a flash.
193:02:17 Evans: Roger. [Pause.]
193:02:28 Lovell: Apollo 11, Houston.
193:02:31 Collins: Go ahead, Ron.
193:02:32 Lovell: This is Jim, Mike. Backup crew is still standing by. I just want to remind you that the most difficult part of your mission is going to be after recovery.
Another example of Jim Lovell's teasing humour.
193:02:42 Collins: Well, we're looking forward to all parts of it.
193:02:45 Lovell: Please don't sneeze. [Pause.]
193:02:53 Collins: Yeah, keep the mice healthy. [Pause.]
The mice will be used to test the toxicity of lunar soil samples.
On the available PAO audio recording, a loud voice comes in over the top of Mike's next two lines. Journal reader, Andrew Rodland, suggests it may be 'Bill' as other astronauts, including Bill Anders, gather at the CapCom console.
193:03:03 Collins: The Earth is really getting bigger up here and, of course, we see a crescent.
193:03:12 Collins: We've been taking pictures and we've still got four exposures to go, and we'll take those and then pack the camera.
Comm break.
Based on image measurement and trigonometry, an image of Earth's crescent is taken around now.
AS11-44-6689 - Earth at about 32,850 km or 17,750 nautical miles. Photograph taken at approximately 193:05:00. North is down. The southern African continent is clear including the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Arabia is on the lower right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
Five more full exposures will be taken on magazine V in about an hour. By that time, Earth will more than fill the frame.
And the Apollo 11 backup crew has joined CapCom Ron Evans at his console; Jim Lovell, Bill Anders and Fred Haise. Also Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations, is at that console.
193:05:18 Collins: Houston, Apollo 11. We're ready for the logic check whenever you are. We're standing by to arm the logic. We've got the ELS logic on, ELS Auto, and all the circuit breakers in.
ELS is the Earth Landing System comprising the drogue, pilot and main parachutes, as well as all the pyrotechnics that will jettison the apex cover and deploy the parachutes.
193:05:30 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Roger. You can press on with the SECS logic.
193:05:35 Collins: Okay. Logic 1 coming on.
193:05:37 Collins: Mark it.
193:05:39 Collins: Logic 2 coming on.
193:05:40 Collins: Mark it. [Pause.]
193:05:50 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Logic checks good. You're Go for Pyro Arm.
193:05:56 Collins: Thank you, sir.
Comm break.
193:07:09 Aldrin: Houston, Apollo 11 has got VHF A Simplex on whenever you want to make a comm check.
As they near Earth, it becomes possible to use the spacecraft's VHF radio system which will be the main communications link with the recovery crew. There are two systems, A and B. System A operates at a frequency of 296.8 MHz. The B system operates at 259.7 MHz. While the Service Module is attached, VHF communications are via two scimitar antennae mounted on either side of the SM's body. These antennae are lost with the jettisoning of the SM. The Command Module regains VHF communications 8 seconds after the main parachutes are deployed when two small stub antennae are deployed to support recovery. One of these is for a recovery beacon, the other supports voice communication.
193:07:20 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Roger. You faded out a little bit there, Buzz. I understand you have the VHF Simplex A on now. Is that correct? Over.
193:07:29 Aldrin: That affirmative. VHF Simplex A and we're TR on VHF.
193:07:35 Evans: Roger. Mighty fine. We'll watch it as you are coming on in and let you know when the intelligibility is up and we'll make a voice check with you at that time. [Pause.]
193:07:50 Collins: Houston, Apollo 11. I've been holding here in SCS control, Minimum Deadband, Rate Low with the limit cycle on, just as a matter of curiosity, if you guys wanted some fuel numbers from that.
193:08:07 Evans: 11, Houston. Roger. We copy and we've been figuring it out.
193:08:13 Collins: Okay.
193:08:18 Collins: It's a pleasure to be able to waste gas.
193:08:23 Evans: Roger. That's affirm.
Long comm break.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 193 hours, 10 minutes. Apollo 11 now 17,158 nautical miles [31,777 km] from Earth. Velocity; 14,633 feet per second [4,460 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
193:16:11 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston with a little Recovery Force information. Over.
193:16:17 Collins: Go ahead.
193:16:18 Evans: Roger. The Hornet is on station just far enough off the target point to keep from getting hit. Recovery 1, or the chopper's there; they're on station. And Hawaii Rescue 1 and 2, the C-130s, are within 40 minutes of your target point. Over. [Pause.]
193:16:50 Collins: Sounds good. Thank you.
Long comm break.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
This is Apollo Control at 193 hours, 20 minutes. Apollo 11; 15,854 nautical miles [29,362 km] from Earth. Velocity, 15,154 feet per second [4,619 m/s]. We're just - we're 1 hour, 43 minutes away from entry and here are the altitudes at which the entry events are expected to occur: Entry at 75 statute miles [121 km]; beginning blackout at 62 statute miles [100 km]; 05-g, 57 statute miles [92 km]; end blackout, 41 statute miles [66 km]; drogue chute deployment, 23,300 feet [7,100 metres] and main chute deployment, 10,500 feet [3,200 metres].
Audio from this point on is currently missing from the available archive. The audio will begin again at 194:02:06.
193:25:08 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston.
193:25:11 Armstrong: Go ahead.
193:25:13 Evans: Roger. Just to get a little downlink here to check out our VHF. I show us about an hour and 37 minutes, approximately, from Entry Interface. Over.
193:25:26 Aldrin: Okay. That's about right.
193:25:28 Evans: Okay. Looks like we're together on that, and I guess we're standing by for you to whip into the entry attitude.
193:25:37 Aldrin: Okay. We've just been taking a couple of last minute pictures. We've finished the EMS entry check, primary water EVAP activation.
193:25:46 Evans: Roger. Mighty fine.
Long comm break.
This is Apollo Control at 193 hours, 30 minutes. Apollo 11 now 14,374 nautical miles [26,621 km] from Earth. Velocity; 15,788 [feet per second, 4,812 metres per second]. We expect entry velocity at 36,194 feet per second [11,032 m/s].
193:31:22 Haise: Apollo 11, Houston.
193:31:26 Collins: Go ahead.
193:31:28 Haise: Roger, Mike. We recommend the left VHF antenna for VHF.
193:31:33 Haise: And this is your friendly backup CMP. Have a good trip, and ma... [garbled: 'make sure you'?] remember to come in BEF.
BEF - Blunt end forward. The correct orientation for the Command Module during re-entry, and another piece of astronaut humour.
193:31:42 Collins: You better believe. Thank you kindly.
CapCom that time was Fred Haise, the backup Lunar Module Pilot.
193:31:48 Collins: We can see the Moon passing by the window and it looks what I consider to be a correct size.
Comm break.
193:33:26 Aldrin: Houston, Apollo 11. Like to switch to S-band Omni C. I just did a minute ago, and noticed a loss of signal strength, over.
193:33:34 Evans: Roger, Apollo 11. Go ahead and try it again now that you're in attitude.
193:33:42 Aldrin: Roger. Going Omni C.
Long comm break.
The final P52 platform realignment of the mission is being carried out about now. It used stars 01 (Alpheratz, Alpha Andromedae) and 45 (Fomalhaut, Alpha Piscis Austrini). The amounts by which the platform had to be rotated to restore alignment were +0.016° in X, -0.04° in Y and -0.01° in Z. The star angle difference, a test of sighting accuracy, was 0.01°, a good result for Mike.
193:37:10 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. [Long pause.]
193:37:31 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Recommend antenna Bravo. Over.
Long comm break.
At 193 hours, 40 minutes, Apollo 11's distance from Earth is 13,044 nautical miles [24,157 km]. Velocity; 16,439 feet per second [5,011 m/s].
193:41:08 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. Recommend antenna Bravo, or at least a better one. Over.
Long comm break.
193:47:35 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston.
193:47:39 Armstrong: Go ahead, Ron.
193:47:40 Evans: Roger. Faces are red here. We lost data with you there for a while. Did you do the P52? Over.
193:47:47 Armstrong: That's affirmative, we completed the P52. We'll give you the data from it in just a second. We passed our sextant star check at entry attitude, and right now we're maneuvering to our first horizon check pitch attitude of 298 degrees.
193:48:05 Evans: Roger. Copy that, 11.
Very long comm break.
Apollo Control at 193 hours, 50 minutes. Apollo 11's distance now 11,463 nautical miles [21,229 km], approaching at a velocity of 17,322 feet per second [5,280 m/s]. We're just under an hour away from scheduled Command Module-Service Module separation and about an hour and 12 minutes away from entry.
193:58:53 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston. About 4 minutes to 1 hour, and I'll give you a mark at 1 hour. Was a Command Module pre-heat necessary? Over.
193:59:03 Collins: Negative that.
193:59:06 Evans: Roger. Copy. Negative Command Module pre-heat.
Comm break.
Had the Command Module RCS thrusters been cold, electricity would have been passed through the solenoid coils of their oxidiser valves to warm them.
Flight Plan, page 3-134.
This is Apollo Control at 194 hours. Apollo 11's distance from Earth now 10,066 nautical miles [18,642 km]. Velocity 18,227 feet per second [5,556 m/s].
Download MP3 audio file. Left channel: clean air/ground. Right channel: air/ground with PAO commentary. Clip courtesy John Stoll, ACR Senior Technician at NASA Johnson.
194:02:06 Evans: Apollo 11, Houston.
194:02:09 Collins: Go ahead.
194:02:11 Evans: Roger. We don't want to jettison the hydrogen tank that's stratified, so could you cycle the fans in Tank 2 please? Hydrogen Tank 2.
194:02:26 Collins: You better believe. That old Service Module's taken good care of us. We want to take good care of it.
194:02:30 Evans: It sure has, hasn't it.
194:02:33 Collins: It's been a champ.
Comm break.
That was Mike Collins.
Apollo 11 is 1 hour away now from entry into the Earth's atmosphere.
194:04:48 Evans: 11, Houston. I'll give you a time hack at 58 minutes to go. It's about 15 seconds yet.
194:04:57 Armstrong: Thank you. [Pause.]
194:05:04 Evans: Stand by.
194:05:07 Evans: Mark.
194:05:08 Evans: 58 minutes.
194:05:13 Aldrin: Roger.
Long comm break.
Around now (very approximately speaking), the final six photographs of Earth are taken on magazine V.
AS11-44-6690 - Earth during approach. North is to the right and the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean is clearly visible. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6691 - Earth during approach. North is to the right and the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean is clearly visible. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6692 - Earth during approach. North is to the right and the Namibian and Angolan coastline with the Atlantic Ocean is clearly visible. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6693 - Earth during approach. South is up. Namibia is on the bottom right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6694 - Earth during approach. The northern part of Earth's crescent. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6695 - Earth during approach. South is up. Namibia is on the right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
AS11-44-6696 - Partial frame of Earth during approach. South is up. Namibia is on the right. 80-mm lens. Image credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center.
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