National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Vol. 13, No. 1 Winter1996


Highlights for the NASA History Program, 1995 Style

New . . . In the NASA History Series

New Monograph in Aerospace History Available

History of Planetary Radar Astronomy Forthcoming

A Reminder about the NASA History Listserv

Surfing the Internet for Aerospace Historical Information

New Journals, Research Guides, and Special Shows

Fellowship and Grant Opportunities

Calls for Papers

Upcoming Meetings

Solicitation for New Research Project Available

New Books of Interest to Aerospace Historians


The year 1995 was productive for the History Office at NASA Headquarters. This program was established in 1959 to preserve and disseminate a record of agency activities for the public interest. Our efforts continued during 1995 toward building a significant collection of reference documents for use by both NASA personnel and the public; providing historical perspective and documentary support for agency executives; and researching and writing NASA history for publication in books, monographs, articles, and reports.

Reference Collection and Research Support:

During the year the NASA Historical Reference Collection answered a total of 2,670 research requests from government, educational, and private organizations on all manner of divergent research interests. A priority during the year was providing background information and documentary records to aid NASA decision-makers in their work, an "applied history" goal, and of the total number of research requests answered, 1,338 were from NASA personnel or other official requesters. This required a total number of 1,408 work hours by the office staff. Also during the fiscal year, the History Office provided research services to 533 on-site researchers using its collections. The office also wrote several background papers on such topics as NASA roles and missions, NASA organization and staffing, and international relations. A representative list of these requests includes:

(a) Members of the History Office staff worked closely with an inter-agency Task Force on Space Policy to conduct research and help prepare a set of policy directives for the Clinton Administration.

(b) NASA history staff members worked closely with a subgroup of the NAS/NRC Space Studies Board for a study of the Future of Space Science. This led to a major report issued by the National Academy of Sciences.

(c) Office personnel prepared background studies and participated in briefings and working groups discussing the development of technology transfer strategies for governmental scientific and technological agencies in the twentieth century as a means of enhancing present-day NASA efforts in this arena.

(d) NASA history personnel provided background information for a multi-organization "Space for America" committee. This organization, sponsored by several professional societies associated with spaceflight, prepared a report to aid in the development of a space policy agenda for the next century.

(e) NASA historians prepared an analysis of NSPD #1 (1989) on space policy for an ongoing Space Policy Review, pointing out elements in the policy statement that conflicted with subsequent space policy or with funding decisions by Congress.

One ongoing effort in the office has been the creation of a computer-based inventory and finding aid for NASA's historical reference collection. Beforehand, the only one who knew the contents of the collection in any detail was our archivist, Lee D. Saegesser. This computer database work is being done under contract in this office. With more than 1,500 linear feet of material now catalogued--still only about a two-thirds of the total holdings in the collection--the data base is fulfilling its promise as an important reference tool to historians working in the NASA collections. We are planning to expand this effort in the near term by imaging some documents for electronic storage and retrieval. This will enable us to more effectively meet the needs of NASA executives for whom we provide information and to reduce the amount of paper documentation maintained on site at NASA headquarters.

Publication Program:

The hallmark of the NASA history program continued in 1995, as previously, to be the preparation of solid, well-researched works on the history of the U.S. civil space program. During the year the NASA History Program published several major new books and other less ambitious publications.


NASA-Sponsored Historical Works Published By Other Presses

Contractor Reports and Technical Memoranda

Monographs in Aerospace History

NASA History Office Annual Reports

NASA Historical Publications in the News:

Powering Apollo: James E. Webb of NASA ("New Series in NASA History," the Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), by W. Henry Lambright, has enjoyed an exceptionally fine reception. It recently received excellent reviews in Science and Air & Space/Smithsonian. In Science for 14 July 1995, Alex Roland, professor of history at Duke University, commented that Lambright has written a "spare yet informative biography." He describes the career of James Webb, noting that "his great ambition, [was] to manage public enterprise....Webb was equal to the task."

Roland concludes: "Today, when 'bureaucrat' has become a pejorative term, James Webb's history is instructive. This consummate bureaucrat managed a team of 400,000 people in one of the great technical achievements of this or any other time. He reached the moon by sheer energy, will, and hard work. He gave to his country better than he got. This fine biography will keep his memory warm until a better day when he and Apollo may look more important than they do now."

Martin Collins, writing for the August/September 1995 issue of Air & Space/Smithsonian, also thought Lambright's administrative biography of worth. He finds that Powering Apollo is a "singular contribution to our understanding of the most dominant figure of the Space Age."

Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center from Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen, published in 1995 as NASA SP4308 in the NASA History Series, has been nominated for the Pulitzer Prize. One of the most significant historical studies to emerge about NASA in recent years, it analyzes the dramatic changes taking place at one aeronautical research laboratory as a result of the commitment of the United States to engage the Soviet Union in a race to the Moon. It is must reading for anyone seeking to understand the development of aerospace activities in the United States.

Spaceflight Revolution is one of a series of histories presently underway by the NASA History Office dealing with the development of NASA institutional structure. It joins volumes that have appeared on other NASA centersAmes, Dryden, Johnson, and Lewisas well as an earlier volume on Langley that deals with its activities under the NACA.

At year's end, the Agency published in the NASA History Series John M. Logsdon, et al. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume I: Organizing for Exploration (NASA SP4407, 1995). Which is discussed elsewhere in this newsletter.

New Historical Publications Underway:

Also during the year, NASA historians worked toward the publication of several other histories on a wide diversity of subjects. Here is a list of major projects presently nearing completion, along with projected publication dates. The dates of publication, of course, may slip due to the exigencies of funding.

Apollo 13 Twenty-fifth Anniversary:

This office was involved in several activities relative to the anniversary and film "Apollo 13." In addition to those already mentioned, they include the following:

Professional Activities:

Members of the History Office staff were involved at several levels in professional activities germane to the aerospace history specialty. The first area was as a participant in various professional conferences. Dr. Roger D. Launius and Dr. J.D. Hunley each participated in conferences and symposia during the year, giving papers and participating in panels. Several staff members also published historical books, articles, and book reviews during the year.

AHA Fellowship in Aerospace History:

The American Historical Association awarded one fellowship for the 1994-1995; NASA funds this program as a means of fostering serious scholarship in aerospace history. The fellow was Eric C. Rau, a Ph.D. candidate in the history of technology from the University of Pennsylvania. He spent his fellowship term researching the management of large-scale technological projects.

Conference Sessions and Symposia:

During 1995 the NASA History Office sponsored several sessions at major historical conferences. First it sponsored a session for the Society for History in the Federal Government annual meeting at Archives II, NARA, College Park, MD, 27-28 March 1995. The session was entitled, "Challenges in Writing Recent History: Space Policy and Technology as a Case Study," involved papers on "Methodological Problems in the Early History of Rocketry and Missiles," J.D. Hunley, NASA Staff Historian; "The Air Force and the Challenge of Space, 1945-1960: Pioneers in Strategic Space Thinking," George W. Bradley III, Command Historian, USAF Space Command, Peterson AFB, CO; and "The Air Force in Space: Research Opportunities and Challenges," David N. Spires, University of Colorado at Boulder.

The History Office organized and participated in a major session for the annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians (OAH) entitled, "Eisenhower and Sputnik: Reconsiderations of a Cold War Crisis." It included the following papers: "Framing American Astronautics to Serve National Security: Eisenhower, Open Skies, and Freedom of Space," R. Cargill Hall, Center for Air Force History, Washington, DC; "No Race for Prestige: Eisenhower's Response to Sputnik," Derek W. Elliott, Tennessee State University; and "Eisenhower, Sputnik, and the Creation of NASA: Technological Elites and Public Policy Agenda Setting," Roger D. Launius, NASA. Commenting on the papers was Ken Hechler, Secretary of State of West Virginia and Robert A. Divine, University of Texas at Austin. The moderator was Jannelle Warren-Findley, Arizona State University.

The office also had sessions at the joint meeting of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) and the Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) held in Charlottesville, VA, on 1922 October 1995. At the SHOT meeting NASA personnel organized sessions entitled, "That Solid Rising Sensation: German and American Rocket Development," and "Recent Studies on Western European Space Activities." The 4S meeting had a session with NASA historians entitled "Political Construction of Technological Systems: The Case of Space Exploration."

The History Office also organized a history session for the annual meeting of the American Astronautical Society in December 1995. Entitled "Space Exploration: From the Past into the Next Millennium," the session involved Charles D. Walker, McDonnell-Douglas Corp.; Howard E. McCurdy, University of Washington; Michael D. Griffin, Space Industries International; and Valerie Neal, National Air and Space Museum reflecting on the issue of space exploration and place it in the broader context of the history and development of exploration of the Earth.

Finally, during the year the NASA History Office sponsored a major symposium on the history of satellite communications. October 1995 marked the fiftieth anniversary of Arthur C. Clarke's article in Wireless World in which he proposed the use of satellites placed in geosynchronous orbit for communications relay sites. To commemorate, the NASA History Office held on 17-18 October 1995 a historical symposium entitled, "Beyond the Ionosphere: The Development of Satellite Communications," at the NASA Headquarters Auditorium. Scholars from around the world gathered for an indepth examination of the field from its origins to its current status. Presentations were offered by historians, political scientists, sociologists, and other social scientists from Australia, India, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Canada, and Latin America. With about 75 people in attendance, the meeting proved exceptionally worthwhile for all concerned. It proved a useful means of drawing together differing perspectives on this important space technology and of furthering understanding about its origins and development. The NASA History Office is now preparing the presentations for publication in a book that further enhance the value of the effort.

Personnel Changes:

After almost four years in the NASA History Office, J.D. Hunley, known to all as Dill, departed 20 August 1995, for the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), where he is now working in the Office of External Affairs as the DFRC historian and also doing public affairs work. Besides preparing the annual Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, Dill edited The Birth of NASA: The Diary of T. Keith Glennan, coedited The Problem of Space Travel: The Rocket Motor, a translation of Hermann Noordung's classic early discussion of the engineering aspects of a space station with related treatment of other matters concerning space travel, and helped compile An Annotated Bibliography of the Apollo Program. He has written several articles, including "The Enigma of Robert H. Goddard," Technology and Culture 36 (April 1995): 327-50, and he has helped edit several of the recent and forthcoming NASA publications. Dill has been an enormous asset for the NASA History Office over the last four years, offering stability and reflectiveness as well as superb historical skills. We will miss him, and consider the move positive for the History Office only insofar that we will continue to work with him in his role as Dryden historian.

His replacement in the NASA History Office is Steve Garber, who came here from the NASA Office of Space Science, where among other duties, he contributed to last year's Aeronautics and Space Report of the President. Steve has a strong background in research, writing, and editing and wrote several reports on aerospace topics while on a Presidential Management Intern rotation at the Congressional Research Service. He has a Master's degree in public and international affairs and a strong research interest. Steve has completed work on the 1995 aeronautics and space report and is doing research in several other areas. We welcome him to the office.

In addition, Jennifer Skerrett, who had been working in this office as a contract archivist since last winter, left her work in July 1995 to pursue graduate studies. She was replaced in the office by Colin Fries, who started with the NASA History Office archival project on 1 August 1995. Colin has both a B.A. and an M.A. in history from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He also received a Masters in Library Science from the University of Hawaii. His previous experience included an internship at the National Archives and a position as an archivist with the Hawaii State Archives.

Finally, after more than six years, contract archivist William Skerrett left the NASA History Office for a position with the Department of Immigration and Naturalization. He had been an excellent resource for the office staff, and many researchers relied on his understanding of the NASA Historical Reference Collection computerized finding aid to identify materials for use.


Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume 1, Organizing for Exploration. John M. Logsdon, General Editor. Linda J. Lear, Jannelle WarrenFindley, Ray A. Williamson, and Dwayne A. Day, CoEditors. (Washington, D.C.: NASA SP4407, 1995), pp. vii, 795; hardcover with dustjacket. This volume is an essential reference for anyone interested in the history of the U.S. civil space program and its development over time. It deals with organizational developments and prints more than 150 key documents, many of which appear here for the first time. Each is introduced by a headnote providing context, bibliographical details, and background information necessary to understand the document. These are organized into four major sections, each beginning with an introductory essay that keys the documents to major events in the history of the space program.

Since appearing only a short time ago, Exploring the Unknown has received favorable attention. It has been made available to the intergovernmental working group developing space policy for the Clinton administration as an aid in understanding the process that led to type of space program currently being carried out in the United States. Additionally, in an internet posting Thomas J. Frieling, Bainbridge College, kindly wrote of it as "indispensible for anyone interested in the space program and space policy."

In the last issue of this newsletter we described the four major sections of this book--"Prelude to the Space Age," "The Origins of U.S. Space Policy: Eisenhower, Open Skies, and Freedom of Space," "The Evolution of U.S. Space Policy and Plans," and "Organizing for Exploration"--and offered a list of the some of the major documents appearing under each heading. Since that Fall 1995 issue of the newsletter the book has appeared and is available for sale. To purchase this book contact the NASA Information Center, Code COL19, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, or call 202-358-0000. Order SP4407, $43.00 per copy, hardcover with dust jacket.


For the asking, the most recent "Monograph in Aerospace History" is available. Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept, written by James R. Hansen, tells the important story of NASA's effort to decide upon the method of carrying out the mandate to land an American on the Moon before the end of the decade of the 1960s.

One of the most critical technical decisions made during the conduct of Project Apollo was the method of flying to the Moon, landing on the surface, and returning to Earth. Within NASA during this debate several modes emerged. The one eventually chosen was lunar-orbit rendezvous (LOR), a proposal to send the entire lunar spacecraft up in one launch. It would head to the Moon, enter into orbit, and dispatch a small lander to the lunar surface. It was the simplest of the various methods, both in terms of development and operational costs, but it was risky. Since rendezvous would take place in lunar, instead of Earth, orbit there was no room for error or the crew could not get home. Moreover, some of the trickiest course corrections and maneuvers had to be done after the spacecraft had been committed to a circumlunar flight.

Between the time of NASA's conceptualization of the lunar landing program and the decision in favor of LOR in 1962, a debate raged between advocates of the various methods. John C. Houbolt, an engineer at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, was one of the most vocal of those supporting LOR and his campaign in 1961 and 1962 helped to shape in a fundamental way the deliberations. Enchanted Rendezvous makes an important contribution to the study of NASA history in general, and the process of accomplishing a large-scale technological program (in this case Apollo) in particular.

This is the fourth publication in the Monographs in Aerospace History series. All of these are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history. Copies of this monograph are available free of charge from the NASA History Office, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, 20546. To speed response, please include a 9x12 inch self-addressed, stamped (for 10 ounces) envelope.


We are pleased to announce that To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy (NASA Special Publication-4218), by Andrew J. Butrica, will appear in the NASA History Series early in 1996. The past fifty years have brought forward a unique capability to conduct research and expand scientific knowledge of the Solar System through the use of radar to conduct planetary astronomy. This technology involves the aiming of a carefully controlled radio signal at a planet (or some other Solar System target such as a planetary satellite, asteroid, or a ring system), detecting its echo, and analyzing the information that the echo carries.

This capability has contributed to the scientific knowledge of the Solar System in two fundamental ways. Most directly, planetary radar can produce images of target surfaces otherwise hidden from sight and can furnish other kinds of information about target surface features. Radar also can provide highly accurate measurements of a target's rotational and orbital motions. Such measurements are obviously invaluable for the navigation of Solar System exploratory spacecraft, a principal activity of NASA since its inception in 1958.

More than just a discussion of the development of this field, however, Butrica uses planetary radar astronomy as a vehicle for understanding larger issues relative to the planning and execution of "big science" by the Federal government. His application of the "social construction of science" and Kuhnian paradigms to planetary radar astronomy is a most welcome and sophisticated means of making sense of the field's historical development.


A reminder from the last issues of the newsletter, if you have email capability, you can now subscribe to NASA History: News and Notes via a standard listserv. This will save NASA time and money in mailing, something we all want, and will also help with the more timely delivery of this information. To subscribe send a message to Leave the subject line blank. In the text portion type "subscribe history" without the quotation marks. Type only that, leave out your name unlike many other listserv programs, and you will receive confirmation that your account has been added to the list. The NASA History List will be a relatively low volume listserv; we intend to use it to send out the newsletter and to make other announcements as appropriate. It will not be a true discussion list, although if you would like to see one created, or if you have difficulties or questions please call or send a message to Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546; 2023580384, Fax 2023582866, email:


Information on STS-51L/Challenger is now available electronically on the NASA History Homepage. The World Wide Web address is: sts51l.html. The easiest way to reach this is from the main NASA History homepage at: When you get there, click on the "Astronautics" button. Then click the "Space Shuttle" button and from there you should get a menu that has STS-51L/Challenger as one of the items. Material on this page is arranged in the following order:

1. Mission Profile.

2. The Report of the Presidential Commission, chaired by William Rogers.

3. A description of modifications to the Solid Rocket Boosters from the On-line Space Shuttle Reference Manual.

4. A summary of Space Shuttle accomplishments since STS-51L.

5. A Challenger Bibliography: This is chapter 7 of the Space Shuttle bibliography published in 1992.

6. The fate of Challenger's crew: Dr. Joseph Kerwin's investigation tried to determine the cause of the crew's deaths. His report and the accompanying press release are available.

7. The transcript from the mission's voice recorder, which operated from T-2:05 until the accident.

8. Biographical Information on the Challenger Crew.

9. NASA Administrator's Press Release on the Tenth Anniversary of the Challenger Accident. For additional information contact Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian,

Images made from Space Shuttle missions are now available electronically before the Shuttle returns to Earth. The URL for these new images is:

today.html. This home page, "Today at NASA" presents a look ahead at the major events happening at NASA and during Shuttle missions, and includes key mission activities. The Headquarters Public Affairs Home Page, which provides general information about NASA with links to other Agency Web pages, can be accessed at NASA press releases and other information are also available automatically by sending an Internet electronic mail message to In the body of the message (not the subject line) users should type the words "subscribe press-release" (no quotes).

The University of Alberta School of Library and Information Sciences has a new Internet subject guide on Science, Technology and Society. The guide is accessible at the following World Wide Web site: Any comments, corrections, or updates are more than welcome. Contact Catherine McCabe by e-mail at

WWWVL History Of Science, Technology And Medicine (HSTM) Update -- The WWWVL-HSTM has moved to a dedicated server. The new URL is: Please change any links you have to the WWWVL- HSTM to the new addresses and note that the directory structure and document names have also changed, so it's not just a matter of changing the host name. In addition, the biographical dictionary has been greatly expanded recently.

The Museum of the History of Science in Oxford, England, has launched an extensive information service on the World Wide Web. One of the pages available to Web users is a version of the special exhibition now running at the Museum (The Measurers: a Flemish Image of Mathematics in the Sixteenth Century). The Museum's new URL is: Netscape should be used if possible.

The Department of Science & Technology Studies at Cornell University has a new Home Page that provides information about the Department and its associated graduate field. The Department's URL is:: For more information, please contact Lillian Isacks, Graduate Field Assistant Dept. of Science & Technology Studies Graduate Field Office 726 University Avenue, Room 205 Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850; e-mail:; telephone 607-255-6234; fax 607-255-0616.

The University of Minnesota Center for the Philosophy of Science announces its Web site:

NASMNEWS is a listserv which distributes information from the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), which is part of the Smithsonian Institution. Postings include calendars of events, press releases and short articles on current exhibits. To subscribe, send a message to containing the line: SUB NASMNEWS <your name>. Your welcome letter will contain information about the commands accepted by the Smithsonian's LISTSERV. Please send other questions to Barbara Weitbrecht via e-mail at

PCST-L is a new electronic mailing list devoted to public communication of science and technology. It provides an opportunity for discussion, exchange and cooperation among practitioners, researchers, and scientists with an active professional interest in science popularization and related topics. The audience includes science journalists, public information officers at both profit and nonprofit institutions and organizations, museum educators, scientific popularizers, communication researchers, journalism educators, and others. The list is explicitly intended to cross international, cultural, and professional boundaries. The list is sponsored by the Public Communication of Science and Technology Network, established in Poitiers, France, in 1989. To subscribe to PCST-L, send the following command via electronic mail to subscribe PCST-L firstname lastname where "firstname" is your first name and "lastname" is your last name. If you have any questions about PCST-L, contact Bruce Lewenstein, the list owner, at

A listserver has been established for the purpose of exchanging information related to Russian (Former Soviet Union) space programs and improving communication and cooperation between space enthusiasts and professionals in the US and FSU. The FPSPACE project also includes a WWW server at To subscribe, send an e-mail message to: The text of the message should be the following: SUBSCRIBE FPSPACE Your Name (where "Your Name" equals your first and last names). You should receive a confirmation message shortly after sending your message with further instructions on how to communicate with this list.

Those people who are following the congressional budget situation in the US relating to science and technology may be interested in knowing that the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has been posting tables showing the latest appropriations figures for federal R&D programs, together with interpretive text, on its World Wide Web site. The URL for the site is The link to the R&D data may be found under the "Science & Policy" heading. The tables are best viewed using Netscape 1.1, but text versions are available for those running other browsers. The AAAS home page also includes materials from Science magazine, and a variety of information on science and human rights.

Gateway America, Inc. has released a five part series, "Mars: Target for Tomorrow," that is being published electronically in monthly installments on the Microsoft Network. This "digital book" combines photography, art, and text to examine the scientific, sociological, and literary history of the human relationship with Mars. Written by Frederick I. Ordway, III, the five parts are entitled "Beginnings," "The Literary Response," "The Lure of Mars," "The Quest Begins," and "The Elusive Goal." Computer users can access this series by visiting Gateway America's site in the Arts and Entertainment area of the Microsoft Network. For further information, telephone Gateway at 502-895-3939 or e-mail

The Space Telescope Science Institute has published an electronic picturebook entitled "PlanetQuest." Prepared by Daniel R. Glover, Jr., of the Lewis Research Center, it is essentially a history of planetary exploration from the spacecraft point of view. It is available as a hypercard stack for the Macintosh and soon will be released in CD-ROM format for Windows users. Interested users can download it from:


The Hagley Museum and Library announces the publication of two new guides to its research collections,"Industrial and Commercial Architecture," and "Business and the State." Both provide overviews of material in Hagley's extensive manuscript, imprints, and photographic collections pertinent to those subjects. For a free copy contact the Center for the History of Business, Technology, and Society, Hagley Museum and Library, PO Box 3630, Wilmington DE 19807, 302-658-2400, or e-mail

Shaping the Vision is an exhibit of historic paintings, drawings, scale models, and other memorabilia that depict the United States' quest for exploration of space in the 1950s. This collection previously was organized for a tour under the name Blueprint for Space. It will be on display at the Johnson Space Center from 6 June through 9 September 1996. For more information, telephone Frederick I. Ordway, III at 703-524-4487.

The Arts & Entertainment cable television network's "Biography" series will present a documentary on the life and accomplishments of the late Dr. Wernher von Braun, the rocket pioneer and former director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Scheduled to air in March 1996, the hour long program is based on the last major interview that Hugh Downs conducted and is narrated by William Shatner. A home video version of the A&E documentary entitled "Threshold of the Stars" is available from Bro-Gun Productions for $19.95 at 1-800-684-4005.


The Massachusetts Historical Society's Center for the Study of New England History offers approximately sixteen shortterm research fellowships for 1996. Awards are open to independent scholars, advanced graduate students, and holders of the Ph.D. or the equivalent. Preference given to candidates who live more than fifty miles from Boston. Contact Leonard Travers, Assistant Director, Center for the Study of New England History, Massachusetts Historical Society, 1154 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02215; telephone 6175361608. Applications must be postmarked by 1 March 1996.

The Bakken Library and Museum offers Visiting Research Fellowships for the purpose of facilitating research in its collection of books, journals, manuscripts, prints, and instruments. The focus of the Bakken's collections is the history of electricity and magnetism and their applications in the life sciences and medicine. Related materials include mesmerism and animal magnetism, 19th-century ephemera concerning alternative electromedical therapies, miscellaneous scientists' letters, and trade catalogues. The instruments include electrostatic generators, magneto-electric generators, induction coils, physiological instruments, recording devices, and accessories. The fellowship is a maximum of $1,300 and is to be used for travel, subsistence, and other direct costs of conducting research at The Bakken. The minimum period of residence is one week and the grants are open to all researchers. For application guidelines and further information, please contact: David J. Rhees, Executive Director, The Bakken Library and Museum, 3537 Zenith Avenue So., Minneapolis, MN 55416. The deadline for applications is 1 March 1996.

The Centre de Recherce en Histoire des Sciences et Des Techniques in Paris has two to research positions available for 1997. Candidates should have a doctorate in the history of science or technology or a related field. Applications are encouraged from younger scholars whose projects fall within one of the Centre's main areas of research: the history (19th and 20th century) of the relationship between science, technology, and industry; the history (19th and 20th century) of the spread of scientific and technical knowledge and practices; the history (19th and 20th century) of the interaction of France with foreign countries in the fields of science and technology; the historiography of science and technology in general. A good command of the French language is required. Appointments may be arranged for less than one year (e.g. six or nine months). The gross monthly salary is usually around 13,000 francs and no travel/removal expenses will be reimbursed. The deadline for applications for 1997 is 30 April 1996.


The International Society Of Business, Economics And Ethics announces the first World Congress Of Business, Economics And Ethics on 25-28 July 1996 in Tokyo. The internet address is: Submitted papers should contain no more than 3500 words and be submitted, in triplicate to one of the following: Prof. Y. Nagayasu, The Institute of Moralogy, Hikarigaoka, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba-Ken, 277 Japan. Tel: +81-471-733255; Fax: +81-471-733263. Prof. G. Enderle, University of Notre Dame, College of Business Administration, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. Tel: 1-219 631 5595, Fax: 1-219 631 5255. Prof. H. van Luijk, European Institute for Business Ethics, Nijenrode University. Straatweg 25, NL-3621 BG Breukelen, The Netherlands.Tel: 31-3462 91 290, Fax: 31-3462 91 296. Notification of acceptance will be given by 1 April 1996. Further information on attending the Congress is available from the persons mentioned above, Prof. Richard T. De George (email: The deadline for papers was extended to 1 March 1996.

The History of Astronautics Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics is planning three sessions at the 47th Congress in Beijing, China from 7-11 October 1996. All individuals wishing to present papers at one of the sessions should submit single-page abstracts to: Secretariat, International Aeronautical Federation, 3-5 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris, France, telephone 33 1 45 67 42 60, fax 33 1 42 73 21 20. A copy should also be sent to Frederick I. Ordway, III, Coordinator of U.S. Papers, 2401 North Taylor Street, Arlington, VA 22207, telephone 703-524-4487, fax 703-524-5856. The abstracts should reach Paris by 15 March 1996.

A workshop entitled "Nuts And Bolts: Sharing Research Methods In Studies Of Science, Technology And Medicine" will take place on 10-11 October 1996. This mini-conference will cover data collection and interpretation in social, cultural and related studies of twentieth-century technical settings. This discussion-oriented workshop will take place over the first two mornings of the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) and the European Association for the Social Study of Science and Technology (EASST), in Bielefeld, Germany. Papers should be between 5,000 and 10,000 words (about 20-40 pages of manuscript). All paper submissions must be made by electronic mail. The entire document (including abstract and notes) should be in the body of the message as ordinary email (plain ASCII text). Paragraphs should be made with double carriage returns. The subject line should read: <Nuts & Bolts Paper>. The message should be addressed to <> for forwarding to members of the selection committee. The deadline for paper submissions is 30 March 1996.

The International Association for Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions (IATAFI) will hold its second international conference and biannual meeting on 8-10 October 1996 in Brussels. The theme will be sustainable development in relation to science and technology policies. To propose a paper, please submit an English abstract to: IATAFI96 Secretariat, c/o Statoil, 5020 BERGEN, Norway, e-mail For more information, contact Dirk Holemans, Center of Environmental Philosophy and Bioethics, Dept. of Philosophy - University of Ghent, Blandjinberg 2, 9000 Ghent - Belgium, telephone +32 9 2644135, fax +32 9 2644187, e-mail dirk. Abstracts are due by 15 April 1996.

The first joint meeting of the Association of Business Historians, the Business History Conference, and the Business Archives Council will be held in Glasgow, Scotland on 4-6 July 1997. Proposals for papers should be sent to Professor Leslie Hannah, London School of Eeconomics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE UK, fax 0131-226-2959 or 0171-404-5510. Proposals are due by 30 April 1996.

The Twentyfirst Annual Humanities and Technology Conference has issued a call for papers for its 17-18 October 1996 meeting in Marietta, GA. Sponsored by the Social and International Studies Department of Southern College of Technology and The Humanities and Technology Association the INTERFACE Conference provides a forum for discussing the interaction of humanistic concerns with scientific and technological developments. Without excluding other topics, this year's conference especially invites proposals that focus on science, technology, and democracy. The scheduled keynote speaker is Bruce E. Seely from Michigan Technological University. Proposals for sessions and individual presentations are invited. For further information contact Julie R. Newell, Director, INTERFACE, Department of Social and International Studies, Southern College of Technology, 1100 South Marietta Parkway, Marietta, GA 300602896, telephone 770-5287481/7442, fax 770-5284949, email The deadline for submissions is 1 May 1996.

The Kansas State Historical Society, in conjunction with Washburn University and Kansas Wesleyan University, are holding the Eighteenth Mid-America Conference on History in Topeka on 12-14 September 1996. The Program Committee welcomes proposals for presentations, papers, and sessions on all fields and periods of history as well as proposals that deal with teaching history. Proposals should include a paragraph about the content of each paper and a one-page vita. Featured topics include "The Persian Gulf War Revisited," "Re-Imagining the West," "Was Secession Inevitable?," and "Political Insult in 17th Century England." For proposals or further information contact: Bill Cecil-Fronsman, Coordinator, Mid-America Conference on History, Washburn University, Topeka, KS 66621, telephone 913-231-1010 x1317, fax 913-231-1084, or e-mail The proposal deadline is 1 May 1996.

Technology and Society magazine, a publication of the Society on Social Implications of Technology (SSIT) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) will publish a special issue on Appropriate Technology and Sustainable Development in Latin America in early 1997. The issue will commemorate the life and work of Benjamin Linder, the young American engineer who was assassinated ten years earlier by U.S.-backed Contras while working with Nicaraguan peasants to install low-head hydropower and bring electricity to remote villages. In addition to materials about Linder's life and the subsequent development of his project, articles are solicited on the following topics: case studies of the use of appropriate technologies in Latin American development projects, and the concept of sustainability and its applications to the realities of Latin America today. Submit papers to Philip L. Bereano, Department of Technical Communication, University of Washington, 14 Loew Hall, Box 352195, Seattle, WA 98195-2195, telephone 206-543-9037, e-mail: Papers are due by 1 June 1996.

The Third British-North American Joint Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Science (CSHPS), the History of Science Society (HSS), and the British Society for History of Science has issued a call for papers for its annual meeting in Edinburgh, Scotland on 23-26 July 1996. Fore more information from HSS, contact Bob Hatch, Department of History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, telephone 904-392-0271; Fax 904-392-6927; e-mail For CSHPS information, contact Hannah Gay, Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6 Canada, telephone 604-291-3648; Fax 604-291-5387; e-mail; BSHS--Stephen Pumfrey, Department of History, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, England; telephone 0524-592508; Fax 0524-846102; e-mail

In recognition of the sesquicentennial of the birth of Thomas A. Edison, the National Park Service, the Edison National Historic Site, and the Organization of American Historians is co-sponsoring a conference, "Interpreting Edison," on 25-27 July 1997 at the Edison National Historic Site. Proposals for individual papers or panels are invited. For further information contact Leonard DeGraaf, Edison National Historic Site, Main Street and Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, NJ 07052, e-mail The deadline for proposals is 31 July 1996.

The University of Notre Dame is sponsoring a conference on the need for a new economics of science that will be held 13-16 March 1997. For further information and paper proposals , please see or contact Philip Mirowski (, Esther Mirjam Sent (, or Sylvia Phillips (telephone 219-631-8294, fax 219-631-8209, ;4;16 Decio Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5644).

Dr. Mohamed El-Hawary is developing an encyclopedia convering technology and sustainable development and is looking for contributors in the history of science and technology. For further information, send a biographical sketch and areas of interest to him at the Department of Electrical Engineering , Technical University of Nova Scotia, P.O. Box 1000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4, telephone 902-420-7625, fax 902-422-7535, e-mail


The annual Missouri Valley History Conference will be held at Omaha, NE, on 7-9 March 1996. For information contact Dale Gaeddert, Department of History, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182-0523.

The HMGS Military and Naval History Forum will meet on 8-10 March 1996 at Lancaster, PA. For information contact Richard D. Brooks, South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1321 Pendleton St., University of South Carolina, Columbia, 29208, 803-725-3724.

The Center of the American West at the University of Colorado at Boulder is sponsoring a conference, "Field Scientists and the Shaping of the American West," on the history and development of field science in the Western United States, on 15-16 March 1996 at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The conference will explore over two centuries of discovery within this distinct region through the perspectives of scientists, historians, and diarists. Their stories will provide the backdrop for an exciting and thought-provoking conference into what field scientists perceived the American West once was, what it is today, and what it may hold for us in the years to come. For registration materials or more information, contact the Center of the American West, University of Colorado, Box 234, Boulder CO 80309-0234; telephone 303-492-4879; fax 303-492-1868; e-mail

The Business History Conference will hold a meeting on 15-17 March 1996 at Columbus, OH. For more information contact Mansel Blackford, Department of History, The Ohio State University, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210; telephone 6142926341; Fax 6142922282; e-mail

The annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians will take place in Chicago, IL, on 28-31 March 1996, with the theme "History, Memory, and Identity." For information contact the OAH at 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, IN 47408-4199.

The National Council on Public History will hold its annual meeting in Seattle, WA, on 10-13 April 1996. The theme, "History and the Public Interest," should interest aerospace historians. For information contact NCPH, 327 Cavanaugh Hall-IUPUI, 425 University Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46202.

The Public Interest Science Conference (PISC) will be held 12-14 April 1996 at the University of Oregon in Eugene. For more information, call 541-346-5146 or e-mail Look for PISC on the World Wide Web at

The Society for Military History will hold its annual meeting in Rosslyn, VA, on 18-21 April 1996. For more information contact Dr. Charles R. Schrader, SMH Executive Director, 910 Forbes Road, Carlisle, PA 17013.

The first History of the Philosophy of Science Conference will be held at the Hotel Roanoke, Roanoke, VA, on 19-21 April 1996. For further information contact Dr. Cassandra Pinnick, Department of Philosophy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101,

The Francis Clark Wood Institute for the History of Medicine of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia will hold a conference on 4-5 May 1996. For information contact Minique Bourque, Assistant Director for Programs, Wood Institute, College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19103, fax 215-561-6477.

A Symposium on International Science Education is to be held at Cornell University on 9-12 June 1996. Major presentation topics will include: science education in different cultures, diversity in science education in the world, international science education opportunities for college undergraduates, cooperationcompetition in international science, future directions in international science education. It is sponsored by the New York State Pew Program in Undergraduate Science Education and Denmark International Study Program, University of Leiden, Manchester University, Ben Gurion University, National Autonomous University of Mexico, and the National University of Singapore. For more information and registration materials contact Sue Chamberlain, Pew Program in Undergraduate Science Education, 517 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 148536801, email, telephone 607-2552710; fax 607-2551767.

The League of World War I Aviation Historians will hold its biennial seminar on 21-22 June 1996 in Washington, DC. For information contact James Streckfuss, 3127 Penrose Place, Cincinnati, OH 45211, telephone 513-481-7043.

The Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations will hold its annual meeting, 21-24 June 1996, at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Contact Diane B. Kunz, Chair, SHAFR Program Committee, Yale Center for International and Area Studies, Box 208206, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, fax 203-432-5963.

The National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators (NAGARA) will hold its annual meeting in Washington, DC, on 17-20 July 1996. The theme of this conference is "Strategic Alliances and Partnerships." For more information on the meeting contact Steve Grandin, NAGARA Publications and Membership Services Office, 48 Howard Street, Albany, NY 12207, telephone 518-463-8644, fax 518-463-8656.

The preliminary program for the 23rd ICOHTEC Symposium will be held in Budapest, Hungary from 7-11 August 1996. For further information, contact Morris A. Pierce, 364 Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, telephone 716-275-4331, fax 716-442-2749, e-mail: or go to the ICOHTEC Symposium home page on the Web at:

The Northern Great Plains History Conference will take place at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse, on 26-28 September 1996. Contact Malcolm Muir, Jr., Chair, Department of History and Philosophy, Austin Peay State Univ., Box 4486, Clarksville, TN 37055, telephone 615-648-7919.

The Western History Association will be holding its annual meeting on 9-12 October 1996 in Lincoln, NE. For information about this meeting contact, Paul Andrew Hutton, WHA Executive Director, Department of History, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1181.

The annual meeting of the Oral History Association will take place in Philadelphia, PA, on 10-13 October 1996. For information contact Howard L. Green, New Jersey Historical Commission, CN 305, Trenton, NJ 08625, telephone 609-984-3460.


The NASA History Office is in the process of competing a contract for a study with the working title, "Contested Ground: The Evolution of the Debate over NASA's Mission." Anyone who has an interest in this project can obtain additional details from the NASA Procurement Homepage. The address is:


The contracting office working this project is Ed McClelland,


There has been a large number of very interesting books appearing in the last few months. Here is a list of several that have not been noted before in this newsletter.

Chang, Iris. Thread of the Silkworm. New York: Basic Books, 1996. (Biography of H.S. Tsien).

Coles, Peter, and Lucchin, Francesco. Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure. New York: John Wiley, 1995.

Fishbein, Samuel B. Flight Management Systems: The Evolution of Avionics and Navigation Technology. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Glines, Carroll V. Roscoe Turner: Aviation's Master Showman. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.

Heppenheimer, T.A. Turbulent Skies: The History of Commercial Aviation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Hughes, Thomas Alexander. Over Lord: General Pete Quesada and the Triumph of Tactical Air Power in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1995.

Jensen, Claus. No Downlink: A Dramatic Narrative About the Challenger Accident and Our Time. Translated by Barbara Haveland. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1996.

Kay, W.D. Can Democracies Fly in Space? The Challege of Revitalizing the U.S. Space Program. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Launius, Roger D. Editor. Organizing for the Use of Space: Historical Perspectives on a Persistent Issue. San Diego, CA: Univelt, Inc., 1995. AAS History Series, Volume 18. Editor.

Levin, Aleksey E., and Brush, Stephen G. Editors. The Origin of the Solar System: Soviet Research, 1925-1991. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1995.

Meyerson, Harvey, and Simonelli, Danelle K. Launchpad for the 21st Century: Yearbook of the International Space Year. San Diego, CA: Univelt, Inc., American Astronautical Society, 1995.

Neal, Valerie, Lewis, Cathleen S., and Winter, Frank H. Spaceflight: A Smithsonian Guide. New York: Macmillan, 1995.

Piszkiewicz, Dennis. The Nazi Rocketeers: Dreams of Space and Crimes of War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

Vaughan, Diane. The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

You can now receive NASA History: News and Notes via email. This will save NASA time and money in mailing, and will also help deliver this information faster. To subscribe send a message to Leave the subject line blank. In the text portion simply type "subscribe history" without the quotation marks. You will receive confirmation that your account has been added to the list for the newsletter and to receive other announcements that may interest you.

More questions about NASA History? Please check out our NASA History Home Page at The general public is also invited to come to our office in person to do research. For further information, please contact our office at 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866. Email Roger D. Launius at or Steve Garber at We also welcome comments about the content and format of this newsletter.