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Apollo 14

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Day 1, part 2: Earth Orbit and Translunar Injection


Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2020 by W. David Woods, Ronald Hansen, and Ben Feist and Johannes Kemppanen. All rights reserved.
Last updated 2020-10-03
NASA artist's concept of the Apollo 8 S-IVB/Apollo stack soon after Translunar Injection. This work gives a good idea of what the stack looked like with the first and second stages gone.
Apollo 14 has just entered a parking orbit around Earth after a very clean, uneventful ascent on a Saturn V launch vehicle (if such an experience can ever be described as uneventful). The crew of Alan Shepard, Stu Roosa and Ed Mitchell have just crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the first time and have passed out of range of a ground station at Maspalomason on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, one of the Canary Islands. They will not regain communication with Houston until they reach Carnarvon on Australia's west coast.
In the meantime, the crew are kept busy with a long, planned series of checks of their spacecraft. This is to ensure that its systems survived the dynamic ascent to orbit, with its bangs, g-loads and vibration; and that the ship is ready to support its crew for a return journey to the Moon. A multitrack tape recorder is running which is digitally storing a range of the craft's sensor readings for later replay to Earth. The recorder, known as the Data Storage Equipment (DSE) includes an analogue audio track which records the crew's voices within the cabin.
000:27:59 Roosa (onboard): Down here somewhere. There, you're getting close.
000:28:02 Mitchell (onboard): Don't see it. There it comes.
000:28:04 Roosa (onboard): [Garble].
000:28:05 Shepard (onboard): Cut the [garble].
000:28:06 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Main Reg B valve, Open; and A valve, Closed.
000:28:09 Roosa (onboard): A, Closed.
000:28:10 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Emergency Cabin Press, select 2.
000:28:12 Roosa (onboard): 2.
000:28:13 Mitchell (onboard): Push to test.
000:28:15 Roosa (onboard): Tested.
000:28:16 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] Main Reg A valve, Open.
000:28:20 Roosa (onboard): Open.
000:28:21 Mitchell (onboard): Emergency Cabin Press, select closed.
000:28:23 Roosa (onboard): Close.
With Al and Ed reading out the checklist, Stu, in the Lower Equipment Bay, is performing the check on the oxygen regulators that control the flow of O2 into the cabin.
000:28:24 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Here, let me get you started on your optics.
000:28:26 Roosa (onboard): Can I borrow that [garble] back again? Oh, there she be.
000:28:31 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Ready for your optics, Stuart?
000:28:36 Roosa (onboard): No, not quite yet. Let me get my handholds down here, so...
000:28:39 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Well, holler when you're ready, and I'll come back to you.
>000:28:42 Shepard (onboard): We're probably pretty well ahead of schedule, timewise, aren't we?
000:28:44 Mitchell (onboard): Well, I'm a little behind on...
000:28:46 Roosa (onboard): No, we're not really...
000:28:48 Mitchell (onboard): ...Carnarvon LOS, now. Okay, Service Module RCS monitor check. I've got all eight of them gray. Okay. 115 to 140 75. That all looks good. Helium Press...
Ed is now going through various onboard readouts for Reaction Control System propellant tank status, pressure and temperature. They are a critical piece of equipment.
000:29:14 Roosa (onboard): [Garble].
000:29:15 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
000:29:16 Roosa (onboard): Thank you.
000:29:17 Mitchell (onboard): ...42.
000:29:18 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Can I help you with anything now?
000:29:20 Mitchell (onboard): You can read the helium pressures - I'll - I'll get those. I just thought that...
000:29:24 Shepard (onboard): On the quads?
000:29:25 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
000:29:26 Shepard (onboard): Okay. You on B, now?
000:29:28 Roosa (onboard): Now, why did they put those that way?
000:29:29 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
000:29:32 Shepard (onboard): Okay. And you want...
000:29:35 Mitchell (onboard): 4000.
000:29:36 Shepard (onboard): ...quantity's 100 and full scale high and tank temp is 74.
000:29:41 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:29:43 Shepard (onboard): You got tank temp down there?
000:29:45 Mitchell (onboard): Okay...
000:29:46 Shepard (onboard): For - [garble]...
000:29:47 Mitchell (onboard): ...Let me just get the pressures and then the tanks and the quantities, because I have to copy them all down.
000:29:54 Mitchell (onboard): 41.
000:29:55 Shepard (onboard): Helium, 41 on C.
000:29:57 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:29:59 Shepard (onboard): 41 on B. Now, what do you need?
000:30:02 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. That's helium - I need manifold Press.
000:30:08 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Manifold pressure is 200 on D...
000:30:12 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:30:13 Shepard (onboard): 200 on C.
000:30:15 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:30:16 Shepard (onboard): 200 on B.
000:30:17 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:30:18 Shepard (onboard): And 200 on A.
000:30:19 Mitchell (onboard): Very good.
000:30:20 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
000:30:21 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Helium tank temp - I need to record.
000:30:22 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Tank temp's on A at 75.
000:30:26 Mitchell (onboard): 75.
000:30:27 Shepard (onboard): B is 72; C is 81; and D is 77.
000:30:36 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Propellant quantity.
000:30:38 Shepard (onboard): B, full scale high...
000:30:40 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:30:41 Shepard (onboard): C, full scale high; D is full scale high; A is full scale high. That baby had a full load.
000:30:48 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Okay, Command Module RCS monitoring. Talkback, gray.
Ed is now moving to check the Command Module Reaction Control System, which is only meant for use for attitude control during reentry.
000:30:56 Roosa (onboard): I'll get the cameras in a little bit.
000:30:57 Mitchell (onboard): Yes. Okay, we're in no hurry...
000:30:59 Roosa (onboard): I'm going to read my optics dust cover jettison.
One of Stu's tasks in Earth orbit is to realign the guidance platform. For this, the computer needs to know the precise direction to two nominated stars. This is achieved with the help of two optical systems, the sextant and the telescope, both of which have apertures on the opposite side of the spacecraft from the hatch.
The hull of Columbia, the Apollo 11 Command Module, on the opposite side from the hatch to show the location of the sextant and telescope.
Before the optics can be used, dust covers that have protected them to this point must be jettisoned. Stu does this by moving the optics hand controller to the right, having first powered the optics system.
000:31:01 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:31:02 Shepard (onboard): Yes. We didn't have to worry about the cameras before.
000:31:04 Mitchell (onboard): 60, 90. 60, 90.
000:31:05 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
000:31:06 Mitchell (onboard): That looks good...
000:31:07 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Install optics eyepieces and handles...
The navigational station has removable eyepieces.
000:31:08 Mitchell (onboard): ...41 to 42...
000:31:09 Roosa (onboard): ...that's done. G/N Power, Optics, on (up).
000:31:11 Mitchell (onboard): ...Manifold Press 81 to 105. That's good. Those are good. Okay. Secondary radiator leak check.
000:31:23 Roosa (onboard): Optics Zero, Off.
000:31:26 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] quantity...
000:31:27 Roosa (onboard): Optics Zero, Zero.
000:31:28 Mitchell (onboard): Al, could I have the Secondary Glycol to Radiator valve...
000:31:30 Roosa (onboard): Optics Mode, Man.
000:31:31 Mitchell (onboard): ...Normal for 30 seconds and then Bypass.
000:31:32 Roosa (onboard): Optics Coupling [garble] Direct; Optics Speed control, Hi.
000:31:48 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:31:52 Roosa (onboard): Okay. That'll be 15 seconds. Okay, let's see if we've got the monitor. Optics hand control, okay, is Manual, Hi, Direct, and going max right. Going about 40 degrees. And this one ought to go about 150.
000:32:18 Roosa (onboard): Man! It looks - It's pure black. Can't see because I'm not adapted. [Garble] lens cover. And you need to [garble].
000:32:35 Mitchell (onboard): Did you get all of your jettison - optics dust cover jettison checklist, Stu?
000:32:39 Roosa (onboard): Yes, I did.
000:32:41 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. G/N Optics, on. Optics Zero, Off.
000:32:44 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
000:32:45 Mitchell (onboard): Zero for 15.
000:32:47 Roosa (onboard): That's verified.
000:32:48 Mitchell (onboard): Optics Zero, Off. Optics Mode, Manual then.
000:32:50 Roosa (onboard): That's verified.
000:32:52 Mitchell (onboard): Coupling control, Direct, and Hi Speed - Speed control, Hi, and max right until ejected.
000:32:58 Roosa (onboard): That's verified.
000:32:59 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:33:00 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed. You want to go from Normal to Bypass, now?
000:33:03 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, for 30 seconds.
000:33:04 Shepard (onboard): Okay, here it is right now. [Garble].
000:33:06 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, I got it.
000:33:07 Shepard (onboard): Oh, wait a minute. Wait a minute. Something's wrong here. [Garble].
000:33:10 Mitchell (onboard): No. No. I wanted Secondary Glycol to Radiator valve for Normal. Secondary Glycol.
000:33:15 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Glycol, Secondary Radiator valve - I can't see that mother.
000:33:24 Roosa (onboard): Man! Those stars are dimmer than they are in the simulator.
NASA's crew training facilities have the ability to simulate the view through the Command Module optics, but the limitations of the 1960's visual display technology mean that the fidelity is somewhat less than desirable.
000:33:27 Mitchell (onboard): Is our - light in here bothering you, Stuart?
000:33:30 Roosa (onboard): No. No, I - I've got them.
Stu is taking his first look through the Command Module optics.
000:33:38 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed. I think I've got it now.
000:33:41 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. You've got her in Bypass, huh?
000:33:47 Shepard (onboard): No, wait a minute. God damn it! I just cannot feel it.
000:33:49 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
000:33:53 Shepard (onboard): I can't feel it. The simulator's got a big red stripe on it. Maybe if I get my little finger in there, I can line it up.
Panel 382, with water-glycol system control valves.
Tool "E".
The ECS controls not frequently needed were located in a difficult to access corner of the cabin and operated with a stubby screwdriver-like tool. It comes as no wonder that Al is having trouble trying them out for the first time in weightlessness.
000:34:08 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble].
000:34:25 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Start with star 22 for the first one, if you've got a chance to write it...
Stu is realigning the guidance platform to ensure that any drift in its orientation that has occurred since launch is compensated for. To achieve this, he runs Program 52 in the computer, hence the procedure is usually known as a 'P52'. It requires that Stu aims the spacecraft's optics first at one star, pressing a 'Mark' button, then sighting on another and pressing the button again. Only two stars are required to conceptually pin down the orientation of the universe around the spacecraft and the computer can use them to determine the degree of misalignment of the platform at the centre of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). From this, it can rotate, or 'torque' the motors on the IMU's supporting gimbals to restore the platform to perfect alignment.
For this exercise, Stu sights on star 22 in the Apollo star list (Gienah, Gamma Corvi) then star 24 (Regulus, Alpha Leonis). The orientation to which the platform is being aligned is the orientation of the launch pad in space at the moment of launch.
000:34:29 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Star 22.
000:34:31 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
000:34:32 Roosa (onboard): The other will be star 24.
000:34:33 Mitchell (onboard): And the other will be star 24.
000:34:34 Roosa (onboard): Yes. Gienah. Oh, I [garble].
000:34:37 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Al. It's in Bypass, huh?
000:34:40 Shepard (onboard): You want it in Bypass?
000:34:41 Mitchell (onboard): I'm sorry. I want it in Normal for 30 seconds.
000:34:42 Shepard (onboard): It's in Normal. Has been for - 10 seconds. I'll [garble].
000:34:45 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. I'm just watching the - quantity there.
000:34:47 Shepard (onboard): Okay, that's about 30 seconds.
000:34:58 Mitchell (onboard): It looks good. We have no leaks.
Ed is checking the integrity of the thermal control system, particularly the two large radiators around the aft end of the Service Module. If the spacecraft is generating excess heat, which mostly comes from its electronic systems, the primary method of losing it is to have a glycol/water solution carry the heat to one of these radiators which radiate it to space. The spacecraft will not head for the Moon if any leaks are found in this cooling circuit.
000:35:01 Shepard (onboard): Okay, back in Bypass.
000:35:03 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. I'm ready to set a configuration here. I need the Glycol Reservoir Bypass valve to Open.
000:35:12 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Stand by 1. Glyc Bypass valve, Open.
000:35:20 Mitchell (onboard): Out valve, Closed; In valve, Closed.
000:35:22 Shepard (onboard): Out valve, Closed; In valve, Closed.
000:35:27 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. And we want to fill the Primary Accumulators.
000:35:31 Roosa (onboard): Oh, shit!
000:35:33 Mitchell (onboard): What?
000:35:34 Roosa (onboard): Oh, I got four balls.
000:35:35 Shepard (onboard): Oh, God. Too bad.
000:35:37 Mitchell (onboard): What did he get, four balls 1?
000:35:38 Shepard (onboard): Yes. He got a 1.
000:35:40 Roosa (onboard): Oh, hell.
000:35:41 Shepard (onboard): Too bad, babe.
Stu's problem isn't anything of great import as far as the spacecraft is concerned. It's his sense of pride. The computer knows where the two stars are because their coordinates are programmed into its memory. It can therefore calculate the angle between them and compare it with the angle between Stu's two marks. The difference should be very near zero. P52 includes this comparison as a quick check of the CMP's sighting accuracy. If the angles were grossly different, the CMP would instantly know that he had sighted on the wrong two stars. However, there was a tendency among the competitive, high-achieving test pilot types not to be happy with anything less than a perfect zero when the angle difference was displayed. 'Four balls 1' means the display shows 00001, which translates to 0.01°, still a very good number.
000:35:42 Roosa (onboard): I'm tempted to repeat it. I think I will.
000:35:45 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
000:35:46 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:35:47 Shepard (onboard): You want the Primary Accumulator Fill, huh?
000:35:48 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, please.
000:35:49 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Stand by.
000:36:25 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed. Here it comes. It's On.
000:36:28 Mitchell (onboard): All right, it's on. Okay. Okay, you can shut it off. I've got almost 60 percent.
000:36:39 Shepard (onboard): Okay, it's Off.
000:36:41 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Okay, ECS Radiator, Flow - Flow Control to Power. Power. Primary Glycol to Radiator valve, Normal, push.
000:36:57 Shepard (onboard): Okay, down she goes.
000:37:00 Mitchell (onboard): ECS Radiator Heater, Prim 1.
000:37:02 Shepard (onboard): Hear it? Gurgle, gurgle, gurgle, gurgle, gurgle.
000:37:04 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, and there she came. I saw it.
000:37:09 Shepard (onboard): (Laughter) Gurgle, gurgle, gurgle. Okay.
000:37:15 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. We want to watch ECS Rad Temp Prim Out below Prim In. It's below Prim In. It's looking good already. ECS talkback, gray. Glycol Evap Temp In to Auto.
000:37:41 Roosa (onboard): There we go.
000:37:42 Shepard (onboard): There you go, babe.
000:37:43 Mitchell (onboard): Got a four ball.
000:37:44 Shepard (onboard): Yes, he did.
000:37:45 Roosa (onboard): Son of a bitch. Got five balls.
000:37:46 Shepard (onboard): Good show. We won't count the first one.
000:37:48 Roosa (onboard): No. Okay. With 22, 24, five balls.
000:37:53 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:37:54 Roosa (onboard): And there's a Noun 93.
Unhappy with the slight imprecision of his first star sightings, Stu has repeated the P52 process and come up with a star angle difference of zero degrees. His first attempt is, indeed, not counted as it is this second realignment that gets relayed to Mission Control and entered into the Apollo 14 Mission Report on page 7-6, a table of all the platform realignments carried out in the CSM. Verb 06 Noun 93 calls up the three torquing angles; 0.085° in X, 0.01° in Y and 0.166° in Z, all of which get noted down. During later realignments while in radio communication, Mission Control will be able to see the contents of the computer display directly and will copy the numbers down themselves. Pressing Proceed on the DSKY causes the gimbal motors to be torqued.
000:37:55 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:37:56 Shepard (onboard): You want to copy them?
000:37:57 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'm copying them. 89...
000:37:58 Shepard (onboard): 00085.
000:38:00 Mitchell (onboard): 8 5?
000:38:01 Shepard (onboard): Right.
000:38:02 Mitchell (onboard): Sorry.
000:38:03 Shepard (onboard): And second - R2 is plus 00010; R3...
000:38:06 Mitchell (onboard): 10?
000:38:07 Shepard (onboard): Right. R3 is plus 00166.
000:38:11 Roosa (onboard): Okay, and let's say it's 38:15.
000:38:12 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] 1. 38.
000:38:15 Roosa (onboard): 15.
000:38:16 Shepard (onboard): Right.
000:38:17 Roosa (onboard): Torque.
000:38:18 Mitchell (onboard): 15.
000:38:19 Shepard (onboard): Torque at 38:15.
The Mission Report says the torquing was carried out at 58 minutes GET, rather than 38 minutes but this is likely a typo.
000:38:20 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Optics - Now, that - if - I stow the eyepieces, don't I?
000:38:28 Mitchell (onboard): Stow optics eyepieces.
000:38:29 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
000:38:30 Mitchell (onboard): That's affirm.
000:38:31 Roosa (onboard): Optics Zero to Zero.
000:38:32 Mitchell (onboard): And if we torqued, we should realign the GDC...
000:38:36 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Now - Yes, just a minute. Go Optics Zero after we get them down to a certain angle, right?
000:38:43 Roosa (onboard): Yes, I'm going to try to do that. It's really not part of our operation, but you can't go wrong doing it.
000:38:49 Mitchell (onboard): I'm - I'm going to bring the purge on. We'll get a Master Alarm.
000:38:58 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Ball 1 Att set, IMU. Roll was about - 180. Fuel cell 2, okay. And the yaw is set about - that much and the pitch is way over at 220.
000:39:52 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Fuel cell purge is complete.
Three fuel cells are the major source of power on the spacecraft. Hydrogen and oxygen are brought together near a catalyst whereupon they combine to produce electricity and water. The supplied gases, known as reactants in this context, are very pure but still contain small quantities of other elements, particularly argon, which build up across the catalyst and get in the way of the process. At regular intervals, the reactants are made to flow over the catalyst at a high rate in order to flush away the contaminants from the cell.
000:40:02 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Does it call for me to turn the Optics - G/N Optics Power, Off?
000:40:06 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] 16.
000:40:07 Roosa (onboard): Here, I should get out my checklist. [Garble].
000:40:10 Mitchell (onboard): Optics - Let's see. No, I don't see that. It says P00...
Given its small size at the time, the Apollo Guidance Computer was a very capable machine and the ability to multitask was among its attributes. Therefore, while it was always carrying out various tasks beneath the surface so to speak (like keeping track of their position in space and holding the spacecraft's attitude steady), one program was visible directly to the crew. This was the 'major mode'. While Stu was realigning the guidance platform, he was running P52 and so that program was the major mode during that exercise. When otherwise not needed, the computer could be set to run Program 00, essentially a do-nothing program, as its major mode although it would still be going about its other tasks. It was conventional for crews to pronounce program zero-zero as 'P00h', as in the bear in the famous children's books by A.A. Milne.
000:40:15 Roosa (onboard): Reticle...
000:40:16 Mitchell (onboard): ...Reticle Brightness, dim.
000:40:17 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Stow optics eyepieces and increase S-band volume. I never decreased it. You know, we don't have any - We have Squelch, Enable?
000:40:26 Mitchell (onboard): That's affirm.
000:40:27 Roosa (onboard): Okay. You can tell it, can't you?
000:40:31 Mitchell (onboard): Sure can.
000:40:33 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Well, ha ha. That's the way I wanted to start it. Five balls. Next thing on the agenda is that decal up there.
000:40:45 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed. The GDC's aligned.
The IMU provides the spacecraft with its primary attitude reference. A secondary reference is provided by three gyros which are directly affixed to the spacecraft's structure rather than on a rotationally isolated platform. These Body Mounted Attitude Gyros (BMAGs) sense the ship's rotation by the force such rotation would produce on their mountings. This could generate a signal. The signals that come from the BMAGs are translated into angles by the Gyro Display Couplers (GDCs). The attitude angles derived by this method are less accurate than those from the IMU and are prone to a much greater degree of drift. Therefore, by a press of the GDC Align button, the GDCs' idea of the spacecraft's attitude can be updated with the more accurate version from the IMU.
000:40:47 Mitchell (onboard): All right.
000:40:50 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
000:40:53 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Stu, to P00. Okay. [Garble] Press is okay. O2 Press...
000:41:08 Shepard (onboard): Got a full load of RCS fuel for you.
000:41:11 Roosa (onboard): That's right. We'll use it to burn. [Garble] quiet.
000:41:14 Shepard (onboard): Yes. Let's take is easy on that stuff. Just tap it like it's forever. Son of a bitch! That booster was good, wasn't it?
000:41:23 Roosa (onboard): Oh, that's something else!
000:41:24 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, wasn't it, though? O2 quantity...
000:41:26 Roosa (onboard): Now that book wants to set there. For Pete - Do you have trouble wanting to go to the...
000:41:30 Shepard (onboard): Yes. I keep floating up in...
000:41:31 Mitchell (onboard): Yes. That's...
000:41:32 Roosa (onboard): I do, too. I have a hell of a job holding myself down for shooting the optics.
000:41:39 Shepard (onboard): Yes. Boy, those stars are...
000:41:41 Mitchell (onboard): Real good.
000:41:42 Shepard (onboard): ...crystal clear.
000:41:43 Mitchell (onboard): Roger. It just has to be Orb Rate. Sixty-one percent.
000:41:50 Shepard (onboard): And I got a real bright one we're aimed for right now.
000:41:53 Roosa (onboard): Boy, they're not near as bright in that telescope as they are in the simulator.
000:41:56 Shepard (onboard): Well, you're probably not adapted yet.
000:41:57 Roosa (onboard): Yes. Yes. I got down here with these floodlights flaring out...
000:42:00 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
000:42:01 Roosa (onboard): After I turned them out, I could see Gienah through it the second time around, so I was adapting. Okay. Looks like all I need to do is the - is to get out the stowage bag...
000:42:14 Shepard (onboard): Got a good horizon out here.
000:42:16 Roosa (onboard): Dark?
000:42:17 Shepard (onboard): Yes.
000:42:18 Roosa (onboard): You can see it, huh?
000:42:19 Shepard (onboard): Uh-huh.
000:42:21 Roosa (onboard): You need anything else out of me, Ed? How you coming.
000:42:24 Mitchell (onboard): No. No. I don't need anything else out of you right now, Stu.
000:42:28 Shepard (onboard): Well, I'm seeing it [garble] I'm seeing airglow, Stu. I can see the stars on the other side of it.
000:42:32 Roosa (onboard): Well, I tell you what. Why don't I get out those temporary stowage bags, and then I can get the cameras out at our convenience, if that's agreeable.
000:42:40 Shepard (onboard): I'm ready for it. You can hand me mine right now.
000:42:42 Roosa (onboard): Well, I've got to go down and get it first.
000:42:44 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Yes. That's airglow I can see, because I can see the stars underneath it.
000:42:51 Roosa (onboard): Man, that booster's something. Couldn't get over the ice. That was something when the ice came off.
000:42:54 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, that really was.
000:42:56 Roosa (onboard): I expected more vibration.
000:42:57 Shepard (onboard): I really did, too.
000:42:58 Roosa (onboard): I was really...
000:42:59 Shepard (onboard): Yes, I thought that was a real smooth ride. Real smooth. Okay. Let's keep pressing ahead here. Slowly but surely. How you doing, Ed?
000:43:15 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Proceeding through my systems check.
000:43:20 Roosa (onboard): I got a bag coming up your side there. Oop! Hey, another one got away - the other two are up behind your head. Can you reach them?
000:43:27 Mitchell (onboard): Who, me?
000:43:28 Roosa (onboard): Yes (laughter).
000:43:33 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'll get them.
000:43:34 Roosa (onboard): Hey, good (laughter). Thank you, babe. Guess what I found in there.
000:43:39 Shepard (onboard): Oh, those goddamn things are going to be all over the place, You were right what you said about Dell'Osso.
000:43:47 Roosa (onboard): Yes. I was needling Gene. I knew they'd done that. I mean, I didn't know it but I sus - Right behind your head are two more of those bags, Al, if you could reach them.
The backup crew patch.
Stu is likely referring to Gene Cernan, who is the commander of the Apollo 14 backup crew. Cernan relates in his autobiography "The Last Man on the Moon" how his crew took it upon themselves to have their own mission patch which had a similar look to the official patch but which made fun of the fact that, apart from Al's few minutes in space, the Apollo 14 crew were the 'All Rookie Crew'. Cernan had left a quantity of his patches squirrelled away around Al's spacecraft. A patch was even affixed to the back of Al's backpack that he wore on the Moon. There is more on the backup crew patch in the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal.
000:43:56 Shepard (onboard): Okay. I'll get them. We're probably going to be collecting those patches the rest of the flight.
000:44:02 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, they're going to be hiding everywhere.
000:44:07 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed-babe. How about a temporary stowage bag?
000:44:11 Mitchell (onboard): All right. I'll take one.
000:44:12 Shepard (onboard): And, Stu-babe. How about a temporary stowage bag?
000:44:14 Roosa (onboard): I'll take one.
000:44:19 Shepard (onboard): Take it away. isn't this great?
000:44:23 Mitchell (onboard): Isn't this marvelous?
000:44:24 Shepard (onboard): Son of a bitch! I tell you. I've already beat my old record.
000:44:37 Mitchell (onboard): You beat your old record at insertion! (Laughter)
000:44:39 Shepard (onboard): (Laughter) I know it. I was just kidding.
They are only 45 minutes into the flight and the mission has already lasted nearly three times longer than Al's first space flight, a 15½-minute suborbital hop he rode in a Mercury spacecraft on top of a Redstone missile as the United States' first man in space. During that flight, Al experienced only about five minutes of weightlessness. Ed jokes that the Mercury flight was so short that Apollo 14's ascent to orbit lasted longer. At 11 minutes, 40 seconds, that's not quite the case, but the point is still made.
000:44:49 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:44:51 Roosa (onboard): And, in here, you'll have to make sure you get the bottom one snapped, which you have not had to do in the...
000:44:56 Mitchell (onboard): 37 5.
000:44:57 Roosa (onboard): ...in the CMS.
000:44:58 Shepard (onboard): Yes. We've done at your insistence. At your insistence, we have done it, and it's now completed here.
000:45:05 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
000:45:06 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
000:45:07 Mitchell (onboard): Let's see. We're on 4-Bravo on the test meter, and it's reading 37.
000:45:18 Shepard (onboard): Okay, now what?
000:45:21 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. I'm ready to do an ECS monitoring check. Suit Pressure - Delta-P is okay.
000:45:30 Shepard (onboard): (Laughter) How are you doing down there, [garble]?
000:45:33 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] O2 flow [Garble].
The original 1971 transcription censors Stu Roosa's cursing to a milder expletive. Original wording has been restored for this 2020 release.
000:45:34 Roosa (onboard): Five balls. That's the way I wanted to start. The next thing on the agenda is that fucking decal up there. 32.5.
000:45:41 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Well, we'll...
000:45:43 Roosa (onboard): We'll work on that one.
000:45:44 Shepard (onboard): We'll get to that.
000:45:45 Roosa (onboard): If I start hosing it out, you just say something.
000:45:49 Shepard (onboard): I'll say something. Don't you worry. Don't you worry, babe.
000:45:53 Roosa (onboard): There's another one.
000:45:54 Mitchell (onboard): Okay...
000:45:55 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
000:45:56 Mitchell (onboard): ...We're in the green on Repress package.
The repress package is a series of three 1-pound oxygen bottles located in the Command Module Cabin, just about below the side hatch.
000:45:57 Shepard (onboard): Well, we'll have plenty of them to give out. Yes. We ought to save them for all the hookers in Titusville (laughter).
They are discussing the plethora of backup-crew patches they are finding.
000:46:04 Mitchell (onboard): Huh? He said we could either carry them gracefully or otherwise.
000:46:09 Shepard (onboard): Yes. No. I'm going to give them to all the hookers in Titusville.
Titusville is a town right across the river from Cape Canaveral, the location of the Kennedy Space Center.
000:46:15 Roosa (onboard): Let's see. You might get out your bracket for the camera, if you're out of things to do, Al, and I'll be handling the camera, shortly.
000:46:21 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Okeydokey.
000:46:25 Unknown crewmember (onboard): (Whistling)
000:46:30 Shepard (onboard): I was going to reach for the G&C Dictionary (laughter ).
Al makes a small slip here. The Command Module guidance system reference book is called G & C Checklist, while the one for Lunar Module is called G & C Dictionary.
000:46:44 Shepard (onboard): Yes. We got to treat this with a little care because it might just come out of there like everything else does.
000:47:10 Shepard (onboard): Stu?
000:47:11 Roosa (onboard): Huh?
000:47:13 Mitchell (onboard): Can you - reach over there and unsnap one of those - unsnap one of those hose lines?
000:47:19 Roosa (onboard): Yes. Yes, I certainly can.
000:47:20 Shepard (onboard): Because we don't want to wipe out - Thank you. Thank you. That's the dimension I need.
000:47:54 Shepard (onboard): Oh, Jesus. There's one in here, too. There must be one in every frigging volume - stowage that we have.
000:48:02 Mitchell (onboard): Probably.
000:48:03 Roosa (onboard): I think there's going to be.
000:48:07 Shepard (onboard): Yes, they knew. God damn, they knew we've got to get into all these things.
000:48:14 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
000:48:16 Roosa (onboard): Hey, Ed, let me give a presento.
000:48:18 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Just 1 sec.
000:48:21 Shepard (onboard): Doot doot dum.
000:48:24 Roosa (onboard): Here's something - Okay. If you could take a camera. Here's something, you know, we never check in any of the bench checks - that was this 10-millimeter lens won't stay in the - in the cushion. It just floats right on out.
000:48:35 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
000:48:36 Roosa (onboard): Yes. Look at that camera.
000:48:44 Mitchell (onboard): Getting a little leverage here.
000:49:45 Roosa (onboard): I'll - I'll drop your seatbands in just a second there.
000:49:48 Shepard (onboard): Let her go, babe. Ooooh.
000:49:55 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Okay. I'm down in the checklist to where - We've already done to GDC Align; we will unstow the sequence camera bracket and the ORDEAL. Have you mounted the ORDEAL box?
000:50:10 Shepard (onboard): You haven't told me to, yet.
000:50:11 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, you can do that as soon as you get your sequence camera under hand there, while I start doing the secondary glycol loop check. Secondary - Secondary Cool Loop pump, AC 1. And I heard it come on.
000:50:34 Roosa (onboard): Just for on the tape, for DSE purposes, the 10-millimeter lens and 75-millimeter lens will not stay in the cushion.
Stu adresses the tape recorder, which he knows is recording the in-cabin chatter for later review. It is good to recall that all these conversations were recorded via the microphones in their communications headsets - no separate microphone existed for recording general cabin noises, or speech.
000:50:43 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. That's surprising. They were kind of tight before, weren't they?
000:50:49 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
000:50:51 Shepard (onboard): Okay. What's the last set here on this thing?
000:50:54 Roosa (onboard): I guess we've got a gray tape. Don't we...
000:50:55 Mitchell (onboard): What, you want it set on it, Al?
000:50:56 Shepard (onboard): Yes.
000:50:57 Mitchell (onboard): Oh.
000:50:58 Roosa (onboard): I'll - I'll give it to him. I've got it right here. Okay. You want T8.
000:51:02 Shepard (onboard): T8, set.
000:51:03 Roosa (onboard): 250th.
000:51:06 Shepard (onboard): And a 250th is set.
000:51:10 Roosa (onboard): Seven feet.
000:51:12 Shepard (onboard): Seven feet is set.
000:51:14 Roosa (onboard): And 12 frames per second.
000:51:18 Shepard (onboard): And 12 frames per second. Okay.
000:51:26 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
000:51:34 Unknown crew member (onboard): (Whistling)
000:51:35 Shepard (onboard): Oh, sunrise, troops.
000:51:38 Mitchell (onboard): Oh, mag...
000:51:39 Roosa (onboard): Son of a bitch!
000:51:40 Mitchell (onboard): ...Oh, gah!
000:51:41 Roosa (onboard): Son of a bitch! I missed that, and I could've been up there, too.
Stu is still under the crew seats, and henceforth has zero visibility outside the spacecraft.
000:51:43 Shepard (onboard): Well, put that thing up.
000:51:44 Mitchell (onboard): Oh, hurry. It's not too late.
000:51:45 Shepard (onboard): Look right here. Look right through the hatch.
000:51:47 Roosa (onboard): I can't get the - All I can see is darkness.
000:51:49 Mitchell (onboard): Well...
000:51:52 Shepard (onboard): It's down that way; come up...
000:51:53 Roosa (onboard): Yes, just a second. Here, let me fix my couch.
000:51:56 Shepard (onboard): You really ought to get it, babe. Beautiful. It is beautiful!
000:51:59 Mitchell (onboard): That is really great. Sun comes up like thunder.
Carnarvon (Rev-1)
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 51 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 14. We have just acquired the Apollo 14 spacecraft through Carnarvon. We'll quickly pass on to you heart rates during lift-off on the Command Module Pilot and Lunar Module Pilot. Stu Roosa's..."
000:52:34 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston through Carnarvon. How do you read?
000:52:39 Mitchell: We read you loud and clear.
000:52:42 Fullerton: Roger. We're reading you a lot of background static. [Pause.]
000:52:52 Mitchell: Houston, are you ready for our IMU REFSMMAT realign check, P52 numbers?
000:53:00 Fullerton: Roger, Ed. Go ahead.
000:53:05 Mitchell: That's Noun 71s are 22, 24; Noun 05 is all balls; Noun 93, plus 00.085, plus 00.010, plus 00.166; GET of 38:15. And we just burst into sunlight, Gordo. It was quite a sunrise.
000:53:36 Fullerton: Roger, Ed. We copy that.
Long comm break.
Honeysuckle (Rev-1)
"This is Apollo Control, Houston. During this lull in communications we'll start again to pass along those heart rates at lift-off. That was a peak rate of 132 on Command Module Pilot Stu Roosa. He averaged in the 120s during the boost phase of flight. In the case of Ed Mitchell, his peak rate was 90 and ran in the 80s. Commander Alan Shepard we received no data on. We suspect a loose sensor or connector and this will be fixed sometime in orbit during the more quiet period. We presently show Apollo 14 in an orbit of 104 nautical miles [193 km] by 101 nautical miles [187 km]. We're at 54 minutes now into the flight. We'll stand by and continue to monitor."
Al's maximum heart rate was registered at 138 beats per minute during the ascent phase of his Mercury 7 flight.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 58 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 14, continuing here with a lull in air/ground conversation. At this time I'll pass along the shutdown times on the Saturn as it achieved its orbit: S-IC shutdown or cut-off was 2 minutes, 44 seconds; S-II shutdown was copied at 9 minutes, 19 seconds; this 3 seconds longer than nominal; and the S-IVB shutdown or cut-off was at 11 minutes, 40 seconds instead of a preflight 11 minutes, 43 seconds. We're at 59 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 14 and continuing to monitor; this is Apollo Control, Houston."
Flight Plan page 3-002
"Apollo Control, Houston; 1 hour now into the flight of Apollo 14. We've had LOS with Carnarvon, we expect to acquire Honeysuckle momentarily. At 1 hour into the flight; this is Apollo Control, Houston."
001:03:11 Fullerton: Apollo 14, through Honeysuckle. Over.
001:03:21 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston through Honeysuckle. If you read, go omni Charlie.
Houston is now calling Apollo 14 through the tracking station at Honeysuckle Creek, near Canberra, in Eastern Australia.
Very long comm break.
Gordon Fullerton, the CapCom in Mission Control, is asking the crew to select a particular one of the four omnidirectional S-band antennae mounted around the periphery of the Command Module. Antenna C is to the left of the hatch as viewed from outside.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; 1 hour, 6 minutes now into the flight. We've had Loss Of Signal with Honeysuckle. We presently show 14 in an orbit of 106 nautical miles [196 km] by 100 nautical miles [185 km] and a velocity reading of 25,583 feet per second [7,798 m/s]. At this time we'll switch to the Cape for the postflight press conference. Switching now to the Cape."
001:20:57 Roosa (onboard): But you know, you get down there, you're not adapted at all. And I'd been looking at the bright Sun; and then, I look out there. I couldn't see a thing in - in this damn thing.
001:21:07 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, you must admit we [garble] sinking feeling. Well, I was sure they were gone, because I swore I felt them go.
001:21:13 Shepard (onboard): Okay. We're going to talk to the States, here, in a few minutes. What are we going to do, since we're ahead a little bit, what do we do...
001:21:22 Roosa (onboard): Let me get out - while he's - I'll get out checklist here, while you're...
001:21:27 Shepard (onboard): Kind of look ahead and see what's next.
001:21:30 Roosa (onboard): Yes. Yes, we've got all the cameras up.
001:21:35 Shepard (onboard): (Laughter) [Garble]. Do you want to use this place up here for them?
001:21:38 Roosa (onboard): Yes, that'd be good for it.
001:21:39 Shepard (onboard): Okay. As a matter of fact, those rascals aren't bad.
001:21:45 Roosa (onboard): You know, those are really good work on those [Garble].
001:21:48 Shepard (onboard): Good workmanship, yes.
001:21:54 Roosa (onboard): Shouldn't have that on the tape either.
001:21:55 Shepard (onboard): What does that say down there? Rock of Gibraltar? Take a closer look at that.
001:22:05 Roosa (onboard): You did do the SCS attitude reference check?
001:22:07 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I got it written down.
001:22:09 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Now, the next thing we got coming up is the docking probe; and then, we get a TLI PAD; and then, we start into TLI Prep, 1 plus [Garble].
001:22:18 Mitchell (onboard): Yes. I've got our TV camera running over here.
001:22:23 Roosa (onboard): Do you have the - an image on the monitor?
001:22:25 Mitchell (onboard): Uh-huh. Got the corner of the world poking out there.
001:22:27 Roosa (onboard): You want to put the monitor up here and can we...
001:22:43 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] start to feel a little hungry.
001:22:46 Mitchell (onboard): I am, too.
001:22:47 Shepard (onboard): I'm glad we decided to put those sandwiches in there.
Al is likely talking about the frozen sandwich snacks placed into their spacesuit pockets before launch.
001:22:49 Roosa (onboard): Wonder what we got.
001:22:52 Shepard (onboard): Well, after all, it is 5:25, Cape time.
001:22:57 Roosa (onboard): I must admit I got a tinge of glumness there when they called that hold. I was really primed for 3:23.
001:23:05 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I was, too. I agree.
001:23:07 Shepard (onboard): I can't really blame them though.
001:23:10 Roosa (onboard): No, they got a - You know, you get bit once, you - you can't afford to - There's a lot of water down there. Ought to be able to [garble] coming up here.
001:23:23 Shepard (onboard): Well, are we going to have any lunch? What do you want?
001:23:26 Mitchell (onboard): 28.
001:23:28 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] 20 degrees of angle.
001:23:41 Unknown crew member (onboard): (Whistling)
001:23:45 Shepard (onboard): Well, let's see, [garble] get a little time here. Let's take a look at this COAS. Put it on the horizon and see what it reads.
001:23:54 Mitchell (onboard): (Groan)
001:24:05 Mitchell (onboard): Pull this out of here.
001:24:08 Roosa (onboard): Yes, just push me around if I'm in your way.
001:24:09 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] 14, 14. 14 and a half. Whoops!
001:24:25 Mitchell (onboard): Would you like to see out my window, guys?
001:24:29 Roosa (onboard): Look at that. Good picture.
001:24:32 Mitchell (onboard): Now, if you want to hold it, let me see if I can peak it up here. It drifted away from me is the reason I - f/44, brighten it up. Okay. I think f/44 is what I want.
001:24:51 Shepard (onboard): Pretty good.
001:24:53 Unknown crew member (onboard): (Cough)
001:24:58 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] resolution, haven't we?
001:24:59 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
001:25:00 Shepard (onboard): At least the black-and-white does.
001:25:04 Mitchell (onboard): I'm looking to the north, aren't I - as we're going along?
001:25:08 Shepard (onboard): You better be.
001:25:10 Roosa (onboard): You - you - straight out that window is not too far off the track, I mean, you know...
001:25:17 Mitchell (onboard): Straight out this window?
001:25:19 Roosa (onboard): Yes, you know...
001:25:20 Mitchell (onboard): Oh...
001:25:21 Roosa (onboard): You can almost see the nadir out that window. Oh, - you're, - oh, - well, I didn't realize you were down on that window.
001:25:32 Mitchell (onboard): Well, I was looking out...
001:25:33 Roosa (onboard): You're - both...
001:25:34 Mitchell (onboard): ...of both of them.
001:25:35 Roosa (onboard): ...windows on your side.
001:25:36 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, out this one [garble].
001:25:38 Shepard (onboard): You know, I can't believe how clean that this spacecraft is.
A Command Module takes a tumble in a special rig to shake off loose components. From the Apollo News Reference.
During the construction of the spacecraft, whether it was the Command Module or Lunar Module, it wasn't unusual for small items, particularly bolts, nuts and washers, to fall into crevices during construction from which they were next to impossible to retrieve. The spacecraft was even turned upside down and shaken lightly to get them loose, yet it was not unusual for something to be missed. Only when the spacecraft was in weightlessness did these bits of hardware come floating free, driven around by the air currents within the cabin.
001:25:40 Roosa (onboard): I haven't seen a single bolt...
001:25:42 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Let me have that a minute, Stu.
001:25:44 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
001:25:45 Roosa (onboard): The only thing cluttering it up are the backup patches.
001:25:47 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
001:25:49 Mitchell (onboard): Hold the cabin just a second, Stu. Let me see if I can anchor this monitor any better.
001:25:53 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Yes, it - it's set up on that Velcro. It - it should seat where you...
001:25:57 Mitchell (onboard): Well, it seems to be. I keep kicking it off. Here, let me...
001:26:01 Roosa (onboard): Need a little more cord there.
001:26:03 Mitchell (onboard): That's all I - that's all I need is a little more cord.
001:26:07 Roosa (onboard): Yes. In lunar orbit, I'm going to be swamped with cord and cable.
001:26:13 Mitchell (onboard): What's that?
001:26:15 Shepard (onboard): There's more badges (laughter).
001:26:17 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, I got it.
001:26:18 Shepard (onboard): I'll get it out of the way [garble] I'm over here. [garble] beep, beep, beep all over the place.
In the backup patch, the legend 'Apollo 14' was replaced with 'Beep, beep', the call of Roadrunner, the cartoon character who always foiled Wile E. Coyote. This was a humourous suggestion by Cernan and his crew that they were always on top and could never be beaten by the rookie crew. It was all, of course, banter and friendly rivalry.
001:26:33 Roosa (onboard): He who laughs last.
001:26:36 Shepard (onboard): Well I'm - even so, I'm hell of a lot happier that we're flying and looking at their patches, rather than the other way around.
001:26:44 Roosa (onboard): Well, That's what I meant by laughing last (laughter ).
001:26:51 Roosa (onboard): Yes. It's really a strange feeling. You know, sitting here looking out, it's hard to tell whether you're standing on your head, or...
001:27:05 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'm just - I'm still just a bit disoriented.
001:27:08 Shepard (onboard): Are you?
001:27:09 Mitchell (onboard): Well, I'm not when I look out the window, but I'm still - I'm a little bit disoriented in direction.
001:27:13 Shepard (onboard): Well, I think the only aloof feeling you have is just the fact that you're stuffy [garble] feeling in your head.
All three crewmen are commenting on the initial physical sensations caused by entering microgravity. Most astronauts reported a feeling of a fullness or stuffiness of the head, which is caused by a redistribution of fluid inside the human body when the heart has to work less hard to pump blood through the vascular system, not having to cope with gravity.
001:27:20 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
001:27:24 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] if I thought you could [garble] things looking so [garble].
001:27:42 Roosa (onboard): What you got going for you there, Leader?
001:27:46 Shepard (onboard): Huh?
001:27:47 Roosa (onboard): What you got going for you there?
001:27:48 Shepard (onboard): Oh, I was just - you know - looking around; see if I can get disoriented. [Garble].
Disorientation and discomfort - possibly leading to space sickness - were usually experienced soon after launch during Apollo missions and were related to the astronauts moving about in the cabin, combined with movements of their head. Al is possibly comparing his experience to that of his Mercury flight where he was strapped onto his moulded seat and was more or less immobile for the duration of the flight. The crews flying the extremely snug Gemini capsules did not develop space sickness either, but the larger size of Apollo allowed for more movement, and hence a greater risk of getting ill.
001:27:51 Roosa (onboard): Oh. It sounds like...
001:27:54 Shepard (onboard): Up is up, and down is down.
001:28:03 Shepard (onboard): No sweat!
001:28:14 Roosa (onboard): Sure am anxious to get this thing burning again.
Stu is referring to the S-IVB third stage that must relight in about an hour to send the stack on an intercept path with the Moon.
001:28:16 Shepard (onboard): Yes. Yes. I tell you, I'd be a little bit nervous about the, the way that baby put us in orbit!
001:28:27 Roosa (onboard): Yes. How's our tanks going? I guess we ought to take a look at those over here.
001:28:30 Shepard (onboard): 35 - 35, oxidizer; and 20, fuel. Right where it was when she cut off.
These pressures, given in pounds per square inch, are right in the middle of the expected values for the S-IVB's propellant tanks. This is shown in graphs on pages 7-14 and 7-17 of the Flight Evaluation Report of the AS-509 vehicle. The pressure in the hydrogen fuel tank drops to about 20 psi during Earth orbit due to the deliberate venting of the tank. The LH2 is extremely volatile and is readily boiling as heat from the Sun leaks in, despite the insulation lining its interior. The hydrogen vapour is vented via propulsive vents that apply a constant thrust of 125 N (28 lb-f) to the stack, decreasing to about 45 N (10 lb-f) just before the tank's pressure is raised for the second burn. Although it creates only a very slight acceleration (<0.0001g), this force serves to keep the S-IVB's propellants towards the bottom of their tanks.
Some 136,800 pounds (62,051 kg) of liquid oxygen and 30,428 pounds (13,802 kg) of liquid hydrogen remain in the SIVB stage.
001:28:44 Mitchell (onboard): Well, I guess I'd better put this back until we get to Houston, here, in a minute.
001:28:48 Roosa (onboard): Well, we're 01:28:46, now. My checklist says US LOS - Oh, okay. LOS, sorry about that. [Garble].
001:29:01 Shepard (onboard): That shouldn't change.
001:29:03 Roosa (onboard): Yes. We ought to have them.
001:29:06 Shepard (onboard): Ought to be fairly close.
001:29:12 Roosa (onboard): There, we just - we just got a wiggle on - yes...
001:29:21 Mitchell (onboard): Here it comes.
001:29:29 Roosa (onboard): [Garble]. It's not worth shit.
001:29:32 Mitchell (onboard): No. It's not very good.
001:29:33 Roosa (onboard): There, it's coming up.
001:29:34 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
001:29:38 Mitchell (onboard): Hello, Houston; Apollo 14. How do you read?
001:29:52 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] coastline [garble] I - I can see it,
001:29:55 Shepard (onboard): Ah, there it is. Yes. See? That's Baja.
001:29:58 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
001:29:59 Roosa (onboard): Yes?
The astro trio is now spotting the coast of California and Mexico.
Stateside pass (Rev 1)
001:29:59 Mitchell: Hello, Houston; Apollo 14. How do you read?
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 1 hour and 30 minutes now since the lift-off of Apollo 14. We presently show 14 less than a minute now away from acquisition, with an orbit of 106 by 101 nautical miles [196 by 187 km]. A preliminary look at our Translunar Injection burn puts it at a time of 2 hours, 28 minutes, 27 seconds."
001:30:02 Fullerton: Apollo 14, this is Houston. You're loud and clear, Ed. [Long pause.]
001:30:07 Shepard (onboard): Where is it? I can't see it.
001:30:09 Roosa (onboard): I - I'm not sure it is - I can't - I've got a...
001:30:15 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston. You're loud and clear. Go ahead. [Long pause.]
001:30:28 Mitchell: Roger, Houston. We've completed our checklist up to page [garble].
001:30:29 Fullerton: 14, Houston. We started getting - pretty bad static right in the middle of that transmission. Will you say again?
001:30:37 Mitchell: Roger, Houston. We have completed our [garble] L2-18.
001:30:45 Fullerton: Roger. [Long pause.]
001:31:12 Mitchell: Houston, we're starting to extend the docking probe now.
001:31:15 Fullerton: Roger, Ed. And I have a TLI plus 90 PAD any time you're ready to copy.
001:31:20 Mitchell: Roger. One second and I'll be ready for you. [Long pause.]
001:31:50 Shepard: Okay, Houston, the probe's extended. [Pause.]
001:32:02 Roosa: Houston, I'm ready to copy.
001:32:08 Fullerton: Okay, Ed. One question from Dr. Gilruth. They're wondering how y'all like zero g.
001:32:17 Roosa: Say again, Houston.
001:32:20 Fullerton: Dr. Gilruth was wondering how you like to fly - how you like flight in zero g...
001:32:26 Roosa: I think I got that one, Gordon. You're asking about zero g and it's - it's really great. Everybody's in great shape, we're having a ball, well ahead of the timeline.
001:32:38 Fullerton: Roger, I'll go ahead with TLI plus 90, Ed, if you're ready.
001:32:43 Mitchell: Go ahead.
001:32:45 Fullerton: Okay, it's a TLI plus 90, SPS/G&N. Noun 47, 64470; minus 1.45, plus 1.30; TIG is 003:59:51.13; Noun 81, minus 0515.8, plus all balls, plus 8420.6; attitude, 181, 256, 001; HA is NA; HP, plus 0017.1; 8436.4, 9:01, 8404.9; sextant star, 15; 221.4, 39.9; boresight star is NA; Noun 61, minus 30.14, minus 025.00; 1154.4, 33721; GET for .05g, 012 - correction - 010:57:29. GDC Align set stars are Sirius and Rigel; 333, 083, 013; no ullage. Go ahead.
Comm break.
P30 PAD sheet from the Apollo 13 Command Module Launch Checklist. The one for 14 would have been identical.
This long list of numbers is known as Pre-Advisory Data, or a PAD for short. It is read up to the crew slowly and deliberately from a form that is laid out in a well defined manner. The crew have forms laid out in the same manner and they fill the numbers in before reading them back so that Mission Control can be sure they were properly copied down. The system of reading up important information like this illustrates an interesting aspect of an Apollo flight. While it would have been possible to have arranged a digital uplink for this information, the design of Apollo's systems was just too early for such technology to have been implemented well. However, it is not important that the data is relayed digitally, just that it is relayed accurately. In this era of analogue aviation, pilots were accustomed to using voice to pass data. For a programme developed at speed during the 1960s, Apollo didn't have to be high tech, it just had to work.
001:35:29 Mitchell: Roger, Houston. That comm wasn't too good. I missed burn time, trunnion angle, and [pause] Please repeat those two. [Long pause.]
001:35:47 Fullerton: Roger. Your burn time is 9:01 and trunnion angle, 39.9. Over.
001:35:58 Mitchell: Roger. And say again the burn time.
001:36:01 Fullerton: Burn time 9:01, 9:01. Over.
001:36:07 Mitchell: Roger; 9:01. TLI plus 90, SPS/G&N. 64470, minus 1.45, plus 1.30; at 003:59:51.13; 515.8, plus all zeros, plus 8420.6, 181, 256, 001; NA; plus 0017.1; 8436.4, 9:01 8404.9; 15; 221.4, 29.9; NA; Noun 61, minus 30.14, minus 025.00; 1154.4; 33721; GET of .05g, 010:57:29; Sirius, Rigel; 332, 082, 013; no ullage.
Comm break.
The PAD is interpreted as follows:
Purpose: This PAD provides the details of a long burn of the SPS engine that would occur about 90 minutes after TLI in case the crew need to make an emergency return to Earth soon after heading for the Moon.
Systems: The burn would be made using the large SPS engine at the rear of the Service Module, under the control of the Guidance and Navigation system.
CSM Weight (Noun 47): 64,470 pounds (29,243 kg).
Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -1.45° and +1.3°. These angles represent an initial direction for the gimbal-mounted engine. As the burn progresses, the nozzle will be slowly steered to track shifts in the stack's centre of mass.
Time of ignition (Noun 33): 3 hours, 59 minutes, 51.13 seconds.
Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, -515.8 (-157.2); y, 0 (0); z, +8,420.6 (+2,566.6). The change in velocity is resolved into three components which are quoted relative to the LVLH (Local Vertical/Local Horizontal).
Spacecraft attitude: Roll, 181°; Pitch, 256°; Yaw, 1°. The desired spacecraft attitude is measured relative to the alignment of the guidance platform.
HA, expected apogee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): Not applicable.
HP, expected perigee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): 17.1 nautical miles (31.7 km). The perigee distance is so low, it intersects Earth's atmosphere. What this really means is that the spacecraft will re-enter.
Delta-VT: 8,436.4 fps (2,571.4 m/s). This is the total change in velocity the spacecraft would experience and is a vector sum of the three components given above.
Burn duration or burn time: 9 minutes, 1 second.
Delta-VC: 8,404.9 fps (2,561.8 m/s). Using its ability to independently measure acceleration, the EMS can shut down the engine in case the G&N system fails to do so. This figure, Delta-VC, is slightly lower than Delta-VT because the EMS does not take account of the engine's tail-off thrust.
Sextant star: Star 15 (Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris) visible in sextant when shaft and trunnion angles are 221.4° and 39.9° respectively. This is part of an attitude check.
Boresight star: Not available. This is a second attitude check which is made by sighting on another celestial object with the COAS (Crew Optical Alignment Sight) at a window. In this case, since all the windows are facing Earth, there is no boresight star to be seen.
The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. In this context, a more important milestone is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 g.
Expected splashdown point (Noun 61): 30.14° south, 25.0° west; in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Range to go at the 0.05 g event: 1,154.4 nautical miles. To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel after reaching a deceleration of 0.05g. This figure will be decremented by the EMS based on signals from its own accelerometer.
Expected velocity at the 0.05 g event: 33,721 fps. This is another entry for the EMS. It is entered into the unit's Delta-V counter and will be decremented based on signals from its own accelerometer.
Predicted GET of 0.05 g event: 10 hours, 57 minutes, 29 seconds GET.
GDC Align stars: The stars to be used for GDC Align purposes are Sirius and Rigel. When these two stars are viewed through the telescope in the correct manner, the spacecraft's attitude will be: roll, 7°; pitch, 144°; yaw, 68°.
The one additional note in the PAD is that there would be no need to perform an ullage burn to settle the contents if the SPS because they are full.
001:37:41 Fullerton: Okay, Ed. I have about four corrections. The first is on Delta-VX on Noun 81. I missed your readback on that. It should be minus 0515.8. Is that what you got?
001:37:55 Mitchell: That's affirm; 0515.8.
001:37:58 Fullerton: Okay; a couple of read-backs were incorrect. Trunnion angle is 39.9, 39.9. Over.
001:38:08 Mitchell: Roger; trunnion, 39.9.
001:38:11 Fullerton: And on R-aligns, or the GDC align, that is 333, and pitch is 083. Yaw you read back correctly, 013. Over.
001:38:26 Mitchell: Roger; 333, 083, and you're coming in very loud and clear now, Gordon.
001:38:33 Fullerton: Okay, Ed. You've been loud and clear. I'll give you the P37 for Lift-off plus 8, if you're ready.
001:38:38 Mitchell: Go ahead.
001:38:40 Fullerton: Okay, GET of ignition is 008:00, 3283, minus 165, and GET for 400K, 045:38. Go ahead. [Long pause.]
001:39:02 Mitchell: That's 008:00, 3283, minus 165, and 045:38.
The Lift-off + 8 PAD carries data for P37, a program in the computer that will calculate the details of a burn that will return the crew to Earth. An important condition for P37 is that the spacecraft must still be in Earth's sphere of influence, thus simplifying the calculations. The program takes the four values from the PAD; the specified time for ignition of the engine, a specified maximum change in velocity (or Delta-V), the longitude of the splashdown and the GET for the start of re-entry. These act as a set of constraints with which it calculates the desired trajectory and the details of the burn to achieve it.
001:39:13 Fullerton: Roger, your readback's correct, and I have the TLI PAD.
001:39:19 Mitchell: Okay, these PADs are sure wrecking my viewing, but all right. [Pause.]
001:39:32 Shepard: Okay, Houston, go ahead with the TLI PAD.
001:39:35 Fullerton: 14, Houston. Before the PAD, would you give us P00 and Accept for a new state vector?
The concept of the state vector is central to the guidance and navigation of the spacecraft. Simply put, it is a collection of six numbers that apply at a moment in time (seven items in all) that describe where the spacecraft is, how fast it is going and in which direction. More specifically, three numbers define the spacecraft's position within the current coordinate system. Three more define its velocity resolved along the three axes of that coordinate system and all six of those numbers are relevant to a particular time. With an understanding of Newtonian mechanics and a reasonably good mathematical model of the Solar System, it is possible to use a spacecraft's state vector to calculate, with useful accuracy, the path it is going to take.
The CSM's state vector is stored in the computer's erasable memory and there is an additional space there set aside for the Lunar Module's state vector. The state vector is usually determined through radio tracking and at regular intervals this is uplinked to the spacecraft. For this, the crew will give Mission Control access to the erasable memory by setting the computer's major mode to P00 and throwing the Uptelemetry switch to Accept. In case of a problem with the communications system, the CMP can also determine the state vector independently by optical means and Stu will practise this technique throughout both cislunar coasts.
001:39:42 Shepard: Okay, you have it. [Pause.]
001:39:49 Fullerton: And I'm ready with the TLI PAD.
001:39:51 Shepard: Go ahead.
001:39:52 Fullerton: Roger; time base 6 predict; 2:18:51; attitude for TLI, 179, 136, 000; burn time, 5:52; 10363.0; 35549; Sep attitude, 359, 168, 319; extraction attitude, 301, 348, 041; ejection time is 3:56:00. Go ahead.
001:40:07 Shepard: Okay. I have 02:18:51. I missed the angles; burn time, 5 plus 52; 10363.0, 35549; 359, 168, 319; 301, 348, 041; ejection, 3:56:00. And would you give me the angles again, please? [Long pause.]
001:40:28 Fullerton: Roger, Al. Your readback was correct. The TLI attitude is 179, 136, 000. Go ahead.
001:40:42 Shepard: I have 179, 136, 000.
001:40:47 Fullerton: Roger. Readback correct.
Comm break.
Translunar Injection PAD from the Apollo 13 Launch Checklist. The one for Apollo 14 would have been identical.
This PAD data is structurally different to other burn PADs because the maneuver is controlled by the IU on the launch vehicle and not the computer in the CM.
The timings for events relating to the launch vehicle are defined relative to a number of time bases, each of which begins with a particular event. This allows complete sequences to be tied, not to the mission time but to critical events. The restart sequence for the S-IVB's single J-2 engine is part of time base 6 which itself is determined by the spacecraft's current orbit and the best time in that orbit to head for the Moon. When TB-6 begins, all subsequent events to restart the engine such as tank repressurisation, engine chilldown, ullage, etc., follow on, leading to the engine start command 9 minutes, 30 seconds later, and ignition 8 seconds after that.
The crew also have tasks to perform in the minutes around the TLI burn and so to help coordinate everything, they will use their event timer. Very near the predicted time of 002:18:51, TB-6 will begin and this will be shown by both the 'Uplink Activity' and 'S-II Sep' lamps coming on. The former is illuminated for ten seconds, the latter for 38 seconds. At 9 minutes to ignition, the 'S-II Sep' lamp will be extinguished and Al will use this as a cue to start the event timer counting up, having previously set it to 51:00. This will give a visual count-up to and beyond ignition to aid the crew in sequencing their final tasks before and during TLI. Items in the checklist are therefore shown with times from 51:00, through (1:)00:00 and upwards.
The PAD is interpreted as follows.
TB-6 predict light: This comes on at 002:18:51, the start of TB-6 and it implies that TIG (time of ignition) will be at 002:28:29, 9 minutes and 38 seconds later. In the event, TB-6 will begin at 002:18:54.2 and ignition (the moment when the J-2's start tank is discharged) will occur at 002:25:32.4, both events a few seconds later than expected.
Attitude for TLI: 179°, 136°, 001° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively. This attitude is stated with respect to the orientation that the guidance platform has held since launch.
Duration of burn: 5 minutes, 52 seconds.
Delta-VC': 10,363.0 fps (3,158.6 m/s) will be entered into the EMS to allow the crew to monitor the velocity that remains to be added. As the accelerometer in the EMS measures the effect of the S-IVB's burn, the number will decrement towards zero.
VI: Indicated velocity at engine cut-off is 35,549 fps (10,835.3 m/s).
Separation attitude: The correct attitude for separation of the CSM from the launch vehicle is 359°, 168°, 319° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively with respect to the local vertical/local horizontal. Among the criteria for adopting this attitude is solar illumination of the LM to assist the docking procedure.
Extraction attitude: The correct attitude for extraction of the LM from the S-IVB is 301°, 348°, 41° in roll, pitch and yaw respectively.
Ejection time: 003:56:00, the time that the CSM and LM should be ejected from the S-IVB.
001:42:07 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston. The computer's yours. We're through with the uplink.
001:42:11 Shepard: Okay. Thank you.
Comm break.
The purpose of the translunar injection is to perform something akin to what is known as a Hohmann transfer to get to the Moon. What this means is that they will fire the S-IVB stage in order to gain more velocity, and doing so, to raise the apogee of their orbit. The apogee is the highest point of the orbit around the Earth, while the perigee is the lowest point. Currently they are in an essentially circular orbit where both the perigee and the apogee points are close to 100 nautical miles. The point in their orbit where they burn the engine will become their perigee, and the rise in velocity will also cause their apogee to rise.
In the case of a TLI, this engine burn to raise the apogee will turn their circular orbit into a highly elliptic one, with the new apogee beyond the orbit of the Moon. The maneuver is aimed to be in the vicinity of the Moon in approximately three days' time. The Moon is currently about 40° further back in its orbit. As they close in on the Moon, the gravity of our natural satellite will influence the trajectory of the spacecraft and to pull it around the lunar far side. Should the crew do nothing, they will be thrown back towards the Earth on the so-called free return trajectory.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
001:43:40 Shepard: Okay, Houston. We're going to stand by for your Go for pyro arm.
001:43:46 Fullerton: Roger, Al. Stand by.
001:43:49 Fullerton: You're Go for pyro arm now. [Pause.]
001:44:00 Shepard: Okay, Houston. Our Logic switches are on.
001:44:03 Fullerton: Roger. Now you're Go for pyro arm.
001:44:06 Roosa: Thank you.
Comm break.
001:45:10 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston.
001:45:13 Mitchell: Go ahead.
001:45:15 Fullerton: We have about 4 minutes to LOS Vanguard, Ed. And, due to the launch delay, the Canary pass will be pretty low elevation, marginal; at the most, about 2 minutes long.
001:45:30 Mitchell: Okay. Thank you. [Long pause.]
001:46:25 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston.
001:46:29 Mitchell: Go ahead.
001:46:30 Fullerton: We're reading the CDR's EKG loud and clear now. We're wondering if you did anything to fix it up there.
001:46:38 Shepard: Nope.
001:46:41 Fullerton: Roger. It looks good.
Comm break.
"Apollo Control, Houston; 1 hour, 47 minutes now into the flight. You heard the Translunar Injection PAD being passed to the crew. We're presently looking at a time of ignition of 2 hours, 28 minutes, 29 seconds. A Delta-V on the burn of 10,367 feet per second [3,160 m/s]. Burn duration of 5 minutes, 52 seconds. Velocity at time of shutdown, 35,549 feet per second [10,835 m/s]. As you heard CapCom Fullerton pass along, apparently we are receiving medical data from the commander at this time. We're at 1 hour, 48 minutes into the flight of Apollo 14; this is Apollo Control, Houston."
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"Apollo Control, Houston. One hour, 50 minutes now into the flight. We..."
001:49:39 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston.
001:49:42 Mitchell: Go ahead.
001:49:44 Fullerton: Roger; we're real close to LOS. I'll go ahead and give you the words I've got about TLI. First of all, the - the monitor angles on page L2-24 should all be increased by 2.5 degrees. And, if you're monitoring the TLI burn with the cue card, the pitch angles should all be reading about 9 degrees higher than on the card. The yaw should be within a quarter degree, one-fourth degree of what the card reads. Did you copy? Over.
Comm break.
Canary (Rev-2)
"Apollo Control, Houston. One hour, 51 minutes. Apparently we had Loss of Signal with 14 just about the time CapCom Fullerton was passing along that new data. We repeat, we show a time of ignition for TLI of 2 hours, 28 minutes, 29 seconds. A delta velocity of - or Delta-V of 10,367 feet per second [3,160 m/s]. A burn duration of 5 minutes, 52 seconds and a velocity at time of shutdown of 35,549 feet per second [10,835 m/s]. Reacquiring with Canary."
001:51:27 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston through Canaries. Over.
001:51:31 Mitchell: Okay, Houston. We got nothing of your last transmission. You dropped off the air.
001:51:36 Fullerton: Okay, Ed. I'll start over. For the TLI - coming up on your monitor - First of all on the cue card, the yaw angles as shown are okay. The pitch that you see on the ball should be 9 degrees higher all the way through the burn than as shown on the cue card; just add 9 to all your pitch angles and that should be good. On the ORDEAL angles that - is shown on pages 2-24 and 25, increase each of those by 2 and a half degrees. At 57 minutes, instead of 18, you should have 20.5 degrees; at 59 minutes, 12.5; and at 59:55, 8.5 degrees. Over. [Long pause.]
001:52:40 Mitchell: Roger; understand that the yaw angles are okay. Pitch should be - angle should be plus 9 degrees and ORDEAL angles increased by 2.5 degrees.
001:52:52 Fullerton: Roger. That pitch is a 9-degree increment over what is shown on the card. In other words, all the angles should be 9 degrees higher than as shown on the card - the inertial angles. Over.
001:53:04 Roosa: Roger; got you, Gordon. We got that. We're with you. [Long pause.]
The ORDEAL unit is an odd piece of equipment that was an add-on to the spacecraft's systems. It arose from the differing ways that two groups considered space flight. On the one hand, the engineers at MIT who designed the Apollo guidance and navigation system viewed the task as something that occurred in inertial space, hence the IMU that measured their orientation and movement in that inertial space. The astronauts, on the other hand, came from the aviation world. They flew with reference to the ground below and one of their most important instruments was the artificial horizon which indicated their aircraft's orientation with respect to the local horizontal plane. Since many of the manoeuvres they made were carried out with respect to the ground, they argued that the spacecraft should likewise have an artificial horizon. The nearest they got was the Flight Director/Attitude Indicator (FDAI or 8-ball). This used a rotatable ball to display inertial attitude but it could not, by itself, display attitude with respect to the ground below. It was slaved to the IMU platform and therefore mimiced it by staying still in inertial space while the spacecraft appeared to rotate around it.
This is where the ORDEAL comes in. A spacecraft that was keeping one side facing the ground as it orbits is really just rotating around on an axis in exact sympathy with its revolution around the planet. This is called 'orbital rate' rotation, or 'orb rate' for short. Therefore, if the 8-ball can be made to rotate in sympathy with the orbit, it should be possible to make it act like an artifical horizon, displaying attitude with respect to the ground. All that is then required is for the starting conditions to be set up properly.
The ORDEAL unit installed in the Apollo 16 LM, seen here prior to flight.
(Click image for a larger version.)
ORDEAL stands for Orbital Rate Display Earth and Lunar. To do its job, it needs two things. First, it needs to know what world the spacecraft is circling around. An orbit around Earth takes about 90 minutes and a lunar orbit takes around 2 hours. A switch on the unit selects which of these two so that the rate of rotation of the ball is in about the correct range. The second thing required is the spacecraft's average orbital altitude. This takes account of the fact that a lower orbit has a shorter period. The ORDEAL includes a calibrated knob that allows the altitude, in nautical miles to be dialled in. Assuming it has been carefully calibrated preflight, the device can produce a drive signal that rotates the 8-ball in near sympathy with the orbital rotation.
Being an add-on, the CM ORDEAL has to be fished out of its stowage compartment and installed in space. The unit for the LM was already installed preflight. Then to set it up, the crewman begins by determining the spacecraft's pitch angle with respect to the current horizon. This gives him the starting point for the ball rotation. He then applies the ORDEAL's drive signal to start the ball rotating to keep one side facing the ground. It wasn't perfect but was accurate enough for short term use.
001:53:18 Fullerton: 14, Houston.
001:53:22 Mitchell/Shepard: Go ahead.
001:53:23 Fullerton: On your P15, we show that you loaded the wrong seconds figure for time base 6. Will you check it? [Long pause.]
001:53:42 Roosa: Thank you, Gordon. Good call. [Long pause.]
001:53:52 Shepard (onboard): 1805100. There you are. Okay. Okay, now I'll discard - this plus 2.5 degrees in depth?
001:54:12 Roosa (onboard): That's right. It goes to 20.5.
001:54:15 Shepard (onboard): 20.5. And this is going to become 12.5.
001:54:23 Roosa (onboard): 12.5.
001:54:28 Shepard (onboard): And this, then, becomes 8.5...
001:54:29 Fullerton: 14, Houston.
001:54:32 Shepard: Go ahead.
001:54:34 Fullerton: For that time to take, you're going to have to reselect P15.
001:54:40 Shepard: Roger. I - I did, Gordon. We'll run through it again.
001:54:43 Fullerton: Roger.
Very long comm break.
"P15 is the Saturn time base 6 initiation program."
001:54:47 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. We need to be pressing along here.
001:54:49 Roosa (onboard): Okay, press.
001:54:50 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] set Delta-VC.
001:54:53 Shepard (onboard): Just a second. If you want to note that during the venting of the Delta-V test - And, under the second vent, that was minus 99.5. Okay.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; one hour and 55 minutes. We had Loss of Signal with Canaries. Meanwhile the countdown clocks in Mission Control show a AOS time of 11 minutes for the Command Module. This is ARIA or an Apollo Range and Instrumentation Aircraft acquisition and we're counting down now for time of ignition. Presently showing 32 minutes, 40 seconds away from time of ignition. We're at one hour, 56 minutes into the flight, continuing to monitor; this is Apollo Control, Houston."
001:55:05 Roosa (onboard): Minus 95.5.
001:55:06 Shepard (onboard): 99.5.
001:55:07 Roosa (onboard): Got it.
001:55:09 Shepard (onboard): Okay, I'm setting...
001:55:15 Roosa (onboard): Two hours 18 and 51 seconds. [Garble] 37.
001:55:33 Shepard (onboard): (Whistling)
001:55:34 Roosa (onboard): I need to get a hack on that 2:18:51...
001:55:38 Mitchell (onboard): 2:18:51.
001:55:39 Roosa (onboard): ...Okay, it's coming up toward 51 - Should be coming toward 55:51; that would be 5 - 23 minutes. Okay. 1...
001:55:53 Roosa (onboard): Hack. Okay?
001:55:55 Mitchell (onboard): All right.
001:56:12 Shepard (onboard): (Whistling)
001:56:17 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, your number - have you got it?
001:56:20 Roosa (onboard): 103 something. 10363.0.
001:56:24 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
001:56:33 Mitchell (onboard): I keep being afraid, like in the simulator, to let go of my book; it's going to fall down on the...
001:56:39 Roosa (onboard): Yes, [garble]. That's what you get for not paying attention to what you're doing.
001:56:44 Mitchell (onboard): Right.
001:56:45 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] around.
001:56:49 Mitchell (onboard): (Cough)
001:56:52 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Delta-VC, 10363.0...
001:56:57 Mitchell (onboard): 63.0. That's correct.
001:56:58 Shepard (onboard): Stand by, Delta-V. Okay?
001:57:00 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
001:57:03 Shepard (onboard): Now, GDC Align; okay
001:57:07 Mitchell (onboard): That's the next thing. Now first, EMS Function, Delta-V.
001:57:10 Shepard (onboard): Okay, so it is.
001:57:12 Mitchell (onboard): GDC Align.
001:57:13 Shepard (onboard): Okay. In work, my friend.
001:57:19 Mitchell (onboard): And, Stu, check your DAP, if you haven't already.
The DAP or Digital AutoPilot is a control routine in the computer that maintains the spacecraft's attitude without the direct intervention of a crewman. It runs in the background of this multitasking machine. To control its behaviour, digits can be set in two registers, R1 and R2.
Codes for the Digital AutopPilot
DAP control codes, from page 1-27 of the Apollo 14 G&C Checklist.
The crew can access these registers with Verb 48.
001:57:25 Roosa (onboard): All right. [garble]...
001:57:26 Mitchell (onboard): Verb 48.
001:57:33 Roosa (onboard): Okay, I have 31102.
These are the digits in R1 of the DAP. The '3' indicate that the CSM and S-IVB are being manoeuvred together. '1' and '1' are to enable both opposing quads. The '0' indicates that control will be tight with only ±0.5° from ideal being allowed before active control is made. Finally, '2' indicates that the rate of turning that the DAP should aim for is 0.5° per second.
001:57:36 Shepard (onboard): Okay, zero, all ones.
001:57:38 Roosa (onboard): Zero and all ones.
This entry into R2 of the DAP means that opposing quads B and D will be used to effect a roll, and that all four quads can be used for attitude control.
001:57:40 Mitchell (onboard): Call Verb 83.
Verb 83 is a request to display rendezvous parameters. This yields three numbers; the range to the target, the range rate (speed of approach) to the target and and angle, theta.
Diagram to show the angle, theta
This angle is what interests them because it tells them the angle between the spacecraft's plus-X axis and the local horizontal. They set the FDAI to show that angle on its pitch scale and start the ball rotating, driven by the ORDEAL box. As they orbit Earth, the ball will show them their pitch angle with respect to the local horizontal.
001:58:07 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] back there on the - There.
001:58:10 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
001:58:15 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. We're setting our ORDEAL at 100/Earth.
001:58:20 Shepard (onboard): I want to be sure that GDC is right on the money. Within a quarter of a degree. Okay, that's close enough. Okay. GDC's aligned, Ed.
001:58:33 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Set ORDEAL to 100/Earth.
001:58:37 Shepard (onboard): Okay. We want Earth power. We want 100. That's what we have. Okay.
001:58:47 Mitchell (onboard): And it says we can arm the pyros here.
001:58:51 Shepard (onboard): Is that time correlated at all or is the...
001:58:53 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, it says here that we have - It's right after LOS at Carnarvon at 1:55, and we're 3 minutes - 4 minutes after that. [Garble].
001:59:00 Shepard (onboard): Canary time?
001:59:01 Mitchell (onboard): I mean Canaries time.
001:59:04 Shepard (onboard): All righty.
001:59:06 Mitchell (onboard): SECS Pyro, two - SECS Pyro Arm, two, on (up).
001:59:11 Shepard (onboard): Okay, all I do with the ORDEAL at this time is set Earth power in 100 and hold that.
001:59:15 Mitchell (onboard): That's right.
001:59:16 Shepard (onboard): That's where it is. Okay.
001:59:17 Roosa (onboard): Why don't you slew it in - Well, see, you call a Verb 83. It says you set ORDEAL, so...
001:59:22 Mitchell (onboard): Pyro A, on; Pyro B...
001:59:24 Shepard (onboard): Oh, okay.
001:59:25 Mitchell (onboard): ...on.
001:59:26 Roosa (onboard): Yes, you really want to set the ORDEAL up on Verb 83.
001:59:28 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Okay, so we'll select ball 1 to Orb Rate and we will hold it back; then we'll slew up to 1.0. [Garble] Okay, ORDEAL's running at 1.5. Operating Slow, Earth/100. Okay.
Flight Plan page 3-005
002:00:04 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. And standing by for pyro arm.
002:00:08 Shepard (onboard): The pyros have been armed.
002:00:10 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Translational Control Power, on.
002:00:12 Shepard (onboard): It's on.
002:00:13 Mitchell (onboard): Rotational Control Power, Normal, two, AC/DC, verify.
002:00:17 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Normal, two, AC/DC, verify.
002:00:21 Mitchell (onboard): Rot Control Power Direct, two, Main A/Main B.
002:00:24 Shepard (onboard): Direct 1, Main A/Main B; Direct 2, Main A/Main B.
002:00:28 Mitchell (onboard): Launch Vehicle Indicator, GPI - S-II/S-IVB, verify.
002:00:32 Shepard (onboard): Okay. GPI is in S-II/S-IVB. And that's - The pressures are real quiet down here.
002:00:40 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:00:42 Shepard (onboard): We've got to remember to watch those babies after shutdown, too.
002:00:47 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Circuit breaker Direct Ullage, two, closed.
002:00:49 Shepard (onboard): Okay, two Ullage breakers going closed.
002:00:52 Mitchell (onboard): And I'm cycling the cryo fans.
002:00:54 Shepard (onboard): Okay, [garble].
002:00:57 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] gone to Auto?
002:00:58 Mitchell (onboard): Huh?
002:00:59 Roosa (onboard): [Garble].
002:01:01 Mitchell (onboard): No.
002:01:02 Roosa (onboard): No. [Garble].
002:01:07 Mitchell (onboard): Set the DET at 51.
002:01:08 Shepard (onboard): Okay. [Garble] see how close that baby is before we - [garble].
002:01:14 Roosa (onboard): What have you got [garble].
002:01:19 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] 1 minute. 17, 18, 19, 20. Hey, it stayed right in there, didn't it? Two hours; no appreciable error. [garble] Enter. Reset.
002:01:45 Shepard (onboard): DET is set at 51:00.
002:01:48 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. And Stu has lunar time base 6.
002:01:53 Roosa (onboard): Yes, I was looking at Noun 20 there.
002:01:56 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Verify you've done that.
002:01:59 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Control is coming up. It's locked.
002:02:04 Mitchell (onboard): Time base 6 is at 2:18. And we have 16 minutes to stand by.
002:02:09 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] up here.
002:02:11 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:02:12 Roosa (onboard): Stand by, in case we just have to [garble].
002:02:17 Shepard (onboard): No, God damn it! That's the way we play it.
002:02:21 Roosa (onboard): Well, standing by.
002:02:22 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:02:24 Mitchell (onboard): That's what the damn thing's there for.
002:02:25 Roosa (onboard): We want to think positive.
002:02:27 Shepard (onboard): Who's supposed to do that?
002:02:28 Roosa (onboard): Think positive and prepare for the worst.
002:02:30 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Tell me, how - Where do we stand now with respect to sunlight. We shouldn't get sunlight prior to...
002:02:37 Mitchell (onboard): Sunrise is...
002:02:38 Roosa (onboard): 2:21.
002:02:39 Mitchell (onboard): Well, 2:21 on the old time line.
002:02:42 Roosa (onboard): It's going to be earlier.
002:02:44 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, a little bit earlier.
002:02:45 Roosa (onboard): It's going to be earlier because sunset was a little early. We have three - three-quarters of an hour - 15 degrees [Garble].
002:03:04 Shepard (onboard): Did we really get off at 03? Is that about what it was?
002:03:07 Mitchell (onboard): Yes. See - It looks like they programed us for 40-minutes-late lift-off and that's what we have.
002:03:13 Shepard (onboard): Exactly 40, huh?
002:03:14 Mitchell (onboard): Uh-huh.
002:03:15 Shepard (onboard): Good show.
002:03:16 Roosa (onboard): Temperature in the [garble] 52.
002:03:20 Shepard (onboard): You know, I been getting light flashes with my eyes open.
002:03:23 Mitchell (onboard): (Laughter)
002:03:24 Roosa (onboard): I think you should when you see lightning down there. Ed and I saw some when you were copying that TLI PAD.
002:03:30 Shepard (onboard): Is that what it is?
002:03:31 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:03:32 Shepard (onboard): Okay. I see a forest fire down there.
002:03:38 Mitchell (onboard): Do you?
002:03:39 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] were over?
002:03:41 Mitchell (onboard): We were over Africa at the start...
002:03:42 Shepard (onboard): We're over deepest, darkest Africa.
002:03:46 Roosa (onboard): Say hello to all the troops at Mozambique. Hello, troops in Mozambique.
002:03:54 Mitchell (onboard): Okay...
002:03:55 Shepard (onboard): [Garble].
002:03:59 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] reset the...
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 2 hours, 4 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 14. We presently show 14 in an orbit of 106.2 nautical miles [196.7 km] by 102.4 nautical miles [189.6 km]. Our latest update on the Translunar Injection burn shows a time of ignition of 2 hours, 28 minutes, 30 seconds; a Delta-V of 10,366.5 feet per second [3,159.7 m/s]; burn duration of 5 minutes, 52 seconds; predicted velocity at time of shutdown, 35,551.8 feet per second [10,836.2 m/s]; an altitude at time of cut-off of 173 nautical miles [320 km]. The Go No/Go callup for TLI will be made after acquisition at Carnarvon, although we will have voice communications with Apollo 14 through ARIA, we will lose station acquisition in about 2 minutes into the burn and will not be able to read onboard data. However, the crew of Apollo 14 will pass a burn status report at the end of burn and what they will be reading will be from their DSKY. They will pass along the velocity at time of shutdown, altitude at time of shutdown, and H-dot or altitude change at time of shutdown. The Translunar Injection burn will be done along the local horizontal. We're at 2 hours, 6 minutes into the flight of Apollo 14 and we'll stand by until we acquire the spacecraft. This is Apollo Control, Houston."
002:04:15 Roosa (onboard): Damn, except for the - the dynamics during launch, it seemed like a Sim, you know it?
002:04:21 Shepard (onboard): Uh-huh.
002:04:22 Roosa (onboard): Sitting here, quiet. The visual's a little better.
002:05:16 Shepard (onboard): This seems to be a light flashing by. [Garble].
002:05:35 Shepard (onboard): (Humming - "Give My Regards to Broadway")
002:06:48 Shepard (onboard): You shouldn't be rolling.
002:06:49 Roosa (onboard): Huh?
002:06:50 Shepard (onboard): You shouldn't be rolling.
002:06:58 Roosa (onboard): Now, I see something to do here.
002:07:00 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'm going to go back - and make sure we haven't missed a single thing.
002:07:06 Roosa (onboard): I got the G&N Dictionary down here. All out, ready to read.
002:07:13 Mitchell (onboard): Let's just be sure we haven't missed anything on the checklist.
002:07:22 Roosa (onboard): Did they get us shafted on the [garble] on that LOS?
002:07:27 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:07:29 Shepard (onboard): Let's see. We want [garble] 20 degrees [garble] and we're making...
002:07:39 Roosa (onboard): No, 10 degrees.
002:07:41 Shepard (onboard): Yes. Yes, 10. And we're making 4 degrees a minute. So, it should change our AOS time - I mean our sunrise time to 2 and a half minutes [Garble].
002:07:53 Roosa (onboard): [Garble].
002:07:54 Shepard (onboard): And it should be earlier. Sunset should be earlier and sunrise should be earlier. Well, what does that work out for sunrise?
002:08:05 Roosa (onboard): 02:19.
002:08:13 Shepard (onboard): Okay. [Garble] looking at our fuel pressure - I mean, oxidizer pressure should stay at 36 - 35, and fuel at 20.
002:08:32 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Al, do you want to check your DAC and make sure its settings are it - on it like you want it, to get it done. T8 at 250th.
Many folk are familiar with f-stops when referring to lenses. The T-stop is much less known. An f-stop is the ratio of a lens's focal length to its aperture, usually set by a variable iris. So a 50-mm-focal-length lens with a 25-mm aperture is said to be a f/2 lens. All being perfect, it will allow through the same amount of light as a 80-mm lens with a 40-mm aperture. Thus, knowing the aperture is important when determining the proper exposure of photographic film (as used in Apollo 14's day), or an image sensor. However, for critical exposure situations, the f-stop isn't quite good enough because it doesn't take account of how much light is being lost simply by passing through the lens, particularly complex lenses with many pieces of glass. The T-stop does takes account of the lens's transmittance so that exposure calculations can be more accurate. Lenses used for stills cameras usually measure the light passing through the lens anyway so there is no need to worry about the lens's transmittance. Movie cameras on the other hand tend not to have metering through the lens. Instead movie film exposure generally uses a separate meter and as a result, in order to achieve more accurate exposure, the transmittance of the lens must be taken into account. Thus lenses for movie film cameras are more likely to be calibrated in T-stops.
Just now, Al is setting up a DAC, a Data Acquisition Camera, NASA-speak for 16-mm movie cameras built by Maurer that were used to film aspects of the mission. Being a movie camera, its lens happens to be calibrated in T-stops though the crew won't use accurate metering for exposure determination. They will instead rely on exposure having been calculated before the flight.
A Maurer DAC from Apollo 11.
This Maurer DAC was returned to Earth from the Apollo 11 LM by Neil Armstrong. Image courtesy of NASM.
(Click image for a larger version.)
Close up of a DAC lens>
Close up of the lens from the Apollo 11 DAC. Note the use of T-stops on the barrel engraving.
(Click image for a larger version.)
002:08:43 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Let me check it for you. I've got a T8, and it's focused at 7 feet. I've got a 250th.
002:08:56 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Twelve frames...
002:08:58 Shepard (onboard): Twelve frames a second.
002:08:59 Mitchell (onboard): Magazine A.
002:09:01 Shepard (onboard): Magazine A.
002:09:02 Mitchell (onboard): Got an 18-millimeter lens with the right-angle mirror on it.
002:09:07 Roosa (onboard): Exactly.
002:09:08 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. I'm going to set up the Hasselblad then.
002:09:13 Roosa (onboard): Okay. We're 9 and a half minutes from time base 6.
002:09:18 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:09:56 Shepard (onboard): Yes, I'm glad you called that, Ed. It shows you what you can do. I had apparently knocked that thing to 24 frames per second.
002:10:01 Mitchell (onboard): Really?
002:10:02 Shepard (onboard): Yes. It's now sitting at 12.
002:10:34 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Let's, just for the hell of it, take some pictures of that - top of that booster anyway, huh?
002:10:48 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'm going to try to. You mean with the Hasselblad or what?
002:10:51 Roosa (onboard): Yes, the Hasselblad.
002:10:52 Shepard (onboard): Yes, with the Hasselblad. We're supposed to do it only, you know, provided it locks anomalous to us, but I think we ought to just go ahead and take a few pictures...
002:11:00 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I think we ought to...
002:11:01 Roosa (onboard): Oh, yes. I think we ought to take a couple as we come off. And then, when we roll and it comes in the hatch window, I think you ought to take a couple out of the hatch window.
002:11:11 Shepard (onboard): Have you got a range sight on the camera?
002:11:13 Mitchell (onboard): No, not right now. Wouldn't hurt if we did, but we don't.
002:11:19 Roosa (onboard): Yes, I got myself all strapped in now.
002:11:28 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. ASA 64.
002:11:41 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Time base 6 for a start, and then, we'll have sunrise. And then, we'll do all those good things,
002:11:49 Roosa (onboard): Then we'll get AOS from Carnarvon. We'll get a Go for TLI, and we'll burn the son of a gun.
002:12:01 Mitchell (onboard): Beautiful.
002:12:10 Roosa (onboard): Some ride.
002:12:12 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] I have to get closer. [Garble].
002:12:14 Roosa (onboard): Some ride.
002:12:16 Roosa (onboard): There was no doubt in your mind of lift-off, I was a little surprised at the level of the vibration prior to lift-off though. I'd been led to believe it was probably worse. Maybe they're strapping us in tighter nowadays.
002:12:32 Shepard (onboard): I didn't have any trouble with communications or anything.
002:12:35 Roosa (onboard): Oh, it was beautiful all the way. Boy, that BPC goes, doesn't it? That tower, son of a bitch moves out. I didn't even notice the switches being hard (laughter). I didn't figure I would.
002:12:56 Shepard (onboard): (Yawn)
002:12:58 Roosa (onboard): I didn't figure I would. Man, it was beautiful! All the checks right on the mark. Played her right like the sim. [Garble] just like the simulator.
002:13:12 Mitchell (onboard): I guess, in order to make sure we don't screw that up, I guess I'd better pull that dark slide out right now. Right there.
002:13:23 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] yet.
002:13:27 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, but I don't want to - be ready to take a picture and miss a picture because of it.
002:13:32 Shepard (onboard): Anybody want any water?
002:13:34 Roosa (onboard): Yes. I'll take a slug of water.
002:13:41 Shepard (onboard): [Garble] a good place to leave that baby [garble].
002:13:46 Mitchell (onboard): How long before time base 6?
002:13:48 Shepard (onboard): Oh, about 5 minutes.
002:13:51 Mitchell (onboard): I'm getting kind of hungry. I'm going to have to watch my weight. I'm going to really slurp it up at the table tonight...
002:14:01 Roosa (onboard): [Garble] up in there.
002:14:11 Shepard (onboard): Well, [garble] be back [garble].
002:14:21 Roosa (onboard): Pretty tasty water.
002:14:24 Mitchell (onboard): Well, there goes the monitor. Watch out for the trim.
002:14:38 Shepard (onboard): I tell you, this weightlessness is really great, isn't it?
002:14:41 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, I'll enjoy it.
002:14:43 Shepard (onboard): Zero g. Fantastic!
002:14:49 Mitchell (onboard): I want to see the stars out there.
002:14:51 Shepard (onboard): I don't feel any - any more stuffy than I did this morning.
002:14:55 Roosa (onboard): I'm - I'm kind of surprised at that, too. I - I think Al Bean made the comment that everybody's face looked puffed up.
002:15:02 Shepard (onboard): Yes?
002:15:03 Roosa (onboard): Your face doesn't look puffed up to me, particularly,
002:15:07 Shepard (onboard): I'm sure there is some adjustment...
002:15:09 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
002:15:10 Shepard (onboard): ...you adjust to the - You know, the old - your cardiovascular - relaxes. [Garble].
002:15:16 Mitchell (onboard): I just feel great, personally.
002:15:19 Shepard (onboard): Well, hell, after the goddamn launch like that, who couldn't feel great?
002:15:22 Roosa (onboard): Oh, I've got a little stuffiness in my head, I...
002:15:26 Shepard (onboard): Yes,
002:15:27 Roosa (onboard): You know, it sort of feels like you're - maybe when you're pulling 1 and a half or 2g's with a - with a cold.
002:15:35 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:15:36 Roosa (onboard): It sort of feels just like it.
The astros are finding common ground in relating the new sensations to their past experience with high-g maneuvers onboard fighter jets.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 2 hours, 16 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 14. We'll stand by for any communications with the ARIA aircraft. We're 12 minutes, 25 seconds away from time of ignition."
002:16:05 Mitchell (onboard): I can't help but feel I'm laying on my back.
002:16:13 Roosa (onboard): I sort of feel like I'm laying head down somewhere. Maybe that's because of the...
002:16:18 Mitchell (onboard): Stuffiness?
002:16:19 Roosa (onboard): - stuffiness in my head.
002:16:22 Shepard (onboard): Yes, feet slightly elevated.
002:16:27 Shepard (onboard): Like resting on the sit-up board at...
002:16:29 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:16:30 Shepard (onboard): ...high angle.
002:16:31 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
ARIA (Rev-2)
002:16:37 Fullerton: Apollo, Houston; this - Apollo 14, this is Houston through ARIA 4. How do you read?
002:16:43 Roosa (onboard): I'll be damned!
002:16:44 Mitchell: Houston, this is Apollo 14. Loud and clear. How me?
002:16:47 Fullerton: Roger. You're readable; a little bit in the background noise, but loud and readable.
002:16:55 Mitchell: Roger, Houston. [Long pause.]
"That was Ed Mitchell responding aboard the spacecraft."
002:16:58 Shepard (onboard): When did we say it was going to be?
002:17:02 Mitchell (onboard): What's that?
002:17:04 Shepard (onboard): What was that figure, Stu-babe?
002:17:05 Roosa (onboard): We said - 19:16.
002:17:07 Shepard (onboard): 19:16. Okay. Okay.
002:17:14 Roosa: Okay, Houston; 14. How do you read now?
002:17:18 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston. You're readable, too. Go ahead.
002:17:23 Roosa: Okay, I was just checking the comm here. Gee, you're just beautiful; the ARIA is really putting out for us.
"We're ten minutes away now, from time of ignition."
002:17:29 Fullerton: Roger. I guess this is the best ever for ARIA.
Long comm break.
"2 minutes 18 seconds, that was Stu Roosa coming in with a comment."
002:17:34 Shepard (onboard): Eighty seconds to time base 6 start, troops.
002:17:38 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:17:45 Mitchell (onboard): Launch Vehicle Guidance to IU, verify.
002:17:48 Shepard (onboard): Launch Vehicle Guidance to IU. Never has moved.
Launch Vehicle control switches on the bottom of Panel 2. Original scan via heroicrelics.org.
A guarded switch allows the crew to change the Saturn V guidance from its internal Instrument Unit to CMC - Command Module Computer mode, which also enables manual control using the Rotational Hand Controller.
002:17:51 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:17:53 Shepard (onboard): Although we were ready for it...
From Apollo 11 onwards, the commanders had the ability to wrestle control of the Saturn V to themselves if necessary and fly it manually. Many of them relished the thought but no one ever got the opportunity.
This configuration verification starts the Normal TLI procedure in their Launch Checklist. It will be performed under automatic control from the IU in the S-IVB. A manual option with Command Module guidance exists, and would be used if the IU fails but the booster is otherwise sound. The loss of internal S-IVB guidance is no grounds for cancelling the whole mission, as long as the crew can safely make the burn for the Moon.
002:17:54 Mitchell (onboard): Standing by for the Uplink Activity light.
002:17:59 Shepard (onboard): Sixty-five seconds.
002:18:08 Unknown crew member (onboard): (Humming)
002:18:09 Shepard (onboard): I want you to mark when that Sun comes over the horizon.
002:18:11 Mitchell (onboard): All right. You want to not look at it?
002:18:16 Shepard (onboard): Well, it's right in my window.
002:18:17 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:18:21 Shepard (onboard): Thirty seconds to start of time base 6,
002:18:23 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:18:40 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:18:46 Roosa (onboard): We get an Uplink Activity light and an S-II Sep light.
002:18:56 Roosa: Okay. We have an S-II Sep light.
At the base of the S-IVB stage is a device that looks like a small rocket motor. This was the O2/H2 burner and it consisted a chamber, within which oxygen and hydrogen were burned to generated a hot exhaust gas. This exhaust warmed coils as it passed on its way to a nozzle. The coils carried extremely cold helium that had been stored within spheres in the hydrogen fuel tank. The heat from the burner's exhaust expanded the helium before it was sent to repressurise both tanks. The exhaust gas then exited via the nozzle, and in doing so, imparted a small but measurable thrust on the stack of about 170 newtons (39 lb-f). The direction of this thrust was deliberately set to pass near to the stack's centre of mass in order to avoid causing unwanted rotation.
002:19:00 Roosa (onboard): About a second late.
002:19:01 Shepard (onboard): Yes, it looked like it was a little late, didn't it? When that light goes out, I'm going to start my timer.
002:19:09 Mitchell: Okay. Count down to the Sun.
002:19:26 Roosa (onboard): Down to 5-second count.
002:19:34 Shepard (onboard): Okay. The light's out. Timer starting.
002:19:36 Mitchell (onboard): And counting. Watch the sunrise in your eye, Al.
"Nine minutes away now."
As indicated by the extinguishing of the S-II light, there are nine minutes until ignition and so the event timer is started, having previously been preset to 51:00. It will count up to ignition and beyond to help the crew coordinate their tasks around TLI for the next nine minutes.
002:19:38 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Tank pressure's 35 and 20. That looks good.
002:19:44 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Verify Spacecraft Control, SCS.
002:19:47 Shepard (onboard): Okay. SCS.
The crew is making sure that the CSM's own guidance mode is now at SCS, which means that the Stabilization Control System has spacecraft control. This means that the onboard computer is not attempting to control their attitude, which might fight against the S-IVB.
002:19:50 Mitchell (onboard): And monitor your tank pressures.
The S-IVB liquid oxygen and hydrogen tanks are being pressurized for the burn. Should the pressure suddenly get dangerously high, they are to perform an emergency separation from the booster and get away from the S-IVB.
002:19:51 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Is the Sun on time?
002:19:59 Mitchell (onboard): The Sun is...
002:20:00 Roosa (onboard): Pretty - pretty damn close.
002:20:01 Mitchell (onboard): it's just - just a little early.
002:20:03 Roosa (onboard): No, it isn't...
002:20:04 Mitchell (onboard): It was early on...
002:20:05 Roosa (onboard): ...not by our time.
002:20:06 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:20:07 Roosa (onboard): Our 19:16.
002:20:08 Mitchell (onboard): Right.
002:20:18 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Master Alarm, O2 Flow Hi.
The O2 Flow High warning light on the Caution and Warning panel.
On top of the Master Display Console, a bank of lights serve to announce any critical systems malfunctions to the crew. The Caution and Warning System constantly monitors certain parameters in the primary systems, and will trigger an audio and visual alarm with an alert tone, the Master Alarm lights, and the illumination of an indicator light for the associated system. Having the O2 Flow High light come up is one of the more serious alarms, which ought to prompt immediate action. It implies that an increasing amount of oxygen is being drawn from the onboard supply, which means that oxygen in the cabin is possibly being lost out to space.
002:20:32 Mitchell (onboard): You have a - Direct O2 valve?
Ed's initial idea is to check the Direct O2 valve on the left-hand side of the cabin, which allows extra oxygen into the cabin. Having it open could certainly be the culprit.
002:20:37 Shepard (onboard): It's off.
002:20:39 Roosa (onboard): Cabin is good.
Stu is more than likely checking the cabin pressure from its own gauge.
002:20:42 Shepard (onboard): Okay...
002:20:43 Mitchell (onboard): It's holding inside the cabin. Forgot to trigger it. I'll have - Well, hell, it's down below the Go mark. It can't be.
Ed is unhappy to note that the indicated pressure readings are now low enough that technically per the Mission Rules, they would have to abort the TLI.
002:20:57 Roosa (onboard): What?
002:20:58 Mitchell (onboard): It's just a transient. Had to be.
002:20:59 Roosa (onboard): Yes.
002:21:00 Roosa (onboard): 3.9.
002:21:08 Roosa (onboard): Turn your suit regulator over there. Just turn it - it's on Both. Turn it up to 1...
002:21:16 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:21:18 Roosa (onboard): Okay, suit's on 1?
002:21:19 Shepard (onboard): Yes.
002:21:20 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Turn it on 2.
002:21:23 Shepard (onboard): Okay, it's on 2.
002:21:25 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
002:21:26 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:21:26 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston. Over.
002:21:29 Mitchell: Go ahead.
002:21:30 Fullerton: Roger; we missed if you did call time base 6 starting. We'd like to know how the tank pressures look; over.
002:21:38 Shepard: Okay, it looked to us like time base started within 1 second of nominal time, and the oxidizer tank is currently - quietly - at 37 and the [garble] tank is currently setting quietly at 26.
002:21:45 Roosa (onboard): Oh, wait a minute.
002:21:53 Mitchell (onboard): You're going to get Up TLM...
002:21:54 Fullerton: Roger, Al.
Comm break.
"That was Alan Shepard responding to that call. We're at 2 hours, 22 minutes now. 6 minutes, 25 seconds away from time of ignition."
002:21:56 Mitchell (onboard): ...We command Block on both of them.
002:21:58 Roosa (onboard): Block, Block.
002:22:00 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. RHC number 2, armed.
002:22:04 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Verify.
002:22:05 Mitchell (onboard): ORDEAL, 300/Lunar.
002:22:08 Shepard (onboard): Verify.
002:22:10 Mitchell (onboard): FDAI - ORDEAL FDAI 1, Orb Rate; 2, Inertial.
002:22:14 Shepard (onboard): Okay; 1 is Orb Rate, 2 is Inertial.
The ORDEAL was previously driving the 8-ball at an orbital rate based on their 100-nautical mile orbit around Earth. They are now setting the ORDEAL to drive the 8-ball at its slowest possible rate by using it's lunar range (where an orbit takes about 2 hours) and adjusting the altitude setting for 300 nautical miles. (Higher orbits take longer than lower orbits.) This is likely to allow them to monitor their attitude during the TLI burn, at least crudely. As the burn progresses, their path around Earth will straighten out and will approximate a orbit with a slower orbital-rate rotation.
002:22:18 Mitchell (onboard): And we're standing by to slew to 20.5 at - at 57.
002:22:23 Shepard (onboard): We're a little bit ahead of that, in fact. 54, 55...
002:22:42 Shepard (onboard): Eight degrees - would be 28 and a half at 55.
002:22:46 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:22:48 Roosa (onboard): Yes, you know we did that in the sim - got fouled up on that, too.
002:22:53 Shepard (onboard): With the venting?
002:22:54 Roosa (onboard): Is the tape recorder barber pole? Okay. I guess they're not getting data up right now. We're still through the ARIA. I guess we haven't got...
002:23:03 Mitchell (onboard): No, we've lost the LOS on the ARIA.
002:23:08 Roosa (onboard): And I'll bet what happens is, if the suit accumulator cycles, it might kick that over to the...
Stu is theorizing that the suit accumulator - which removes condensated water from the suit circuit - operating could also have caused the earlier alarm. The accumulator is set to operate automatically once every 10 minutes with a clock signal from the onboard timer.
002:23:12 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:23:13 Roosa (onboard): ...high O2.
002:23:43 Shepard (onboard): Okay. I think I've got my Orb Rate ball set up where we can check it again in another minute. Tank pressures are reading 40. We're out of comm with them now, are we?
002:23:54 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:23:56 Roosa (onboard): We should have them again here in about 2 minutes.
002:24:00 Shepard (onboard): Tank pressures look good. Oxidizer, 39, fuel's coming up to 40. Beautiful, S-IVB. At 56 minutes, we should be at 24 and a half.
Carnarvon (Rev-2)
002:24:07 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston. Over. [Long pause.]
002:24:25 Roosa (onboard): That Sun in your eye?
002:24:27 Mitchell (onboard): Huh?
002:24:28 Roosa (onboard): I thought that Sun was shining...
002:24:31 Unknown crew member (onboard): [Garble].
"Four minutes away now from time of ignition."
002:24:34 Shepard (onboard): My Orb Rate ball is exactly right.
002:24:36 Unknown crew member (onboard): Roger; copy.
002:24:37 Shepard (onboard): Half a degree.
002:24:38 Mitchell: Okay, Houston. 14.
002:24:40 Fullerton: 14, Houston. How do you read?
Comm break.
"We now are receiving Carnarvon data, and very shortly Flight Director Pete Frank will poll this flight control team as to our status for TLI."
002:24:45 Shepard (onboard): Did you notice that that VHF volume being full up distorted the...
002:24:49 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:24:50 Shepard (onboard): ...his VHF?
002:24:51 Mitchell (onboard): Uh-huh.
002:24:52 Shepard (onboard): I couldn't understand why he sounded so garbled there.
002:24:55 Roosa (onboard): You aren't kidding.
002:24:56 Mitchell (onboard): You ain't the only one.
002:24:57 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Coming up on 57. It should be 20.5.
002:25:02 Mitchell (onboard): That's affirm.
002:25:03 Shepard (onboard): That's right: 57 and 20.5.
002:25:18 Shepard (onboard): It's now 21 [garble] right about there. Yes, look at that mother.
002:25:27 Mitchell (onboard): What's our time, Al?
002:25:30 Shepard (onboard): 55, 56.
002:25:33 Mitchell (onboard): Pardon?
002:25:34 Shepard (onboard): Okay. We are 57 minutes now and we're 20.5.
002:25:37 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. ORDEAL Mode, Hold/Fast.
002:25:39 Shepard (onboard): It is Hold/Fast.
002:25:40 Mitchell (onboard): And call P47.
Program 47
002:25:49 Roosa: Okay, Houston; 14. How do you read us?
002:25:53 Fullerton: Roger, 14; this is Houston through Carnarvon, and you're loud and clear.
Communication has been restablished with Houston, this time through the station in Western Australia.
002:25:57 Roosa: You're 5 square. [Long pause.]
"2 minutes, 20 - 2 hours, 26 minutes. Pete Frank now taking a status check with his flight control team. Coming up all greens."
002:26:36 Fullerton: Apollo 14, Houston.
002:26:38 Mitchell: Go ahead.
002:26:39 Fullerton: You're Go for the Moon. Go for TLI.
002:26:40 Shepard: Roger. Go for TLI.
Apollo 11 CMP Mike Collins wrote in his superbly readable autobiography "Carrying the Fire" that, during his flight on Apollo 11, he felt this call to the spacecraft for TLI (Translunar Injection) was about as dramatic as asking for a second lump of sugar, and that there ought to be more to this "umbilical snipping ceremony". Working as the CapCom during Apollo 8, Mike Collins was the first person to give such a clearance to GO for TLI.
Comm break.
"That was Al Shepard responding to that Go for TLI. We're at 2 hours, 27 minutes now into the flight. One minute, 32 seconds from time of ignition."
002:27:09 Mitchell (onboard): S-II Sep light...
002:27:10 Shepard (onboard): It's on, right on the money.
002:27:11 Mitchell (onboard): ...on, 58:36.
002:27:14 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Should be starting ullage now.
002:27:24 Mitchell (onboard): I don't feel it or we'd be floating down.
Base of the Saturn V with the J-2 start tank and the ambient helium tanks indicated.
The two ullage thrusters on the S-IVB begin to fire, to settle in the propellants for the TLI burn. Per Ed's comment earlier, he appears to have been expecting to feel it start to affect them.
The O2/H2 burner is turned off. Pressurization of the propellant tanks is continued from the supply of ambient temperature helium from storage spheres on the thrust structure at the very bottom of the S-IVB stage. This ensures that the liquid oxygen and hydrogen tanks are up to nominal pressure once the burn begins.
002:27:29 Roosa (onboard): Doesn't start until 58. [Garble].
002:27:33 Shepard (onboard): Don't see any counts, do you?
002:27:34 Roosa (onboard): Wasn't that a 2 a minute ago?
002:27:35 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:27:36 Shepard (onboard): It probably isn't going to be as a 1. Now it's a zero.
002:27:40 Mitchell (onboard): It's counting us down.
002:27:41 Shepard (onboard): Yes. It's counting [garble].
002:27:43 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. At 59 minutes, Al, you should have 12 50 - 12.5. Is it after 59?
002:27:54 Shepard (onboard): 59:19.
002:27:56 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
Download MP3 audio file. PAO loop.
"Less than 30 seconds away now from time of ignition. Our displays show a predicted apogee resulting from this burn of a 250,263.7 nautical miles [463,488.4 km]. We're at 2 hours, 28 minutes now into the flight. Standing by."
In the case of a TLI, this engine burn to raise the apogee will turn their circular orbit into a highly elliptic one, with the new apogee well beyond the orbit of the Moon. The maneuver is aimed for the Apollo spacecraft to be in the vicinity of the Moon in approximately three days time. The Moon is currently about 40° further back in its orbit. As they close in on the Moon, the gravity of our natural satellite will influence the trajectory of the spacecraft and to pull it around the lunar far side. Should the crew do nothing, they will be thrown back towards the Earth on the so-called free return trajectory.
002:28:17 Shepard (onboard): S-II Sep light out on time.
002:28:18 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, TIG minus 18.
002:28:29 Shepard (onboard): Okay. Right on the money, 8.5. Operate/Slow.
002:28:34 Shepard: We have Ignition.
The S-IVB's J-2 engine comes alive again just about above the western coast of Australia.
002:28:35 Mitchell (onboard): There she goes.
002:28:37 Fullerton: Roger; Ignition.
002:28:39 Roosa (onboard): How about that?
002:28:40 Shepard (onboard): Very nice.
002:28:42 Mitchell (onboard): Nice start.
002:28:42 Shepard: Smooth start. Steering's good.
002:28:44 Fullerton: Roger, and we show good thrust on the S-IVB.
Comm break.
002:28:45 Mitchell (onboard): 2:28...
002:28:49 Roosa (onboard): Unbalance [garble].
"That's Al Shepard, spacecraft commander giving that report."
002:28:52 Shepard (onboard): That thrust is [garble]...
002:28:54 Roosa (onboard): Yes, it's pitch down. Yes.
002:28:55 Shepard (onboard): It's all right.
002:28:58 Roosa (onboard): It knows what it's doing. 28, 29, 30. Okay, at 30, it should come on 129 - and it's very close.
002:29:11 Shepard (onboard): Yes, Michael Wash [?] gave us the right numbers. We're right on cue.
002:29:18 Roosa (onboard): At 1 minute, it should be at 120 - 128.
002:29:27 Shepard (onboard): Slight vibration, coming along very smooth.
"Booster says we look good; 1 minute, 3 seconds into the burn."
002:29:35 Roosa (onboard): Okay. 128, on the money. A little low in altitude.
"Flight dynamics is pleased with the agreement between his data."
002:29:54 Roosa (onboard): All those g's make me hungry.
"We show a velocity buildup on one of our displays presently reading 27,390 feet per second [8,348 m/s]."
002:30:05 Shepard (onboard): 2430.
002:30:08 Roosa (onboard): 127.
002:30:10 Shepard (onboard): All those g's! We've got 0.5.
The maximum acceleration reached during the TLI burn will be 1.43 g's.
002:30:15 Mitchell (onboard): How much is it?
002:30:16 Roosa (onboard): Yes, but it got my stomach to realizing I was hungry.
002:30:22 Mitchell (onboard): O2 Flow Hi.
002:30:23 Roosa (onboard): Ignore it.
002:30:24 Shepard (onboard): Ignore it.
002:30:25 Roosa (onboard): Okay, tank pressures are still good.
"Coming up now on 2 minutes."
002:30:35 Roosa (onboard): Two minutes, 126.
002:30:39 Shepard: Houston. Tank pressures are steady at 40 and 30.
002:30:43 Fullerton: 14, Houston. Roger.
Comm break.
"Al Shepard again from aboard the spacecraft."
002:30:53 Mitchell (onboard): What was that?
002:30:54 Roosa (onboard): Must have been a PU-use shift.
002:30:55 Shepard/Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
002:30:56 Roosa (onboard): Man, that's like cutting in the AB.
PU is Propellant Utilsation and AB is a reference to aircraft afterburners.
The J-2 engine has an ability to alter its mixture ratio setting - the ratio of LOX to hydrogen that is combusted in its thrust chamber. This is achieved by a valve which feeds the output of the LOX turbopump back to its input, essentially controlling its ability to do its job well. This valve is known as either the Propellant Utilisation valve (PU valve) or the Mixture Ratio Control Valve (MRCV).
In the S-IVB, this capability is used to help ensure balanced consumption of the propellants. Sufficient liquid hydrogen had been loaded into the S-IVB to account for the high rate of boil-off of the propellant in case TLI were to be delayed by an orbit. This would permit a late TLI burn at the engine's normal mixture ratio of 5:1. But the burn has occurred at the planned time and so there is an excess of hydrogen aboard. This is used up by burning the first part of an on-time TLI burn at a low mixture ratio of 4.5:1. As a result, the thrust is lower at about 790 kN (180,000 lb-f) because there are fewer oxygen molecules available to react with the hydrogen. The engine's efficiency, however, is higher because there are more lightweight hydrogen molecules in the exhaust. Being lighter, they can be accelerated to higher speeds and efficiency depends on the exhaust velocity. 2 minutes, 17 seconds into the burn, the PU valve shifts to change the mixture ratio to 5:1. With more oxygen available, the thrust rises to about 890 kN (200,000 lb-f), prompting Stu to comment that it feels like the afterburners coming on in a jet aircraft. Although the thrust is higher, the efficiency drops slightly, from about 432 seconds to about 427 seconds.
002:30:57 Shepard (onboard): Yes. Seven-tenths of a g now.
002:31:04 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, it sure is. Got the monitor right in my lap.
"Thrust data looks good."
002:31:10 Roosa (onboard): A little low on my card.
002:31:14 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:31:19 Roosa (onboard): But the angles are good. Maybe the buildup data isn't too striking, you know.
"Still receiving data showing the velocity of 29,212 feet per second [8,904 m/s]."
002:31:25 Shepard (onboard): Keep analyzing. Here comes Key Release. Key Release. Key Release, Stu.
002:31:30 Roosa (onboard): No, that's - that's just to go back to now.
002:31:34 Shepard (onboard): I [garble].
002:31:35 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Yes, I've got a 62 over an 80.
002:31:40 Shepard (onboard): Oh, okay.
002:31:41 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Three minutes, 112 - We're 109, 767.
"3 minutes, 10 seconds now into the burn."
002:31:46 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:31:48 Roosa (onboard): She's coming up.
002:31:49 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:32:02 Shepard (onboard): It does change vibration modes with the mass, doesn't it?
All rockets are prone to vibrations, particularly those that act along the length of the vehicle, known s 'pogo' after a child's toy. The power for the vibrations comes from the engines but their frequency is determined by many factors like the inherent resonant frequency of the engines, of the propellant delivery lines and of the vehicle itself. The mass of the vehicle is one of the variables that affect its resonant frequency and that mass is gradually decreasing as the propellant is consumed. Therefore, as the burn progresses, the vehicle's reaction to the vibrations from the engines constantly changes as it goes from one resonant mode to another.
002:32:05 Roosa (onboard): Okay. There's 3:30.
002:32:06 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:32:08 Roosa (onboard): 117 - We're 114, 1050, 30. It's a little - running a little low.
002:32:18 Roosa (onboard): Come on, baby.
002:32:19 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, coming up on 4 minutes.
002:32:23 Roosa (onboard): Do your thing.
"Coming up now on 4 minutes, 4 minutes."
002:32:36 Roosa (onboard): Okay, 120.
002:32:41 Shepard (onboard): We only pitching about 1 degree right now.
"We've had LOS with Canarvon."
002:32:50 Shepard (onboard): Pulling one g, troops.
002:32:51 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
002:32:53 Mitchell (onboard): Feels kind of heavy, doesn't it?
002:32:54 Roosa (onboard): Yes (laughter).
002:32:55 Mitchell (onboard): Yes.
"Network reports we're receiving IU data through Guam. Looks good."
002:33:03 Shepard (onboard): Okay, 4 minutes and 20...
002:33:05 Comm Tech (onboard): [Garble] this is [garble].
002:33:06 Shepard (onboard): ...[garble] to burn.
"Apollo 14 tracking right down the middle of our plot boards in Mission Control."
002:33:14 Roosa (onboard): We're running about 3 miles low.
002:33:17 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:33:19 Shepard (onboard): What about H-dot?
002:33:20 Roosa (onboard): But she's pretty steady.
002:33:24 Shepard (onboard): Okay. It's back to about zero on the ball.
002:33:28 Roosa (onboard): And we have 05.
002:33:29 Shepard (onboard): Okay.
002:33:34 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Five minutes. H-dot's a tad low, altitude's a little low, and the velocity's just about in the money. Okay. We're looking for 35...
ARIA (Rev-2)
"5 minutes, 10 seconds."
002:33:43 Fullerton: 14, Houston. Through ARIA 2. Over. [Long pause.]
002:33:49 Mitchell (onboard): Go ahead, Houston.
002:33:50 Shepard (onboard): That - Burn's going well.
002:33:53 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Al. I have about...
002:33:55 Roosa (onboard): Okay, let us talk about what we're going to do.
002:33:58 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:33:59 Shepard (onboard): 35559.
002:34:00 Roosa (onboard): We're going to see that on the DSKY. And then we're going to shut down.
"Booster says 20 seconds to Go."
002:34:08 Mitchell (onboard): We've got 30 - 25 seconds to cut-off.
002:34:14 Shepard (onboard): We're getting a yaw in here, too.
002:34:15 Roosa (onboard): There's 35 - 100, 200, 275, 350, 450. Should be shutting down.
002:34:25 Shepard: There's the Cut-Off.
002:34:27 Fullerton: Roger, 14. Cut-Off.
"That was Alan Shepard reporting shutdown. It looks like..."
002:34:28 Roosa (onboard): Okay.
002:34:32 Shepard: [Garble] are venting down. The oxidizer is coming down through 35 now. The fuel is coming down through 30.
The knowledge that the tank prssures are decreasing is important to the crew and Mission Control. Should the liquid oxygen pressure rise above 50 psia, they would have to perform an emergency separation from the launch vehicle, should it explode.
002:34:41 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, Al. SCS TVC...
002:34:41 Fullerton: Apollo 14. Roger on the vent. [Long pause.]
002:34:47 Mitchell (onboard): ...Servo Power, number 1, Off.
002:34:48 Shepard (onboard): It's Off.
002:34:54 Mitchell (onboard): Rate, Low.
002:34:55 Roosa (onboard): Rate, Low. Okay.
002:34:56 Mitchell (onboard): No, no, no. Bit Rate, Low.
002:34:58 Roosa (onboard): Oh, Bit Rate, Low.
002:34:59 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:35:00 Roosa (onboard): That's you.
002:35:01 Mitchell (onboard): Yes, yes, I got it. EMS Mode, Standby.
002:35:03 Shepard: Houston, 14.
002:35:04 Mitchell (onboard): EMS Function, Off.
"Apollo Control, Houston. That shutdown time appeared to be right on time."
002:35:05 Fullerton: 14, Houston. Go ahead.
002:35:09 Shepard: Reading a VI, plus 35542; Delta-VC, minus 8.8, H-dot plus 04399, H-pad, plus 01747 [Long pause.]
To interpret Al's readings, their indicated inertial velocity at shutdown was 35,542 fps, (10,833 m/s), the Delta-V counter on the EMS overshot on its initial setting by just 8.8 fps (2.7 m/s). At shutdown, their speed away from Earth's centre was 4,399 fps (1,341 m/s) and their altitude was 1,747 nautical miles (3,235 km).
002:35:18 Roosa (onboard): Okay, Delta-Vs, Off.
002:35:20 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Let's start again. EMS Mode, Standby; EMS Function, Off.
002:35:30 Roosa (onboard): EMS Mode, Standby; EMS Function, Off.
002:35:33 Mitchell (onboard): SECS...
002:35:39 Fullerton: 14, this is Houston. We copy VI, plus 35542, Delta-VC of minus 8.8, and missed the last two? Would you repeat?
002:35:55 Shepard: Okay. H-dot, plus 04399; altitude, plus 01747.
002:36:06 Roosa (onboard): Pyro Arm switches are off.
002:36:07 Fullerton: Roger. Plus 04399 and plus 01747.
002:36:14 Shepard: Okay. I'm not sure I got your H-dot readback. It's plus 04399.
002:36:22 Fullerton: Roger. 04399.
Comm break.
"With that report, Flight Dynamics Officer Dave Reed says that it looks like a good burn. We're at 2 hours, 37 minutes now into the flight. We'll stand by and continue to monitor."
002:36:25 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, FDAI number 1, Inertial; RHC number 2, locked.
002:36:29 Roosa (onboard): Okay, FDAI number 1 is now Inertial; RHC number 2 is now locked.
The left side FDAI ball has been running at Orb Rate mode, under control from the ORDEAL box. They switch it backt displaying Inertial attitude, courtesies of the IMU. They also disable Rotational Hand Controller number 2.
002:36:35 Mitchell (onboard): And Stu is going to Pro and to P00.
002:36:37 Roosa (onboard): Okay. Let me get the Activity light out.
002:36:39 Shepard (onboard): How close did that baby cut out?
002:36:42 Mitchell (onboard): On time.
002:36:43 Shepard (onboard): No, on velocity, Stu?
002:36:45 Roosa (onboard): Well, it was - 20...
002:36:48 Mitchell (onboard): Within 7 feet per second, it looks like.
002:36:52 Roosa (onboard): Nineteen...
002:36:54 Mitchell (onboard): CMC and [garble] feet per second.
002:36:56 Roosa (onboard): Yes, yes.
002:37:01 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, and let's see. Your H-dot's 4399 - You said that's good.
002:37:03 Roosa (onboard): H - the H was low. See, we were low all the way. That may have been the design or something.
002:37:09 Shepard (onboard): Okay, Ed.
002:37:11 Mitchell (onboard): Okay, CMC Activity light out, key Verb - key Verb 66 Enter, Stu.
002:37:16 Shepard (onboard): I'll have to get that. We got [garble].
002:37:19 Mitchell (onboard): At your - Switch couches.
002:37:21 Roosa (onboard): Get out of my couch.
The Commander and the Command Module Pilot will now switch positions, with the CMP taking the left-sided seat to prepare for the upcoming Transposition and Docking maneuver.
002:37:22 Mitchell (onboard): Did you get your FDAI 1 - number 1 to Inertial off?
002:37:26 Shepard (onboard): Yes., I did.
002:37:27 Mitchell (onboard): Okay.
002:37:28 Shepard: Houston. On the S-IVB, oxidizer pressure is now down around 18 and fuel pressure is about 17.
002:37:29 Mitchell (onboard): And, Stu, did you get - put the Waste Stowage Vent valve to Close?
The Waste Stowage Vent has been open to allow some oxygen to escape from the cabin and hence to create a constant flow of fresh O2 onboard for the purpose of purging any remaining nitrogen from the cabin. They are now closing the vent so as to be able to start raising the pressure in preparation for docking with the LM.
002:37:41 Fullerton: Roger. I understand; 18 and 17 on the tank pressures.
Comm break.
002:37:42 Mitchell (onboard): We still have comm with him?
002:37:43 Roosa (onboard): Marginal.
002:37:44 Shepard (onboard): Oh, it's still kind of...
002:37:48 Shepard (onboard): Okay, I guess he's reading us.
002:37:49 Mitchell (onboard): What are you going to do about your connections?
002:37:51 Shepard (onboard): On.
002:37:52 Mitchell (onboard): Let's - It looks like...
002:37:53 Shepard (onboard): Oh, look at us climb away.
002:37:56 Mitchell (onboard): [Garble] suits.
002:37:58 Roosa (onboard): Doff the suits.
002:37:59 Mitchell (onboard): Okay. Okay, Suit Power...
002:38:10 Roosa (onboard): Let's see. Let me get this Waste Stowage Vent before...
002:38:13 Mitchell (onboard): Yes;, Waste Stowage Vent valve, Closed.
002:38:27 Roosa (onboard): Okay, it's Closed.
002:38:41 Roosa (onboard): Let me see, I'm turning off...
002:38:56 Unknown crew member (onboard): [Garble].
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