National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Office of Policy and Plans


Vol. 14, No. 3 Summer 1997


Reconsidering Sputnik Symposium
New Publications Available:
-Research in NASA History
-Satellite Communications History

Forthcoming NASA History Publications:
-Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1986-1990
-Stennis Space Center History
-Aeronautics and Space Report of the President
-NACA/NASA Collier Trophy Winners

NASA History on the Internet
Surfing the Internet for Other Aerospace History
Upcoming NASA History Contracts
Internship Opportunity
New Aerospace History Fellow
New Projects Underway
Aeronautics History Meeting
Calls for Papers
Upcoming Meetings


This year marks the fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, which was launched on 4 October 1957. The NASA History Office, the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies at the Woodrow Wilson Center, and George Washington University's Space Policy Institute are pleased to cosponsor "Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite." This symposium will take place in the Smithsonian's Ripley Center in Washington, DC on 30 September-1 October 1997. It will explore the preparations, immediate ramifications, and long-term consequences of Sputnik on American and Soviet societies and space programs. The featured speakers are Walter McDougall, Sergei Khrushchev, and Roald Sagdeev. To register, please visit or call (202) 358-0384 by 15 September 1997.


Research in NASA History: A Guide to the NASA History Program (NASA HHR-64) was revised in June 1997. This new monograph-length publication is a helpful guide to the historical research collections at NASA's Headquarters and ten Field Centers. Research in NASA History lists NASA history points of contact, information on the Web, and more. It is available for the asking by sending a stamped (for 8 ounces), self-addressed 9x12 inch envelope to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546. You may also view a large .pdf version on-line at http://www. Check it out before you go document hunting!

Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (NASA SP-4217, 1997) has recently appeared. In October 1945, Wireless World published a seminal article by Arthur C. Clarke that proposed the use of geosynchronous satellites for global communications. This book contains papers originally presented at a NASA History conference in 1995, as well as additional materials. Edited by Andrew J. Butrica, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the history of global telecommunications. This book is available for $31 from the Government Printing Office at (202) 512-1800. Refer to stock number 033-000-01178-4.


Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1986­1990: Chronology of Science, Technology, and Policy (NASA SP-4027) is to appear in late summer. A long-standing reference series of note, this volume continues the classic documentary effort and is edited by Ihor Gawdiak.

Way Station to Space: A History of the John C. Stennis Space Center (NASA SP-4310) is also set for publication in late summer. This Field Center history is written by Mack Herring, one of the Center's first employees.

The Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, Fiscal Year 1996 Activities (NASA Annual Report) is slated for publication in September. In addition to narrative summaries of thirteen executive branch agencies' aerospace activities for the past fiscal year, this report also contains useful appendices that cover historical budget information, space launches, and human space flights.

Pamela E. Mack is the editor for a book on the 19 NACA/NASA research projects that have won the prestigious Collier Trophy. This award was first received by the agency in 1923 for advances by NACA in engine cowling design, and most recently in 1993 for the Hubble Servicing Mission. From Engineering Science to Space Science: The NACA/NASA Winners of the Robert J. Collier Trophy for Aerospace Research and Development (NASA SP­4219) is slated for publication in late 1997.


The NASA History Office is planning a publication to record the history of digital fly-by-wire research primarily conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center on the F-8 aircraft. This effort will be for the benefit of NASA managers, other engineering personnel, and posterity. This effort will lead to a fully documented, academically sound book for use by both NASA and the public that will be published in the NASA History Series. Bids for this proposal are due on 1 September 1997. More information is available at: Synopses/ RFQ-XA00017-CLV/synopsis.html.

The NASA History Office is sponsoring a research project leading to a book with the tentative title, "Grand Tour: A History of Project Voyager." This project will lead to a comprehensive, academically sound, well-documented, peer reviewed book-length manuscript acceptable for publication by a scholarly press. A firm-fixed-price contract with a one year period of performance followed by two 1-year options is contemplated. This proposal will close on 19 September 1997. More information is available at 89329-RJS/synopsis.html.


The NASA History Office Website has been given a facelift. Our summer intern, Scott Friedman, has reorganized the site into four main categories to facilitate more intuitive use of our pages. These categories are: "Current Events," "Publications," "Historical Reference," and "External Resources." We hope this eases your surfing.

We have also placed a search engine on our website at History/search.html. One can now utilize this feature to search all the NASA History Web files by keyword. Thanks to Woody Smith, the site's creator.

Unmanned Space Project Management: Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter (NASA SP-4901, 1972) by Erasmus H. Kloman is now on-line at: http://hq. This relatively short publication has been out of print for a number of years, but provides much useful information on innovative management techniques for complex technological projects. Kudos to Scott Friedman, our summer intern, for doing the html work on this publication.

The X-33 history project aims to document this complex program from start to completion of flight testing in 1999. Developed by Andrew Butrica, the X-33 program historian, this site provides a wide variety of information about the program and many useful links. Dr. Butrica has also developed an annotated bibliography. This site is at http://www/ Dr. Butrica welcomes comments and inquiries and can be reached by phone at (202) 358-4593 or via e-mail at

In light of the recent Mars Pathfinder landing, we have placed a chronology of Martian exploration on the web at: History/marschro.htm. This chronology covers both successful and unsuccessful, past and planned, U.S. and Russian/Soviet probes over the years. We have also uploaded an updated bibliography on Martian exploration that can be viewed at: http://www.hq.

On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini (NASA SP-4203, 1977), by Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, is now available on-line at History/SP-4203/cover.htm. Additionally, we have recently uploaded a very attractive photographic appendix to this book which can be accessed at: phot00.htm. This well-received, but long out of print, book is the essential account of the Gemini program and looks at its many achievements, such as the first spacewalk and the first in-orbit rendezvous of two spacecraft.

The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (NASA SP-4209, 1978) by Edward Clinton Ezell and Linda Neuman Ezell is now available on-line at: pao/History/SP-4209/cover.htm. This book was originally published in 1978, three years after the historic occasion. Thank you to David Woods, who converted this book into html, for his long standing work. Mr. Woods is a volunteer from Scotland who has taken several of our books and created on-line versions.


Margaret Weitekamp, a Ph.D. student in American History at Cornell University, is the new American Historical Association's Aerospace Fellow. During the coming year, she will be working on her dissertation about the 13 women astronaut trainees in 1960, and will be located in the NASA History Office. She may be contacted by e-mail at margaret.weitekamp


There is now an "Imaging Intelligence Gallery" on-line with an extensive inventory of CORONA, KH-11, and Desert Storm overhead imagery. This site can be found at:

ìEurekalertî is a science news Website that lists several books, grants, and awards available for people pursuing scientific research, as well as weekly news updates, a search engine, and a large archive of several journals and scientific magazines. This site can be found at:

CNN Interactive has now included two sections on their home page, one entitled "Sci-Tech" which is constantly updated with the newest developments in the scientific world, and the other called ìDestination Mars, which has been tracking the Pathfinder mission. Both of these sites can be accessed at

The Center for the History of Physics, part of the American Institute of Physics, has a home page at that includes interesting exhibits on Albert Einstein, the discovery of the electron, and the history of astronomy/space science.


The NASA History Office has started an internship program for undergraduates. Our first intern, Scott Friedman, returns to Brandeis University this fall after having worked here this summer and receiving college credit. We are now looking for future interns, beginning with the fall 1997 semester. The unpaid internship would be at least 20 hours per week. College juniors and seniors are preferred. The intern will have the opportunity to take on significant responsibility in editing, doing research, answering information requests, and preparing documents for the World Wide Web. For more information, please contact Steve Garber at


On 16 July 1997, NASA sponsored the first NACA/NASA aeronautics history team meeting at the Langley Research Center to assess projects underway and chart a course for more effectively recording the history of NASA's contributions to the development of flight. This meeting represents a step forward in NASA history from focusing almost completely on the space flight arena, and will hopefully continue as we approach the centennial of the Wright brothers famed flight in 2003. Presently, in addition to the documentary history of NACA/NASA research mentioned above, there are several aeronautics history projects underway: U.S. Government In-House R&D in Aerodynamics Development by John D. Anderson, Jr.; Impact of NACA/NASA Langley on Aeronautical Technology by Deborah G. Douglas; History of Flight Research in NACA/NASA by Michael H. Gorn; History of NACA Axial Flow Compressor Research, 1945-1957, by George E. Smith; and History of the National Aerospace Plane, by Larry Schweikart. Thanks to Dr. Jeremiah F. Creedon, Langley Director, for hosting this important event, Gary Price for providing superb support, and Debbie Douglas, resident Langley Visiting Aeronautical Historian, for suggesting the idea and arranging the gathering.


The Goddard Space Flight Center has contracted with Lane E. Wallace to produce an illustrated history of the Center to commemorate its fortieth anniversary in 1999. Lane Wallace has also authored two previous illustrated histories. Flights of Discovery (NASA SP-4309, 1996) and Airborne Trailblazer (NASA SP-4216, 1994).

In anticipation of the centennial in 2003 of the first Wright brothers flight, the NASA History Office is planning a documentary history of NACA/NASA aerodynamics research. Professor James E. Hansen of Auburn University has been selected to research, select, compile, and edit with introductions, appropriate historical documents. Dr. Hansen is selecting approximately 250-350 documents, with an emphasis on previously unpublished works. This publication is intended to be analogous to the Exploring the Unknown series of documentary histories of the U.S. civilian space program.


The Fifth World Conference on Human Choice and Computers, titled ìComputers and Networks in the Age of Globalization,î will be held in Geneva in August 1998. This meeting is organized by the Inforge from Lausanne University Business School. The Program Committee invites research papers and panel session proposals on a variety of topics including Informatics, Computer Science, and Networks and Information Systems. The committee hopes for large scientific contributions from non-computer research fields such as Sociology, Economics, Law, Politics, and Business. Original, unpublished papers should be 10-12 pages in length and submitted electronically as a MS Word document to: For more details, see the HCC-5 website at hcc5/.

The Program Committee of the National Council on Public History invites submission of papers, posters, panels, and other informational formats for its meeting in Austin, TX, 16-19 April 1998. Although the committee welcomes proposals on any subject, the themes of the meeting include the international aspects, multicultural perspectives, and the interactions of various disciplines in public history practice. Contact: NCPH Executive Offices, Cavanaugh 327, 425 University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140, 317-274-2716, e-mail

The American Association for the History of Medicine will be holding its 1998 annual meeting in Toronto, Ontario, from 7-10 May 1998. Proposed papers will be accepted in any subject in the history of medicine, but the paper must be an original work not already published or in the press. Abstracts (one original and seven copies) are due on 30 September 1997. Contact: John Harley Warner, Section of the History of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, L132 SHM, Post Office Box 208015, New Haven, CT 06520-8015.

The Journal of Policy History is issuing a call for papers to be presented at its conference on 15-18 October 1998 in St. Louis, MO. For more information, please write to: Policy Conference, Journal of Policy History, St. Louis University, 221 N. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108. Proposals are due 15 October 1997.

The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association 91st Annual Meeting will be held in San Diego from 6-9 August 1998. The program committee requests individual papers and full-panel proposals on all aspects of history and historical writing. Full-panel proposals are especially encouraged. Please provide a one-page synopsis of prospective papers and a short vitae on each presenter. Submit four copies of each proposal. For more information contact: Professor Leonard Dinnerstein, Judaic Studies, Franklin Bldg. Room 308, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0080, fax 520-621-7841, e-mail The deadline for proposals is 31 October 1997.

The Missouri Valley History Conference invites proposals for its 41st annual meeting in Omaha, NE, on 12-14 March 1998. Papers in all areas of history are welcome. Proposals should include a cover letter, abstract(s), and vitae, and should be sent by 31 October 1997 to: Lorraine M. Gesick, MVHC Program Coordinator, Department of History, University of Nebraska at Omaha, NE 68182.

Wright State University is planning a major conference on the first century of aviation/aerospace history for 1-3 October 1998. Conference organizers are seeking individual paper and panel proposals reflecting themes of flight and society, flight and public policy, and flight technology. Please contact the Aviation History Conference, Conferences and Events, Room E180 Student Union, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45434-0001. Paper/panel proposals are due 1 November 1997.

The 1998 Business History Conference will be held 13-15 March at College Park, MD. Papers are invited on any topic of business history, but the theme of the meeting will be ìThe Business of Government and the Government of Business." Each proposal should be accompanied by a brief description of the topic(s) and by CVís for all participants, including mailing addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses when available. Proposals should be sent to: Professor Jeremy Atack, Box 1819 Station B, Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, e-mail Proposals are due by 1 November 1997.

The Society for Military History will be holding its annual meeting in Wheaton, IL, from 23-26 April 1998, and will entertain proposals for papers and panels. The topic for the conference is "Citizens in Uniform" and the objective is to include all fields of military history. Proposals are due by 1 November 1997 and should be mailed to: 1998 Society for Military History Conference, c/o First Division Museum, 1 South 151 Winfield Road, Wheaton, IL 60187-6097.

The Florida Historical Quarterly is planning to publish a special 1998 issue to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the founding of NASA. Papers on any aspect of the space industry, particularly its effect on Florida, are welcome. Queries and manuscripts should be addressed to: Dr. Kari Frederickson, Assistant Professor and Editor, Florida Historical Quarterly, Department of History, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-1350; 407-823-6421; fax 407-823-5156. The deadline for consideration is 1 December 1997.

The Economic and Business Historical Society annual meeting will take place in Milwaukee, WI, from 23-25 April 1998. The EBHS welcomes proposals for panels and for papers on all aspects of North American, European, and non-Western economic and business history for all time periods. Please send abstracts of the proposed papers (a maximum of two pages) to: Gene Smiley, EBHS President and Program Chair, Department of Economics, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881, 414-288-5664, fax 414-288-5757, e-mail The deadline for proposals is 16 January 1998.


On 7-12 September 1997, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the International Society for Air Breathing Engines will present the 13th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, in Chattanooga, TN. Contact: AIAA, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4333.

On 19-20 September 1997, the Air Force Historical Foundation Symposium, ìAir Mobility,î will take place at Andrews AFB, MD. Contact: Col. Louis H. Cummings, USAF (Ret.), 1535 Command Drive - Suite A122, Andrews AFB, MD 20762-7002, 301-736-1959, fax 301-981-3574.

On 23-25 September 1997, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will host its 1997 Defense & Space Programs Conference and Exhibit at the von Braun Civic Center, Huntsville, AL. Contact: AIAA, Suite 500, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4333, 703-264-7500.

On 25-28 September 1997, the Association for Preservation Technology International (APT) will hold its annual conference in Chicago. The conference theme, "Less is More," focuses on the concept of doing more in the field on preservation technology with less. For more information, please contact: Deborah Slaton, ATP 97 Conference Chair, Wiss, Janey, Elstner Associates Incorporated, 330 Pfingten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, 847-272-7400, fax 847-291-9919, e-mail

On 25-29 September 1997, the annual meeting of the Oral History Association will be held in New Orleans, LA. Contact: Rebecca Sharpless, Executive Secretary, Oral History Association, Baylor University, Box 97234, Waco, TX 76798-7234.

On 2-5 October 1997, the U.S. Naval Academy's Dept. of History will sponsor the 13th Naval History Symposium at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD. Contact: William McBride, Dept. of History, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5044, 410-293-6290, fax 410-293-2256.

On 3 October 1997, the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, DE will be holding a conference entitled "Boys and Their Toys: Masculinity, Technology, and Work." For further details, please contact: The Center for the History of Business, Technology, and Society, Hagley Museum and Library, Post Office Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19807, 302-658-2400, e-mail

On 3-6 October 1997, the International Conference on the Public Understanding of Science will meet in Chicago, IL. Contact: Chicago Academy of Sciences, Union League Club, 65 West Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 312-427-7800, fax 312-427-7345.

On 13-16 October 1997, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will host World Aviation Congress '97 at the Anaheim Marriott, Anaheim, CA. Contact the AIAA at Ste. 500, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Reston VA 20191-4344, 703-264-7500, fax x7551.

The Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting on 16-19 October 1997 in Pasadena, CA. For information contact Dr. Lindy Biggs, Executive Secretary, 334-844-6645, fax 334-844-6673, e-mail, or http://

On 23-26 October 1997, the Society for Social Studies in Science will hold its 7th annual Symposium at the University of Arizona. Contact: Jennifer L. Croissant, CSTS/MSE, 16c - Building 12, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, 520-626-7110, fax 520-621-8059.

On 30 October-1 November 1997, the Community College Humanities Association will hold its annual conference in New Orleans, Louisiana. The theme for the conference will be "Humanities, Culture, and Technology." For further details, please contact: David Berry, Executive Director CCHA, c/o Essex County College, 303 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102-1798.

On 31 October-2 November 1997, the eighth biennial Conference of Historic Aviation Writers will be held at the Midland Holiday Inn Hotel and the Confederate Air Force Museum, Midland TX. For details, contact Robin Higham, Sunflower University Press, 131 Yuma (Box 1009), Manhattan, KS 66502-4228, 913-539-1888, fax 913-539-2233.

On 6-9 November 1997, the History of Science Society will hold their annual meeting at the La Jolla Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Diego CA. For details, visit their website at: ~hssexec/annual/hss_meetings_hss.html or contact the History of Science Society Executive Office, Box 351330, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1330, 206-543-9366, fax 206-685-9544, e-mail

On 2-4 December 1997, the American Astronautical Society will hold its annual meeting in Pasadena, California. Contact: AAS, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152, phone 703-866-0020, fax 703-866-3526.

On 12-14 March 1998, the 9th annual Women in Aviation Conference will be held at the Adamís Mark Denver Hotel in Denver, CO. Contact: Women in Aviation International, Morningstar Airport, 3647 State Route 503 South, West Alexandria, OH 45381, 937-839-4647, fax 937-839-4645, e-mail wai@

On 25-28 March 1998, the 31st annual National Congress on Aviation and Space Education will be held in St. Louis, MO. Contact: Civil Air Patrol National Headquarters/ETA, 105 South Hansell Street, Building 714, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6332, 334-953-5095, fax 334-953-4235, e-mail

On 8-11 April 1998, the Popular Culture Association will host a multidisciplinary symposium entitled "The Vietnam War and Its Era" in Orlando, Florida. Contact: Tony Edmonds, History Department, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, 765-285-2779.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Office, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

You can now receive NASA History: News and Notes via e-mail. To subscribe, send a message to Leave the subject line blank. In the text portion simply type "subscribe history" without the quotation marks. You will receive confirmation that your account has been added to the list for the newsletter and to receive other announcements that may interest you. We also post the latest issue of this newsletter on the Web at html.

More questions about NASA History in general? Please check out our NASA History Office Home Page at History/history.html. The general public is also invited to come to our office in person to do research. For further information, please contact our office at 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866. Send e-mail to Roger D. Launius at or Steve Garber at We also welcome comments about the content and format of this newsletter.