1. Biographies of Members
  2. Terms of Reference
  3. Legal Compliance
  4. List of Witnesses
  5. Bibliography




Appendix I

Biographies of Members



Norman R Augustine. Mr. Augustine is Chairman and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation. He has previously served as the Under Secretary of the Army, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development and as an Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. He is an Honorary Fellow and former President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and is a Fellow of the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He has served as Chairman of the Defense Science Board and of the Aeronautics Panel of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. He is the author of several books including one on the management of large technical projects and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He currently serves as Vice President of the Boy Scouts of America. Mr. Augustine holds Bachelors and Masters degrees in aeronautical engineering from Princeton University and has three honorary doctorate degrees.



Laurel L. Wilkening. Dr. Wilkening is the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs of the University of Washington, where she is also Professor of Geological Sciences and Adjunct Professor of Astronomy. Prior to going to the University of Washington, she was Vice President for Research and Dean of the Graduate College and Professor of Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona. She also served as Director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory ~here from 1981- 1983. As a planetary scientist, her areas of research are meteorites, asteroids, and comets. The book Comets~ which she edited in 1982, is a widely used reference on the topic. In 1985, President Reagan appointed her Vice Chairman of the National Commission on Space. Dr. Wilkening earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego in 1970, and a B.A. in chemistry from Reed College, Portland, Oregon in 1966.


Edward C. "Pete" Aldridge, Jr. Mr. Aldridge is currently President, McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Company, in McLean, Virginia. prior to this position, Mr. Aldridge was Secretary of the Air Force from 1986-1988. He joined the Reagan Administration in 1981 as the Under Secretary of the Air Force, in which one of his key responsibilities was coordinating the Air Force and national security space activities. Mr. Aldridge was in astronaut training before the Challenger accident. He has held numerous management positions in government (Office of the Secretary of Defense, Office of Management and Budget) and the aerospace industry (System Planning Corporation, LTV Corp and Douglas Aircraft Co. ). Mr. Aldridge was an advisor on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) in 1970-72. He holds a B.S. in Aeronautical Engineering from Texas A&M University and an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Joseph P. Allen. Dr. Allen is currently President, Space Industries, Inc., in Houston, Texas. From 1967 until his employment with the company, Dr. Allen served as an astronaut with NASA. His management duties involved astronaut candidate selection and training and he additionally served as a ground support crewman and CAPCOM for Apollo 15, Apollo 17 and STS-l. He flew as a prime crew member on STS-5, the first Shuttle flight to deploy cargo in space, and on STS 51-A, the first space flight to salvage equipment from space. Dr. Allen also served at NASA Headquarters as Assistant Administrator for Legislative Affairs from 1975-1978. He is the author of Entering Space, a personal account of the space flight experience, and published widely in the fields of science education and nuclear physics research. Dr. Allen received an undergraduate degree in mathematics and physics from DePauw University and holds Masters and Doctorate degrees in physics from Yale University.

D. James Baker. Dr. Baker is President of Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. in Washington, D.C., and Distinguished Visiting Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is author of Planet Earth -- The View from Space (Harvard University, 1990). He is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Global Change and the Ocean Studies Board, and is an officer of the international Joint Scientific Committee for the World Climate Research Programme. He has served as Chairman of the NRC Panel to Review the Earth Observing System and Chairman of the NASA Center Science Assessment Team. He has served as a member of the NRC Space Studies Board, the NASA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee, and the Department of Commerce Committee on Commercialization of Landsat. He is President of the Oceanography Society and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Baker has published more than 80 papers on oceanography and space and held positions at the University of Washington and Harvard University. He has a B.S. in physics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University.

Edward P. Boland. Congressman Boland was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1953 and served continuously through the end of the 100th Congress in 1988. In 1955 he joined the Committee on Appropriations and was a member of the Independent Offices (now the VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies) Subcommittee. In 1971, he became Chairman of this subcommittee and dealt with several scientific agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (formerly the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics), the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. He also served as Chairman of the first House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence overseeing the budgets of the Central Intelligence Agency, and other intelligence related agencies. In 1983, Congressman Boland received the Olin E. Teague Space Award in recognition of his outstanding guidance and dynamic leadership in space science. In 1986, he received the National Science Foundation Distinguished Public Service Award presented in recognition of his contribution to the progress of science, engineering, and mathematics. He attended Boston College Law School.

Daniel J. Fink. Mr. Fink is President of D. J. Fink Associates, Inc., which provides management consulting to technology based industries. His over 40 years in aerospace engineering and management include service in the DOD as Deputy Director, Strategic & Space Systems. Following his government service he joined the General Electric Company in 1968. He was Vice President of that company where he first led GE's Space Division, then its Aerospace Group, and later was Senior Vice President Corporate Development and Planning. Mr. Fink serves on the Defense Science Board and is a former Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council. He is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering and was Chairman of the NRC Space Applications board and its Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications. His honors and awards include the DOD Distinguished Service Award, the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal and the Collier Trophy (for his work on Landsat). He is an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics and a former President. He received his B.S. and M.S. in aeronautical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Don Fuqua. Mr. Fuqua is President and General Manager of the Aerospace Industries Association and serves as leading spokesperson for the U.S. aerospace industry. Before joining AIA, Mr. Fuqua served 12 terms as a U.S. Congressman, representing Florida's Second Congressional District. He was elected Chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee in 1979 after serving on the Committee since joining Congress in 1963. He is a member of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Advisory Council and is a founding member of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Mr. Fuqua has received numerous awards including the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement in 1988, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Distinguished Public Service Medal and the National Science Foundation Distinguished Public Service Award, both in 1986. Mr. Fuqua graduated from the University of Florida with a degree in agriculture economics. He also has honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Notre Dame, Florida Institute of Technology, Florida State University, and Florida A&M University.

Robert T. Herres. General Herres retired in March 1990 after 36 years of military service to become President of Property and Casualty Insurance Division at USAA, an insurance and financial services provider. The last three years of his military career were spent as Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Space related assignments included service as Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Space Command, North American Aerospace Defense Command, and Commander of the Air Force Space Command. He was also Director of Command, Control and Communications Systems on the Joint Staff, Commanded the Eighth Air Force and the Air Force Communications Command. Earlier, General Herres was the Air Force Flight Test Center's Chief of Plans and Requirements and Chief of the Flight Crew Division for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program subsequent to completing the Air Force's Test Pilot School. He is a Naval Academy graduate and holds Masters' Degrees in electrical engineering and public administration.

David T. Kearns. Mr. Kearns is Chairman of Xerox Corporation, Stamford, Connecticut. Mr. Kearns joined Xerox in July 1971 as a corporate vice president. In 1972, he became President of the Company's copier/duplicator group. He was named Executive Vice President, International Operations in 1976. He was named President and Chief Operating Officer in 1977 and Chief Executive Officer in 1982. Mr. Kearns served as Chief Executive Officer until he relinquished that position in August 1990. Prior to joining Xerox, Kearns was a Vice President of the data processing division of International Business Machines Corporation. Mr. Kearns is a member of the President's Education Policy Advisory Committee, the Business Council, the Council on Foreign Relation, the Trilateral Commission and the American Philosophical Society. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Chase Manhattan Corporation, Time Warner, Inc., Ryder System, Inc., and the Dayton Hudson Corporation. He also serves as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Ford Foundation, the National Urban League and the University of Rochester. He served in the United States Navy, and he graduated from the University of Rochester in 1952 with a degree in business administration.

Louis J. Lanzerotti. Dr. Lanzerotti, Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, AT&T Bell Laboratories, and Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Florida, has also served as Regents' Lecturer at UCLA. His principal research interests include space plasmas, geophysics, and engineering problems related to the impact of space processes on space and terrestrial technologies. He is a co-investigator and principal investigator on NASA.missions, and conducts extensive groundbased and laboratory research on space related topics. He was Chairman of NASA's Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee and is presently Chairman of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council. Elected to the National Academy of Engineering and the International Academy of Astronautics, he is also a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Lanzerotti has received NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal. He has an engineering degree from the University of Illinois and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Harvard.

Thomas O. Paine. Dr. Paine is Chairman of Thomas Paine Associates, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a Director of the Planetary Society, the National Space Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics, Orbital Sciences Corporation, the Pacific Forum, Quotron Systems (Division of Citicorp), and Nike, Inc. He joined the General Electric Research Laboratory in 1949, and in 25 years with GE served as Manager of GE's TEMPO (long-range technoeconomic studies), Vice President and Group Executive of the Power Generation Group (worldwide ship propulsion, nuclear power and steam and gas turbine- generators), and Senior Vice President for Science and Technology (oversight of GE's research and development). During the first seven Apollo missions from 1968 through 1970, he was Administrator of NASA. From 1976 to 1982, he was President, Chief Operating Officer and Director of Northrop Corporation. Dr. Paine also has served as a Trustee of Occidental College and Brown University, and a Director of Eastern Air Lines, Arthur D. Little, RCA, and NBC. In 1985, President Reagan appointed him Chairman of the National Commission on Space, a panel created by the Congress to chart civilian space goals for 21st Century America. He received a Ph.D. in physical metallurgy from Stanford University in 1949.


Committee Support:

James D. Bain, Committee Executive Secretary
James R. Beale, National Space Council Staff Liaison
Darrell R. Branscome, Technical
Laura J. Cooper, Administrative
Edward A. Frankle, Committee Counsel and Ex-Officio Committee Member
Frances L. Gragg, Technical and Administrative
Lauren B. Leveton, Technical and Administrative
Dolores L. McClung, Administrative
John E. O'Brien, Ex-Officio Committee Member
George Reese, Committee Counsel
M. Ruth Rosario, Administrative
Albert R. C. Westwood, Committee Consultant
Yvonne Williams, Administrative

Appendix II

Terms of Reference

Advisory Committee on the Future U.S. Space Program


The purpose of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program is to advise the NASA Administrator on overall approaches NASA management can use to implement the U. S. Space Program for the coming decades.

Task Statement

The Committee shall have a broad charter to:

- Appropriateness of planned activities

- Organizational balance and structure

- Adequacy of overall skill base of work force

- Balance between roles of government and private sector

- Possible contributions by other government agencies

- The need to maintain a strong R&D capability

- Assurance of mission success


The Committee shall report its findings within 120 days from the date of its inception.


The Committee shall be comprised of approximately 12 individuals selected for their knowledge of space activities and management expertise. Membership shall provide as broad a set of experience backgrounds as practicable. Ex-officio members may be added to the Committee upon approval of the Administrator of NASA with the concurrence of the Committee's Chairman.

Reporting Procedure

The Committee will operate as an independent entity, reporting to the Administrator of NASA, and will submit its findings to the Administrator of NASA and, with the Administrator, to the Vice President of the United States, in his capacity as Chairman of the National Space Council.


Administrative support will be provided to the Committee by NASA.

Legal Determination

Based on the objectives and purposes of the Task Force, the NASA General Counsel has determined that the activities of the Task Force fall within the scope of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 USC APP 1 et seq.). It is neither intended nor anticipated that any of the Board's activities will concern "particular matters" within the meaning of Section 208 of Title 18, U.S. Code.

Appendix III

Legal Compliance

Some members of the Committee, through their private employment, have interests in the aerospace community and, consequently, the activities of NASA. This factor was taken into serious consideration when they were appointed to the Committee and, pursuant to applicable laws, it was determined that the need for the individuals' services outweighed the potential for a conflict of interest. It was the further determination of the appointing authority that the private interests of the individuals appointed to the Committee were not so paramount as to impede their objectivity or integrity as members of the Committee. These determinations were made by the appointing authority only after coordinating with the Office of Government Ethics to ensure full compliance with existing laws and regulations regarding the avoidance of conflicts of interest. A government attorney sat in on all sessions of the Committee at the request of the Committee Chairman.

In addition, the members of the Committee, recognizing there was an important concern as to avoiding even the mere appearance of a conflict of interest, endeavored throughout their Committee activities to minimize, wherever possible, any such possible appearance.

In this regard, because of his role as Chairman of the Committee and his position as a senior executive with an aerospace company, the Chairman of the Committee elected to disqualify himself from any decisions as to whether and how the Committee would address the issue of a new launch system. The deliberations and decisions as to this matter were handled by the Vice Chairman.

Appendix IV


(Individuals Appearing Before Advisory Committee on the Future of the U. S. Space Program and its Working Groups)

John Aaron

George Abbey

James A. Abrahamson

Brant Adams

Larry Adams

Clyde Albertgottie

Mark Albrecht

Arnold D. Aldrich

Buzz Aldrin

Ron Alexander

LaTonya Alexander

Lew Allen

Harold Ammond

Sam Araki

Hugh Arif

Sam Armstrong

Jack Arrison

F. Ron Bailey

Randy Baggett

Brad Baker

William F. Ballhaus

Peter M. Banks

Richard W. Barnwell

David Barrett

Reginald Bartholomew

James E. Bartlett

Jeffrey E. Bauer

Robert C. Baumann

Brian Beckman

James Beggs

Joyce Bergstrom

William E. Berry

Mark Bethea

Vincent J. Bilardo

Nancy F. Bingham

David Black

Erich Bloch

Charles Bofferding

Albert Boggess

Daniel Boorstin

Carl 0. Bostrom

Roland L. Bowles

Jeffrey S. Brady

Peter Bracken

Howard Branch

David Brannon

Porter Bridwell

Robert C. Bruce

James 0. Bryant

Richard Bunevitch

Bonnie Buratti

Linwood G. Burcher

Peter T. Burr

Antonio Busalacchi

Lucinda Byrne

Gregory H. Canavan

Sandra Cargill

John Casani

Gerhard Casper

Frank J. Cepollina

Norm Chaffee

Moustafa Chahine

Elaine L. Chao

Charles R. Chappell

Michael Chilicki

Ronald Chinnapo

A. Chutjian

Harlan Cleveland

Thomas Cochran

Aaron Cohen

Ray S. Colloday

James E. Colvard

Michael Comberiatt

Dale L. Compton

Davis S. Coombs

Robert S. Cooper

John J. Cox

Harry Craft

Donald Cromer

Ray Cronise

A. P. Croonquist

Philip E. Culbertson

Frank Curran

Richard Darman

Charles R. Darwin

C. Calvin Davis

Rick Davis

Kirk Dawson

Clyde Dease

Hugh Dilion

Duane Dipprey

Peter Doms

Martin J. Donohoe

Regina Dorsey

Jeffrey C. Dozier

Robert E. Eddy

Charles Elachi

Donald Engen

George English

Roy S. Estess

Thomas Everhart

Maxime Faget

Dale L. Fahnestock

David T. Fahringer

Christine M. Falsetti

James W. Fenbert

Harry B. Finger

Lennard A. Fisk

George Fleming

James C. Fletcher

Charles T. Force

Stuart Fordyce

David Francisco

Rosemary C. Froehlich

Robert Frosch

Cynthia Fry

Michael Fry

Robert Frye

L. L. Fu

Ann Fulton

Randy Furnas

Daryal Gant

Lori Garver

Steven W. Gayle

Riccardo Giacconi

Dawn Gifford

Stan Gill

Otto K. Goetz

William Goldsby

Robert E. Grady

Daniel Gregory

Jerry Grey

Angelo "Gus" Gustaferro

Denton Hanford

Peggy W. Harmon

Roy V. Harris

Steven A. Hawley

Norman Haynes

Donald P. Hearth

Buzz Hello

Arthur Henderson

Francisco J. Hernandez

Noel Hinners

Wendy Holladay

Harry C. Holloway

Paul F. Holloway

Richard B. Holt

Stephen S. Holt

Jay Honeycutt

Ralph M. Hoodless

W. Ray Hook

Thomas J. Horvath

Thomas R. Huber

Kenneth R. Human

Carolyn L. Huntoon

Dale Hupp

William F. Huseonica

Jeffery C. Hyle

Rene Ingersoll

Thomas Irvine

Martin H. Israel

Roger L. Jenkin

Linda M. Jensen

Michael Johnson

Stephen Jung

Said Kaki

Samuel W. Keller

Cynthia Kelly

Regina Kelly

Eugene L. Kelsey

Satish Khanna

George H. Kidwell

Jenny S. Kishiyama

Ray Kline

John M. Klineberg

Martin A. Knutson

Chester Koblinsky

John Koudelka

Robert Kozar

Michael Krainak

Martin P. Kress

S. M. Krimigis

Donald J. Kutyna

Alan Ladwig

Cynthia C. Lee

Robert B. Lee, III

Thomas J. Lee

William B. Lenoir

Byron P. Leonard

Gale Lewis

LeNoir Lewis

Morris L. Lile

Bruce D. Little

Jane Liu

John Logsdon

Rebecca J. Lowe

William R. Lucas

Henry Lum, Jr.

Valerie Lyons

Christopher P. Mackay

Robert Mackin

Jeremiah J. Madden

Gray Marsee

Rebecca McCaleb

Forrest McCartney

Roslyn L. McCreary

Helen McConnaughey

John H. McElroy

Joseph T. McGoogan

John L. McLucas

Ann Merwarth

James F. Meyers

Roger Meyers

Lon F. Miller

Royce E. Mitchell

Herbert Mittelman

Tom Moore

David Moore

Thomas Moorman

James R. Morrison

Walter E. Morrow

George Morrow

Bruce Murray

Thomas J. Murrin

Dale D. Myers

Roger Myers

Joyce Neighbors

Norman F. Ness

William C. Nettles

James C. Newman, Jr.

Jerry R. Newsom

Thomas E. Noll

John E. O'Brien

Edward O'Connor

Michael O'Neal

Michael Oben

Arthur F. Obenschain

James B. Odom

David Olney

0. J. Orient

Angel Otero

Thomas 0. Paine

Don Palac

S. Paul Pao

Sidney F. Pauls

Vicki Pendergrass

C. Perigaud

Richard H. Peterson

Victor L. Peterson

James Phillips

David R. Picasso

Andy Pickett

Sasi Pillay

Kevin Plank

Alexander Pline

Don Polac

Sam Pollard

Lamont R. Poole

Fred Povinelli

Lonnie Reid

Kerry Remp

Leonard Ricks

William E. Robbins

Linda Robeck

Ralph H. Robinson

Neal Rodgers

Thomas F. Rogers

James T. Rose

Stanley G. Rosen

Lawrence J. Ross

Joseph H. Rothenberg

C. T. Russell

Stephen M. Ruffin

George Russell

Kurt Sacksteder

Carl Sagan

Vincent V. Salomonson

Stanley Sander

Neal Sanders

Stephen P. Sandford

Pat Scheuermann

Harrison H.Schmitt

B. A. Schriever

Christopher J. Scolese

John P. Scully

Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

Michael G. Shafto

Willis H. Shapley

Joseph C. Sharp

Kirk Sharp

Brewster Shaw

Joe Shaw

Joseph Shea

Thomas A. Shull

Richard J. Siebels

Robert Sieck

Bill Sikora

Allan Silver

Louis E. Simmons

J. A. Simpson

Joel R. Sitz

James Slavin

Nancy E. Sliwa

Mike Smiles

L. Dennis Smith

Gerald Smith

Richard Smith

Michael D. Smock

D. Thomas Snyder

Robert Snyder

Kenneth A. Souza

Roy Spencer

Joel Sperans

Suzanne Spitz

Russ Springham

Robert Staehle

Anne K. St. Clair

Thomas Stafford

Angela Stewart

Andrew Stofan

Edward C. Stone

Anthony Strazisar

William Strobl

Robert L. Swain

Clarence "Cy" Syvertson

Steve Szabo

Michael E. Tall

John Taylor

William F. Taylor

Thomas D. Taylor

Samuel M. Tennant

Charles E. Thienel

A. S. W. Thomas

Gene Thomas

Ron Thomas

Walter Thomas

John D. Thompson

J. R. Thompson, Jr.

Marco Toral

Carmen 0. Torres-Nisbet

John Townsend

James H. Trainor

Paivi Tripp

Richard H. Truly

Susan Turner

Daniel Tweedt

Donald Urasek

James A. Van Allen

Joan Vernikos

Edgar G. Waggoner

Carrie K. Walker

Jerry Wall

Joyce Wanhainen

Sandy R. Webb

Mark Weislogel

Martin Weisskopf

Vern Weyers

Douglas W. Whipple

David R. White

John White

Lynne White

David Whitten

Alan W. Wilhite

C. Wayne Williams

Charles Williams

Keith Wilson

Murray J. Wilson

Fred S. Wojtalik

Lowell Wood

Jerry Wood

Timothy G. Wood

William H. Wood

James Wood

John F. Yardley

John Yin

Tom Young

V. Zlotnicki

Henry N. Zumbrun

Appendix V


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Bilstein, Roger E. and Frank W. Anderson, Jr. Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915-1990. NASA SP-4406. 1989.

Byerly, Jr., Radford. (ed.) Space Policy Reconsidered. Westview Press. 1989.

Center for Strategic and International Studies. John H. McElroy and Brent Scowcroft, Chairmen. A More Effective Civil Space Program. May 1989.

George C. Marshall Institute. New Directions in Space: A Report on the Lunar and Mars Initiatives. 1990.

National Academy of Public Administration. Samuel C. Phillips, Chairman. Effectiveness of NASA Headquarters: A Report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. February, 1988.

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Committee on Space Policy. H. Guyford Stever, Chairman. Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities, Recommendations for President Elect George Bush. National Academy Press. 1988.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Advisory Council, Life Sciences Strategic Planning Study Committee. Frederick C. Robbins, Chairman. Exploring the Living Universe: A Strategy for Space Life Sciences. 1988.

NASA, Advisory Council, Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. The Crisis in Space and Earth Science: A Time for A New Commitment. November 1986.

NASA, Advisory Council, Task Force on International Relations in Space. International Space Policy for the l990's and Beyond. October 1987.

NASA Advisory Council. John L. McLucas, Chairman. Report of the Task Force on Space Transportation. December 1989.

NASA, Center Science Assessment Team. D. James Baker, Chairman. Science at NASA Field Centers: Findings and Recommendations on the Scope, Strength, and Interactions of Science and Science-Related Technology Programs. May 1988.

NASA, History Division. Evolution of the NASA Institution. January 1988.

NASA, Office of the Administrator. Results of the Life Support Management Working Group, Volumes I and II. June 1989.

NASA, Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology. Space Exploration Initiative: Technology Needs and Plans; A Report to the U. S. Senate. Summer 1990.

NASA, Office of Exploration. Annual Report to the Administrator. Beyond Earth's Boundaries, Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century. 1988.

NASA. Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars. November 1989.

NASA. Samuel C. Phillips, Chairman. Summary Report of the NASA Management Study Group: Recommendations to the Administrator. December 1986.

NASA. Sally K. Ride. Leadership and America's Future in Space. Report to the NASA Administrator. August 1987.

National Commission on Space. Pioneering the Space Frontier. Bantam Books. May 1986.

National Research Council (NRC), Committee on Human Exploration of Space. Human Exploration of Space, A Review of NASA's 90-Day Study and Alternatives. National Academy Press. 1990.

NRC, Space Science Board, Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. Jay Goldberg, Chairman. A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980's and 1990's. National Academy Press. 1987.

NRC, Space Science Board. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995-2015, Overview. National Academy Press. 1988.

NRC. U.S. Global Change Research Program, An Assessment of the FY 1991 Plans. National Academy Press. 1990.

Truly, Admiral Richard H. A Statement to Subcommittee on VA-HUD-Independent Agencies, House Committee on Appropriations. March 1990.

U.S. Congress. National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as Amended. (PL- 85-568, 85th Congress, H.R. 12575. August 29, 1958. 72STAT426.) January 1990.

U.S. Department of Commerce. Commercial Space Ventures: A Financial Perspective. April 1990.

U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. Report of the Defense Science Board, 1989 Summer Study on National Space Launch Strategy. March 1990.

U.S. President's Pay Agent (Advisory Committee on Federal Pay) Annual Report. Comparability of the Federal Statutory Pay System with Private Enterprise Pay Rates. 1989.

U.S. Presidential Commission. William P. Rogers, Chairman. Report of the Presidential Commission of the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. June 1986.

U.S. Space Task Group. Report to the President: The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future. U.S. GPO. September 1969.

White House, Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet. Commercial Space Launch Policy. September 1990.