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Vol. 16, No. 3
Summer 1999



The NASA History Office is planning a one-day historical symposium with the title, "Developing U.S. Launch Capability: The Role of Civil-Military Cooperation," to be held in Washington, D.C., on 5 November 1999. Consisting of four major sessions that will include both rocket pioneers and historians as speakers, we anticipate that this will serve as the first step toward a major new historical synthesis of launch vehicle technology. The major four sessions will include:

Invited speakers include: Please join us for this important opportunity to assess the history of launch vehicle development. For further information contact the NASA History Office, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866, e-mail,


The American Historical Association has announced the competition for the 2000-2001 Fellowship in Aerospace History, funded by NASA, to undertake a research project related to aerospace history. It will provide a Fellow with an opportunity to engage in significant and sustained advanced research in all aspects of the history of aerospace from the earliest human interest in flight to the present, including cultural and intellectual history, economic history, history of law and public policy, and the history of science, engineering, and management.

Applicants must be U.S. citizens, possess a doctorate degree in history or in a closely related field, or be enrolled as a student (having completed all coursework) in a doctoral degree-granting program. The Fellowship term is for a period of at least six months, but not more than one year. The Fellow will be expected to devote the term entirely to the proposed research project. The Fellow will have (and be encouraged to take advantage of) the opportunity to use the documentary resources of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The applicant must complete an application form and offer a specific and detailed research proposal that will be the basis of the Fellow's research during the term. At the term's conclusion, the Fellow will be expected to write a report, and to present a paper or a public lecture on the Fellowship experience.

The maximum post-doctoral fellowship stipend is $30,000. Stipend awards may be based on the previous year's salary, or a salary the recipient would expect to earn during the fellowship term, and are adjustable to the length of the fellowship term. Graduate students are eligible for a maximum pre-doctoral stipend of up to $21,000. Funds may not be used to support tuition or fees. A Fellow may not hold other major fellowships or grants during the fellowship term, except sabbatical and supplemental grants from their own institutions, and small grants from other sources for specific research expenses. Sources of anticipated support must be listed in the application form.

Deadline for submission is 1 February 2000 for applications and letters of recommendation. Submit to Fellowship in Aerospace History, American Historical Association, 400 A Street, S.E., Washington, DC 20003. The awardee will be announced in May 2000. The AHA web page has an application form available on-line at: http://www.


The morning of 20 July 1999 brought Vice President Al Gore to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) for a unique presentation. As Vice Chancellor of the Smithsonian's Board of Regents, Gore awarded the Smithsonian's prestigious Langley Medal to Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. The Smithsonian Board of Regents established the Langley Medal in 1908 at the suggestion of Alexander Graham Bell. The medal is awarded for "meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation." Some of the past recipients have been Wilbur and Orville Wright (1909), Charles A. Lindbergh (1927), Alan B. Shepard Jr. (1964) and Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. (1992).

After the ceremony the crew headed to the White House for an oval office visit with President Clinton. They presented him with an Apollo 11 Moon rock for display. After lunch the crew participated in the taping of a panel discussion, with Tim Russert as moderator, for a special broadcast program to mark the thirtieth anniversary of the first lunar landing. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin continued on to NASA Headquarters for a special employees-only event. The program featured an audio-visual presentation by Michael Light, author of the recently published book Full Moon (Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), remarks by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin, and astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin.

Throughout the day on 20 July, the National Air and Space Museum hosted a variety of special activities for the visiting public. The "Discover The Moon" activities included hands-on demonstrations and opportunities to talk to Museum curator's and scientists specializing in planetary science and the history of human space exploration. The NASM Planetarium also screened a special "Apollo 11 Show" throughout the day.

The Newseum, located in suburban Washington, DC, also helped to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing with a series of special events and exhibits. Its "Dateline Moon" exhibit discusses the Apollo 11 mission as one of the most significant news events of all time.

The anniversary events of 20 July ended with a reception for Artrain, which has a special travel exhibit entitled "Artistry of Space." This exhibit of 78 artworks from the collections of the NASA Art Program and the National Air and Space Museum departed thereafter aboard a special train for a four year tour about the nation..


WAMU-FM, owned and operated by the American University in Washington, D.C., produced a two hour documentary called "Washington Goes to the Moon," which deals with the political story of the acquiring and sustaining of support of the Apollo lunar landing program. It was aired throughout the nation on various stations during the time of the thirtieth anniversary celebration of the Apollo 11 landing. It is also available on real audio on the WAMU web site: realmoon.html. The site also has transcripts of the two programs, venues and dates of the airings, and much more. We should also mention that "Soundprint," which airs on many public radio stations around the nation, will be running a version of this documentary as well, broadcasting it in four half-hour blocks.

The Boeing Company, which now owns what used to be the Rockwell aerospace units and McDonnell Douglas, put on-line an Apollo 11 anniversary website. Boeing and other major components of the corporation that were once independent companies, of course, contributed significantly to the development of hardware and the conduct of the successful Apollo program. This site focuses on the corporate story of the program. The URL for the site is: feature/apollo11/. It contains images, recollections by selected people who worked on Apollo, a discussion of the components of the Apollo-Saturn spacecraft, factoids about Apollo, a mission logbook, a discussion of anniversary events, what else was taking place in America in 1969, and more.

Because of the anniversary of Apollo 11, the Klet Observatory in the Czech Republic had named in honor of the crew of Apollo 11 three recently discovered minor planets: (6469) Armstrong, (6470) Aldrin, and (6471) Collins. The citations announcing these namings appeared on Minor Planet Circular No. 34623 issued by the Minor Planet Center of the International Astronomical Union on 4 May 1999. Names were suggested by J. Ticha, M. Tichy and Z. Moravec, who observed these minor planets at the Klet Observatory in 1995 opposition, just prior to their numbering.

On Friday, 16 July 1999, the anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11, NASA held a celebration at the Kennedy Space Center. One of the events of the day was a press conference with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, the first two humans to set foot on the moon, along with other Apollo-era astronauts. These Eugene Cernan, Walter Cunningham, Charles Duke, Walter Schirra, Alfred Worden and John Young. The transcript of this new conference is now on-line at the NASA History Office’s Apollo anniversary web site: ap11ann/events.htm.

Also at Kennedy Space Center, NASA, in cooperation with the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association, hosted a dinner on 16 July 1999, at the Center's Apollo Saturn V Facility. The focal point of this dinner was to recognize the contributions of the thousands of workers who made the lunar landing program possible. The next day, the Kennedy Space Center hosted several special events for the general public at its Visitor Complex, and a reunion of former Grumman employees was held in Cocoa Beach, FL.

The U.S. Space Walk of Fame in Titusville, FL, also took the opportunity of the anniversary on 17 July to break ground for the Apollo monument at Space View Park.

On 18-20 July, six Apollo astronauts, including Buzz Aldrin from Apollo 11, were present at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. The museum has built a new full size standing Saturn V replica which will be on permanent display. On those three nights there were live presentations and re-enactments of the Moon landing.

On 21 July 1999 a moon rock dedication ceremony also took place near the Tribune Tower in Chicago, IL, where the rock will be on permanent display.

On 22 July the Johnson Space Center also hosted a Center-wide anniversary event to commemorate Apollo and its success thirty years ago.

Finally, on 16-25 July, The USS Hornet, the recovery aircraft carrier for Apollo 11 and Apollo 12, celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing at its anchorage in Alameda, CA. Hosted by the Aircraft Carrier Hornet Museum, "Moonfest 1999," as it was called, featured NASA exhibits, daily films, lectures, demonstrations, evening astronomy, and special events.


Because of the anniversary the NASA History Office was involved in publishing three historical products that has been enormously successful. First, our Monograph in Aerospace History #14, was lrelease in June 1999, and is entitled Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo. This work contains the edited transcript of an oral history workshop moderated by John M. Logsdon with six key managers of the Apollo effort. This monograph is available, free of charge, by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces ($3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 International) to NASA History, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.

Second, the NASA History Office is pleased to announce the availability of a new CD-ROM entitled Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive. This CD-ROM has a variety of detailed technical reports and data such as the Mission Operation Reports, News References, and Press Kits from all the Apollo missions in .pdf form. It also contains a variety of other information such as biographies, mission summaries, mission patches, technical diagrams, and several electronically formatted books such as the photo-filled Apollo Expeditions to the Moon (SP-350), and audio and video clips. The CD runs on both Mac and PC platforms and requires windows 95 or higher. As long as supplies last, you may obtain one copy of the CD-ROM by sending a self-addressed, padded envelope with appropriate postage ($1.90 U.S., $2.30 Canada, and $3.85 overseas) to the NASA Headquarters Information Center, Mail Code CI-4, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, 202-358-0000. Please do not send cash or checks.

Finally, for the anniversary, the NASA History Office produced a commemorative poster about Apollo, a mosaic of the famous photograph of Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, created from images taken by the astronauts using the Hasselblad cameras aboard the spacecraft. Copies of the poster may be obtained by contacting NASA History, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


To commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of Apollo 11 the History Office created a new web site at URL:, ap11ann/introduction.htm. The site includes a variety of newly available information such as interviews with the three crew members and interesting historical documents. It also includes links to many other useful pages on Apollo, both within and outside NASA. We recommend this site to journalists, students, scholars, as well as all those interested in Apollo 11. Our thanks are do Chris Pysz of the NASA Headquarters printing and design department for creating the attractive layout of the site.


Three interesting sessions are set for major professional historical conferences this next academic year. First, at the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT), scheduled for 7-10 October 1999 in Detroit, Michigan, Stephen B. Johnson of the University of North Dakota's Department of Space Studies has organized the session, "Organizing Research and Development for Missiles and Space." This session will describe the evolution of the social and legal milieu of research and development in the aerospace industry from the 1950s to the 1970s. Chaired by Howard E. McCurdy, American University, the session features the following presentations:

Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, will offer the comment. This session will take place on Sunday morning 10 October 1999, 9:30 a.m.-12:00 noon. For more information about this conference, please visit the Society for the History of Technology web site at: associations/shot.

A session entitled "The Politics of Cancellation: Recent Science, the Public Policy Process, and Organized Protest" will take place at the upcoming annual meeting of the History of Science Society in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 3-7 November 1999. Organized and chaired by Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, the session features the following presentations:

A commentary will be offered by Teresa L. Kraus of the FAA. This session will be held at 1:30-3:10 p.m. on Friday, November 5, 1999, at the Westin William Penn Hotel, in Pittsburgh. For more information about the conference please visit the History of Science Society web site at: http://depts.washington. edu/hsssec/.

Finally, we have organized a session set to take place at the Organization of American Historians annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, on 30 March-2 April 2000. Entitled "The Race to the Moon: Mirror Image Twins of the Cold War," the session will be chaired by Janet R. Daly Bednarek, University of Dayton and include the following presentations:

The comment will be offered by Robert W. Smith, University of Alberta. Additional information on the conference may be obtained from the OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.

We hope you will join us for the sessions at these three conferences.


The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Search for a Reusable Space Vehicle (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4221, 1999) by T.A. Heppenheimer, covers the political debate over building the Space Shuttle. In clear prose, Heppenheimer explains how the Shuttle came into being after disagreements among Congress, the Office of Management and Budget, the Air Force, the White House, and NASA and takes a look at the larger issues of how politics can interact with science, technology, national security, and economics in national government. This book (stock number 033-000-01215-2) is available for $23.00 (domestic postpaid) by contacting the Government Printing Office at the site office/pao/History/gpo/order.html on the web.

Toward Mach 2: The Douglas D-558 Program (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4222, 1999), edited by J.D. Hunley, contains the edited transcript of a symposium marking the 50th anniversary of this aircraft's first flight in 1948. A sister aircraft to the more well-known rocket-powered X-1, the jet-powered D-558 gave NACA researchers many useful insights about the transonic speed range. This book (stock number 033-000-01208-0) is available for $18.00 (domestic postpaid) by contacting the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. Their on-line order form can be found at pao/History/gpo/order.html on the web.

The NASA Historical Data Book, Volume V, (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4012, 1999) covers NASA launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science from 1979-1988. Compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, this work is a continuation of four previous volumes that cover NASA's two previous decades. This book (stock number 033-000-01215-2) is available for $43.00 (domestic postpaid) contacting the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. Their on-line order form can be found at pao/History/gpo/order.html on the web.

On course all of the currently in print publications of the NASA History Program are available for order through the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. The order form of this is located on the World Wide Web at URL: http://www.hq.nasa. gov/office/pao/History/gpo/order.html.

A History Of Suction-Type Laminar Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research is Monograph in Aerospace History #13. Written by Albert L. Braslow, this monograph examines a technically important way to reduce aircraft drag and thus increase fuel efficiency. This monograph is available, free of charge, by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 foreign) to NASA History, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.

The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union, by V.G. Perminov, is Monograph in Aerospace History #15. Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecrafts at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. Translated by Katherine Nazarova, this monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories. This monograph is available, free of charge, by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces ($3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 International) to NASA History, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


Also in commemoration of the thirtieth anniversary of Apollo 11, the NASA History Office is preparing for publication, "Before this Decade is Out…": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4223, 1999), a collection of oral histories compiled and edited by Glen E. Swanson of the Johnson Space Center History Office.

This significant collection of oral histories concerning the Apollo program recount the unique history of the lunar landing program from the perspective of some of the political leaders, engineers, scientists, and astronauts who made it such a success. The book includes oral recollections from James Webb, the NASA Administrator whose political connections in Washington extended back to the New Deal of the 1930s; rocket pioneer and architect of the Saturn V Wernher von Braun; the resolute Robert Gilruth, director of the Houston center; the engineering iconoclast Maxime Faget whose designs of spacecraft made possible flights to the Moon; and astronauts such as Harrison Schmitt and Charles Duke. These reflections on this unique time and place and accomplishment are must reading for any student of space history and Project Apollo. A foreword by Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., provides additional perspective on the Apollo program. This book is scheduled to be available at the end of September.

Also about the end of September, we are expecting Touchdown: The Development of Propulsion Controlled Aircraft at NASA Dryden, by Tom Tucker, to appear as Monograph in Aerospace History, Number 16. Touchdown relates the important history of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Spurred by a number of airplane crashes caused by the loss of hydraulic flight controls, a NASA-industry team lead by Frank W. Burcham and C. Gordon Fullerton developed a way to land an aircraft safely using only engine thrust to control the airplane.

In spite of initial skepticism, the team discovered that, by manually manipulating an airplane's thrust, there was adequate control for extended up-and-away flight. However, there was not adequate control precision for safe runway landings because of the small control forces, slow response, and difficulty in damping the airplane phugoid and Dutch roll oscillations. The team therefore conceived, developed, and tested the first computerized Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system. The PCA system takes pilot commands, uses feedback from airplane measurements, and computes commands for the thrust of each engine, yielding much more precise control. Pitch rate and velocity feedback damp the phugoid oscillation, while yaw rate feedback damps the Dutch roll motion.

The team tested the PCA system in simulators and conducted flight research in F-15 and MD-11 airplanes. Later, they developed less sophisticated variants of PCA called PCA Lite and PCA Ultralite to make the system cheaper and therefore more attractive to industry. This monograph tells the PCA story in a non-technical way with emphasis on the human aspects of the engineering and flight-research effort. It thereby supplements the extensive technical literature on PCA and makes the development of this technology accessible to a wide audience.

Also this fall we will be publishing volume VI of the NASA Historical Data Book (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4012, 1999). This volume, compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, will deal with aeronautics, space applications, tracking and data acquisition, personnel, budget, and other resources, for the period between 1979 and 1988. It promises to become, much like the predecessor volumes in this series, a fundamental reference tool for aerospace historians. This work is now in design and layout and we anticipate a late fall 1999 publication.

Also anticipated this fall is the publication of Power to Explore: A History of the Marshall Space Flight Center (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4313, 1999), written by Andrew J. Dunar and Stephen P. Waring. This history analyzes the development of Marshall from its origins as an army center through the Wernher von Braun era to the present.

Finally, the fourth volume of Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume IV, Accessing Space (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4407, 1999), under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon, is set to appear in November 1999. This work will consist of approximately 150 key documents, introduced by headnotes and essays dealing with launch vehicle technology from the birth of NASA to the present.


NASA and the Space Industry (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), by Joan Lisa Bromberg, is the latest work in the "New Series in NASA History." This well-received book deals with the unique relationships that NASA has with its contractors in the private sector. Historian William H. Becker of the George Washington University said of the book, "An important study of a neglected aspect of NASA's history, that is, its relationship with the aerospace industry, which it helped bring into existence. Bromberg is particularly good in her nuanced discussions of how innovations and new ideas flowed back and forth from the agency to industry, and how the flow was influenced by large changes in the economy and polity" (back cover). It is available for $38.50 by contacting the Johns Hopkins Press Web site or by calling 410-516-6956.


We are pleased to announce that sets of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the space shuttle technical diagrams and drawings are now available on the Web. These sets, as well as the sets for Projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, are available through History/ diagrams/diagrams.htm on the web. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for scanning.

The X-15 Program in Retrospect a lecture by John V. Becker presented in Bonn, Germany in December 1968 can be found on-line at This is a useful, concise historical overview of the X-15 program by a noted aerodynamicist. Special thanks to Hans-Peter Engel, who skillfully scanned and prepared this document for the Web.

Proceedings of the X-15 First Flight 30th Anniversary Celebration of June 8, 1989 (NASA Conference Publication 3105) is now available on-line thanks to the efforts of Hans-Peter Engel. These proceedings include comments by historians, pilots, and others with keen insights on the truly historic X-15 program that bridged aeronautics with astronautics during NASA's first decade, and can be found at cover.html on the web.

Transiting from Air to Space: The North American X-15, the case study by Robert S. Houston, Richard P. Hallion, and Ronald G. Bostonis, is at It is a long chapter in The Hypersonic Revolution: Case Studies in the History of Hypersonic Technology (Washington, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998). A key contribution to the literature on the X-15, one of NASA's most successful research aircraft programs, this case study was previously published as a stand-alone volume. Special thanks to Hans-Peter Engel, who formatted this work for the Web.


Virginia Butler, archivist at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) History Office for the past five years, has completed her tenure at the center and now resides in Pensacola, Florida. Ms. Butler made a number of contributions to the development of the history program at SSC. She was the researcher, first-line editor, and coordinator for the SSC history, Way Station to Space, published as part of the NASA History Series in 1997. She was instrumental in the development of the computer database now in use at the SSC History Office. In addition, she was active in the SSC Oral History Program and other activities promoting NASA's history program at the SSC. Jennifer Seal is now serving as coordinator in the SSC History Office. Ms. Seal may be reached at

Finding aids to records of the Ames Research Center for the NACA and early NASA years are now publically available at the Online Archive of California, located at URL: http://www.oac.cdlib. org/cgi-bin/oac/narc. This is an early effort to apply encoded archival description (in the SGML format) to government records, and the file descriptors will continue to be refined over the coming months. Comments are welcome to


The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) History Technical Committee is sponsoring a session on aviation history at the AIAA Aerospace Sciences meeting on 10 January 2000 in Reno, NV. This session will cover a wide range of historical aviation topics. Currently listed to present are; John D. Anderson, National Air and Space Museum, presenting a paper on Samuel Pierpont Langley; America's first aeronautical engineer; William F. Trimble, Auburn University, with a paper on Jerome Hunsaker's early works; James R. Hansen, Auburn University, on aerodynamics history; and Bill Chana, San Diego Aerospace Museum, on the design, construction and flight testing Lindbergh's "Sprit of St. Louis." These are only the speakers who have currently committed to the session and the AIAA History Technical Committee invites three other presentations. Papers for many of the presentations will be available during and after the conference from AIAA. Information on the conference can be obtained from the AIAA's web site at or by calling 800-NEW-AIAA.

The AIAA History Technical Committee is also accepting nominations to become a member of the history technical committee. Information on this and the AIAA's other technical committees can be obtained from the AIAA's web site at or questions on the history technical committee can be directed to the Chair of the History Technical Committee, Tony Springer, at 703-406-5788.


The British Society for the History of Science announces the inauguration of a new prize generously donated by one of its members, Dr. Ivan Slade. The competition will take place biennially, and the prize of 300 pounds is offered for an essay (published or unpublished) that makes a critical contribution to the history of science. Examples would be scholarly work that critically engages a prevalent interpretation of a historical episode, scientific innovation or scientific controversy.

The prize will be awarded for the first time in 1999 and submissions are now invited. There is no age limit, and entry is not limited to members of BSHS or UK citizens. Entries should be in English, and should have been published or written in the two years prior to the closing date. They should not exceed 10,000 words in length and should be accompanied by an abstract of 500 words. Three copies of the essay and abstract should be sent to the BSHS Secretary, Dr. Jeff Hughes, CHSTM, Maths Tower, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom. The deadline is 31 October 1999.


The University of North Dakota's Space Studies Department has assumed publication of Quest. The magazine is now considered a journal and is exclusively covering the history of spaceflight, having been renamed Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly.

Quest seeks and publishes diverse articles on the history of humanity's endeavors in space. In addition, Quest now includes historical articles on other topics such as ground systems technology, European and Asian space programs, and media coverage of space activities.

The cost for subscription is $29.95/year for U.S. residents, $35/year in Canada and Mexico, and $45/year for overseas subscribers. To subscribe, please contact UND-Quest, Space Studies Department, Box 9008, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9008. More information about Quest can be found on the internet at or via email at, or contact Suezette Bieri at (701) 777-4856.


The NASA history Office is pleased to announce the inauguration of a "Centennial of Flight" series of books to be published by Texas A&M University Press. This series is intended as a cohesive set of volumes, written for a general readership, that will synthesize the development of flight in the twentieth century. The series editor, Roger D. Launius, invites proposals for a series of relatively small, general interest paperbacks on the history of flight to be published between 2001 and 2003 for the centennial of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903. Proposals are especially welcome for syntheses relating to the following aeronautical and astronautical topics:

These various volumes will be some 200 pages in length, published in paperback form, and would not contain scholarly apparatus, but would have a good essay at the end pointing the direction to other studies of the subject. Interested persons should contact the series editor: Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, Voice (202) 358-0383, fax (202) 358-2866, e-mail


The NASA History Office currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The unpaid internship is approximately 20 hours per week and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, doing research, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See on the web for more information.

Our second intern in the office this summer was Brian Norton. Brian is an undergraduate at Harvard University majoring in international relations. We welcome him and extend to him our gratitude for all of his hard work.


Knowledge, Technology, and Policy invites papers for a theme issue on "Users as Innovators." The deadline for submissions is 1 November 1999. Visit the journal’s website for more information at or contact the editor, David Clarke, at reynard@siu. edu.

Enterprise & Society: The International Journal of Business History is soliciting essays for a special issue on gender and business to appear in 2001. It seeks manuscripts that address ways in which gender challenges or adds to debates in the field of business history from a wide range of topics, methodologies, locales, and historical eras. Angel Kwolek-Folland (Univ. of Kansas) will serve as guest editor of the special issue. The deadline for submissions is 15 January 2000. Send four double-spaced, one-sided copies of your manuscript (approximately 30-40 pages, including endnotes) to David B. Sicilia, Associate Editor, Enterprise & Society, Department of History, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-7315. For additional information please consult the Call for Manuscripts webpage at; or send email to

On 10-12 March 2000 the Business History Conference will hold its annual meeting on the theme, "Enterprise in Society," at Palo Alto, California. It invites proposals for papers that explicitly situate business enterprises within larger social, cultural, and political contexts. The deadline for submission is 15 October 1999. Abstracts should be submitted to Roger Horowitz, Secretary-Treasurer, Business History Conference, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington DE 19807, fax: 302-655-3188; email:

On 24-25 March 2000 the Center for Society and Industry in the Modern South (SIMS) at Georgia Tech will host a two-day conference in Atlanta on the theme "The Sunbelt Revisited." It invites paper proposals on any theme related to the economic development of the American South and/or Southwest, 1960-1990. The deadline is 1 September 1999. Please send panel or paper proposals to Douglas Flamming, School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332-0345, e-mail: doug.

On 28-30 April 2000 the Society for Military History will hold its annual meeting in Quantico, Virginia,. The theme for the conference is the Korean War, although papers on other other topics in military history will be considered. Proposals for papers to be presented at the conference are welcome. Deadline is 1 November 1999. Mail 1-page proposal to Gordon Rudd, SMH 2000 Coordinator, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, Marine Corps University, 2076 South Street, Quantico, VA 22134.

On 23-24 June 2000 a conference on "Portraiture and Scientific Identity," organized by the National Portrait Gallery and the British Society for the History of Science, will take place at the National Portrait Gallery, London. The deadline for proposals is 1 November 1999. Contact Professor Ludmilla Jordanova, School of World Art Studies and Museology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7TJ, e-mail

On 3-6 August 2000, the Fourth British-North American Joint Meeting of the BSHS, CSHPS, and HSS will be held in St. Louis, MO. The theme of the conference is "What is to be done? History of Science in the New Millennium." The program committee, with members drawn from the three participating societies, invites proposals for papers and full sessions. Abstracts of approximately 250 words for each paper, are due at the HSS Executive Office by 15 December 1999, with notification of acceptance by early February 2000. Contact HSS Executive office at or the program committee: Jon Agar,; Bernie Lightman,; and Paul Theerman,

On 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology will meet in Munich, Germany. The program committee invites proposals for both individual papers and full sessions. The deadline for proposals is 10 February 2000. Contact, Dr. Michael Allen, SHOT Program Chair, Zentralinstitut für Gesschichte der Technik, Deutsches Museum, Museuminsel 1, D-80306 München, Germany, e-mail

On 12-15 October 2000 St. Louis University is sponsoring, "Writing the Past, Claiming the Future: Women and Gender in Science, Medicine, and Technology." Papers on all aspects of gender in science and technology are invited. Deadline for proposals is 1 January 2000. Contact Charlotte G. Borst, Department of History, St. Louis University, 3800 Lindell Blvd., P.O. Box 56907, St. Louis, MO 63156.

On 26-29 April 2001 the Organization of American Historians will hold its annual meeting at the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, CA, with the theme, "Connections: Rethinking our Audiences." Proposals are invited, and must be postmarked no later than 12 January 2000. Contact the 2001 Program Committee, Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47408-4199. For further information on the conference visit the OAH web page:


On 17-19 September 1999 the Joint Atlantic Seminar in the History of Physical Sciences will hold its annual meetings at the George Washington University, Washington, DC. For more information see our Web site at jashops.html or write to: JASHOPS, Center for History of Physics, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD 20740-3843.

On 22-25 September 1999, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots will hold its 43rd Annual Symposium and Banquet at the Beverly Hills Hilton in Beverly Hills, California. Contact: Society of Experimental Test Pilots, P.O. Box 986, Lancaster, CA 93584, fax 805-940-0398, E-mail setp@

From 28 September-1 October 1999, HELITECH, sponsored by the European Helicopter Association and the British Helicopter Advisory Board, will meet. For more information you can contact Spearhead Exhibitions Ltd., 44 (0) 181-949-9222; fax 44(0) 181-949-8168/8193; e-mail: or go to their site at on the Web.

On 4-8 October 1999, the 50th International Astronautical Congress will take please in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. For additional information contact, The IAF Secretariat, 3/5 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris-France, e-mail

On 7-10 October 1999 the annual meeting of the Society for the History of Technology will be held in Detroit, Michigan. Contact: Lindy Biggs, SHOT Secretary, History Department, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, 334-844-6645/Fax 6673, e-mail:

Also on 7-10 October 1999, the annual meeting of the Oral History Society will be held in Anchorage, Alaska. Contact: Susan Armitage, Women's Studies Program, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164-4007, (509) 335-8569, or send an e-mail to

On 19-21 October 1999, the IAA/SAE World Aviation Congress will be held at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport in San Francisco, California. Contact AIAA, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr, Ste. 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, 703-264-7500, Fax x7551, for more information.

On 22-24 October 1999, the Ninth Biennial Conference of Historic Aviation Writers (CHAWS #9) will be held in St. Louis, Missouri. The conference has no specific theme but there will be a "keynote" focus on aviation in the greater St. Louis area with speakers from the region. Contact David C. Montgomery, Department of History, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, (801) 378-6338, e-mail for further information.

From 2-4 November 1999 the International Space Business Assembly (ISBA) will be held at the Reagan International Trade Center, Washington, DC. A joint meeting of the United States Space Foundation and the American Astronautical Society, please contact those organizations for additional information. The AAS Business Office is located at 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, (703) 866-0020, their e-mail address is

On 3-7 November 1999, the 75th anniversary meeting of the History of Science Society will be held in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Contact: Fred Gregory, E-mail: or Edith Sylla, E-mail:

On 4-7 November 1999, the American Assoc. for the Rhetoric of Science and Technology, an affiliate of the National Communications Association, will host panels at the NCA annual conference in Chicago, Illinois. Topics will include rhetorical analysis of science and technology policy debates, scientific and technical texts, and the impact of popular representations of science. Contact: Alan Gross, e-mail:

On 7-10 November 1999 the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) will host its annual Users and Training Meeting in Washington, D.C. It also sponsors regional presentations at various times during the year. Contact Julia Foscue, (703) 767-8236, DSN 427-8236, e-mail

From 15-19 November 1999, the International Symposium & Exhibition on Ballistics, sponsored by the National Defense Industrial Association in cooperation with the International Ballistics Committee, will be held at the Municipal Auditorium in San Antonio, Texas. For more information please refer to event # 021 when calling NDIA at (703) 522-1820, fax (703) 522-1885, or when e-mailing

On 16-18 November 1999, the American Astronautical Society will hold its 46th Annual Meeting and Conference at the Pasadena Hilton Hotel in Pasadena, California. For more information contact the AAS Business Office, 6352 Rolling Mill Place, Suite 102, Springfield, VA 22152-2354, 703-866-0020, e-mail:

On 6-8 January 2000, Social History Society of the United Kingdom will hold its annual conference on "Envisioning the Future," in Cambridge, U.K. For details, contact Linda Persson, Centre for Social History, Furness, College, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YG, U.K., e-mail:

From 6-9 January 2000, the American Historical Association will hold its annual meeting in Chicago, IL. Contact AHA, 400 A Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, phone (202) 544-2422.

On 10 January 2000, The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics History Technical Committee is sponsoring a Session on Aviation History at the AIAA Aerospace Sciences meeting in Reno NV.  This session will cover a wide range of historical aviation topics.  Currently listed to present are; John Anderson presenting a paper on Samuel Pierpont Langley; America's First Aeronautical Engineer, Bill Trimble a paper on Jerome Hunsackers early works, Jim Hansen on aeronautics and Bill Chana on the design, construction and flight testing Lindbergh's Sprit of St. Louis.  These are only the speakers who have currently agreed to speak, three additional speakers will make presentations.  Papers for many of the presentations will be available during and after the conference from AIAA. Information on the conference can be obtained from the AIAA's web site at or calling 1-800-NEW-AIAA.

From 30 March-2 April 2000 the Organization of American Historians and the National Council on Public History will hold a joint annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. Contact OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.

From 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) will hold its annual meeting at the Munich Center for the History of Science and Technology, Munich, Germany. Contact Lindy Biggs, SHOT Executive Director, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, (334) 844-6645, fax at (334) 844-6673, or e-mail: biggslb@mail.


Blackburn, Al. Aces Wild: The Race for Mach 1. Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 1999.

Cernan, Eugene, and Davis, Don. The Last Man on the Moon: Astronaut Eugene Cernan and America's Race in Space. New York: St. Martins Press, 1999.

Corum, James S. The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 1918-1940. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999 paperback.

Crouch, Tom D. and Benarek, Janet R. Daly. Editors. 1998 National Aerospace Conference: The Meaning of Flight in the 20th Century, Conference Proceedings. Dayton, OH: Wright State University, 1999.

Dorsey, Gary. Silicon Sky: How One Small Start-Up Went Over the Top to Beat the Big Boys into Satellite Heaven. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1999.

Ethier, Bryan. Fly Me to the Moon: Lost in Space with the Mercury Generation. New York: McGregor Publishing, 1999.

Fowler, Eugene. One Small Step: Project Apollo and the Legacy of the Space Age. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1999.

Godwin, Robert. Editor. Apollo 11: The NASA Mission Reports. 2 Vols. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 1999.

Harland, David M. Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions. Chicester, England: Wiley-Praxis, 1999.

Hinebaugh, Mark A. Flying Upside Down: True Tales of an Antarctic Pilot. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1999.

Imai, Kesaharu. A Time Capsule, Omega Speedmaster—The Story of the First Watch in Outer Space. Washington, DC: World Photo Press, 1999.

Karash, Yuri Y. The Superpower Odyssey: A Russian Perspective on Space Cooperation. Reston, VA: AIAA, 1999.

Kirkland, Richard C. Tales of a War Pilot. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999. Smithsonian History of Aviation Book Series.

Light, Michael. Full Moon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.

Muirhead, Brian K. and Simon, William L. High Velocity Leadership: The Mars Pathfinder Approach to Faster, Better, Cheaper. New York: HarperBusiness, 1999.

Oberg, James E. Space Power Theory. No Publisher, No date, but Colorado Springs, CO: U.S. Space Command, 1999.

Pellegrino, Charles R., and Stoff, Joshua. Chariots for Apollo: The Untold Story Behind the Race to the Moon. New York: Avon Books, 1999, paperback reprint edition.

Richelson, Jeffrey T. America’s Space Sentinels: DSP Satellites and National Security. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.

Russo, Arturo. ESA’s Scientific Programme Toward the Turn of the Century. Netherlands: ESA Publications Division, ESA HSR-24, May 1999.

Schatzberg, Eric. Wings of Wood, Wings of Metal: Culture and Technical Choice in American Airplane Materials, 1914-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Schefter, James. The Race: The Uncensored Story of How America Beat Russia to the Moon. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1999.

Scott, Phil. Editor. The Pioneers of Flight: A Documentary History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Snead, David L. The Gaither Committee, Eisenhower, and the Cold War. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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