NASA History News and Notes

Vol. 16, No. 4 Fall 1999



Early in the history of NASA, the Agency’s History Program began holding periodic meetings with our center history points of contact and with a group of outside scholars and aerospace professionals to assess the state of the program. We are planning to go ahead with our next program review on 2-3 February 2000, (Wednesday-Thursday) at Ames Research Center in the San Francisco Bay area.

These annual reviews have been exceptionally important in helping to shape the direction and even the nature of the NASA History Program. It is an important opportunity to draw together the resources working on historical issues at NASA, and to reflect on the nature of the program and plan for the future. The proposed agenda for this program review includes:

Anyone who wishes to attend this program review is welcome. For further information please contact the NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546, telephone 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866.


We are pleased to announce that on 23 March 2000 the NASA History Division will co-sponsor with Syracuse University a small symposium entitled, "Space Policy in the Twenty-first Century: New Directions." It will take place at Syracuse University’s Greenberg House, 2301 Calvert Street, NW, Washington, D.C. Featured presentations and speakers will include:

This symposium is open to the public, but seating will be limited to 50 participants. Stay turned for more information and registration materials.


On 5 November 1999, the NASA History Office co-sponsored a high-profile one-day historical symposium, "Developing U.S. Launch Capability: The Role of Civil-Military Cooperation," at the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C. The Air Force Space Command, the National Air and Space Museum, the George Washington University Space Policy Institute, and the National Space Society cosponsored this symposium.

Three panels addressed "The Ballistic Missile Legacy," "Building a U.S. Space Flight Capability," and "Perspectives and Legacies." The presentations included the following:

Session One: "The Ballistic Missile Legacy"

Session Two: "Building a U.S.

Space Flight Capability"

Session Three: "Perspectives and Legacies"

In addition, the symposium honored the unique contributions of Dr. Simon Ramo and General Bernard A. Schriever to the United States’ launch vehicle capabilities. Each received, as a part of the opening ceremonies of the symposium, the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. This medal is awarded only to individuals whose distinguished accomplishments contributed substantially to the NASA mission. The contributions must be so extraordinary that other forms of recognition by NASA would be inadequate. It is the highest honor that NASA confers to a non-government individual.

NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin also delivered a major address on the role of civil-military cooperation in the development of American launch capability.

The symposium took place before a packed house of scholars, practitioners, and others at the AAAS auditorium. It was taped and the History Division plans to get at least some of it transcribed for permanent retention in the NASA Historical Reference Collection.



As an outgrowth of the symposium held on 5 November, we are planning a collection of essays related to the development of launch vehicles for publication in the NASA History Series. Several of the presentations at the symposium will be included in this collection, but the NASA History Division welcomes additional contributions. We especially seek essays relating to the development of specific launch systems and to the interpretation of major themes in the history of rocket technology.

Anyone interested in contributing should contact Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, at the NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546, telephone 202-358-0383, fax 202-358-2866, e-mail roger.launius@hq.nasa. gov. Be sure to include a proposed title for the essay, an abstract of what you wish to contribute, and a one-page biography or vita. Proposals are due by 31 January 2000. Notification of acceptance of proposals will be made by 28 February 2000, and essays will be due for review by 30 April 2000.



On 1 November 1999, the NASA History Division and the Space Business Archives co-sponsored a collective oral history at the American University in Washington, D.C. This workshop recorded the recollection of several key people involved in the development of commercial space policy in the 1980s. It gathered their recollections of efforts to open the region to commercial activities during the Reagan administration. The participants in this oral history included:

The oral history was moderated by W.D. Kay, Department of Political Science, Northeastern University.

Dr. Kay began by asking each of the participants to make a short opening statement of up to five minutes. They addressed several key issues in their statements: where they were during the 1980s, what space policies they felt needed to be changed during that time, and finally, how they went about making modifications. At the conclusion of these individual statements there were additional comments offered on a variety of subjects relative to the subject. The NASA History Division is in the process of transcribing this oral history and once completed it will be available for public use.

We believe that this event proved both enjoyable for the participants and useful in developing a fuller understanding of the transformation of space policy during the 1980s. Accordingly, we hope that this is the first in a series of re-examinations of key policies and trends in the recent history of spaceflight.


The American Historical Association has announced the competition for the 2000-2001 Fellowship in Aerospace History, funded by NASA, to undertake a research project related to aerospace history. It will provide a Fellow with an opportunity to engage in significant and sustained advanced research in all aspects of the history of aerospace from the earliest human interest in flight to the present, including cultural and intellectual history, economic history, history of law and public policy, and the history of science, engineering, and management.

Applicants must be U.S. citizens, possess a doctorate degree in history or in a closely related field, or be enrolled as a student (having completed all coursework) in a doctoral degree-granting program. The Fellowship term is for a period of at least six months, but not more than one year. The Fellow will be expected to devote the term entirely to the proposed research project. The Fellow will have (and be encouraged to take advantage of) the opportunity to use the documentary resources of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The applicant must complete an application form and offer a specific and detailed research proposal that will be the basis of the Fellow's research during the term. At the term's conclusion, the Fellow will be expected to write a report, and to present a paper or a public lecture on the Fellowship experience.

The maximum post-doctoral fellowship stipend is $30,000. Stipend awards may be based on the previous year's salary, or a salary the recipient would expect to earn during the fellowship term, and are adjustable to the length of the fellowship term. Graduate students are eligible for a maximum pre-doctoral stipend of up to $21,000. Funds may not be used to support tuition or fees. A Fellow may not hold other major fellowships or grants during the fellowship term, except sabbatical and supplemental grants from their own institutions, and small grants from other sources for specific research expenses. Sources of anticipated support must be listed in the application form.

Deadline for submission is 1 February 2000 for applications and letters of recommendation. Submit to Fellowship in Aerospace History, American Historical Association, 400 A Street, S.E., Washington, DC 20003. The awardee will be announced in May 2000. The AHA web page has an application form available on-line at: http://www.


Tony Springer, the co-chair of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) History Technical Committee has organized a very interesting session on aviation history for the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting in Reno, Nevada, 10-13 January 2000. The presentations include:

This session will take place on Monday, 10 January 2000. Feel free to join us in Reno.


We have organized a session for the Organization of American Historians annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, on 30 March-2 April 2000. Entitled "The Race to the Moon: Mirror Image Twins of the Cold War," the session will be chaired by Janet R. Daly Bednarek, University of Dayton and include the following presentations:

The comment will be offered by Robert W. Smith, University of Alberta. Additional information on the conference may be obtained from the OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.


"Before this Decade is Out…": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4223, 1999) is a collection of oral histories compiled and edited by Glen E. Swanson of the Johnson Space Center History Office. This fine collection of oral histories relating to Apollo provides significant insights on how America successfully went to the Moon.

There are oral histories of fourteen key individuals included in this collection, from NASA administrators James E. Webb and Thomas O. Paine to top managers such as Wernher von Braun, Max Faget, Gene Kranz, Robert Gilruth, and George Mueller to astronauts Harrison Schmitt and Charlie Duke. "Before this Decade is Out…" also features a foreword by Chris Kraft and an introduction covering the legacy of Apollo by Roger D. Launius. This volume is sure to provide enlightening reading for space historians, for historians of technology, and for space fans.

This book is for sale for $38.00 (domestic postpaid or $47.50 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By Mail: U.S. Government Printing Office, Documents Warehouse, 8610 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext: 30273. By fax: (202) 512-1657. Order stock number 033-000-01216-1. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4223.

Touchdown: The Development of Propulsion Controlled Aircraft at NASA Dryden, by Tom Tucker, is Monograph in Aerospace History, Number 16. Touchdown relates the important history of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Spurred by a number of airplane crashes caused by the loss of hydraulic flight controls, a NASA/industry team led by Frank W. Burcham and C. Gordon Fullerton developed a way to land an aircraft safely using only engine thrust to control the airplane.

This monograph is available by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 for overseas—international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.

The fourth volume of Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume IV, Accessing Space (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4407, 1999), under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon, is also now available. This work consists of approximately 150 key documents, introduced by headnotes and essays dealing with launch vehicle technology from the birth of NASA to the present.

This book is for sale for $56.00 (domestic postpaid or $70.00 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By mail: U.S. Government Printing Office, Documents Warehouse, 8610 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext: 30273. By fax: (202) 512-1657. Order stock number 033-000-01219-5. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4407.


Anticipated by the end of this year is Power to Explore: A History of the Marshall Space Flight Center (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4313, 1999), written by Andrew J. Dunar and Stephen P. Waring. This history analyzes the development of Marshall from its origins as an army center through the Wernher von Braun era to the present.

In early January 2000, we will be publishing volume VI of the NASA Historical Data Book (Washington, DC: NASA SP-2000-4012, 2000). This volume, compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, will deal with aeronautics, space applications, tracking and data acquisition, personnel, budget, and other resources, for the period between 1979 and 1988. It promises to become, much like the predecessor volumes in this series, a fundamental reference tool for aerospace historians.

Also in the first part of 2000, we will be publishing the reference work, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1991-1995: A Chronology (NASA SP-2000-4028, 2000). This work is a continuation of the series of chronologies that have been produced periodically throughout the history of the NASA history program and will serve as a useful tool in tracking stray events in air and space history.

Finally, forthcoming in the first part of 2000, will be another Monograph in Aerospace History, The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight (Monographs in Aerospace History, NASA SP-2000-4501, 2000). Written by Martin D. Maisel and several other researchers at the Ames Research Center, it tells the interesting story of a unique technology and its development in NASA.


Please check out our revised home page at on the Web. In addition to this conveniently simple URL, there are now several ways to find the information you want among the thousands of NASA History Web pages. We recommend trying our convenient topical index, as well as our keyword search function and our previous historical subject headings. There is a new "hot topics" page that contains information on frequently asked questions, new publications, and new on-line information.

The new site also has more information about the NASA History Office itself such as editorial guidelines and information on how we got our start. Thanks to Chris Gamble for compiling the topical index and to John Betts of the Headquarters Printing and Design Office for giving the pages a sharp new look. We look forward to hearing any suggestions or comments about our Web site.

The Aeronautics and Space Report of the President, Fiscal Year 1998 Activities is now at on the Web. Previous versions are on-line at on the Web. The FY 98 hard copy version is being printed and should be available by the end of this year.

We are pleased to announce a new on-line version of Results of the Second Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961 (NASA, 1961) It is on-line at MR-4/cover.htm on the Web. This relatively brief report covers Gus Grissom's flight and the mishap in which the Liberty Bell capsule sunk. It includes the voice transcript of the mission, as well as Grissom's interesting account of the mission. Thanks to Roland Speth for scanning the text and images of this report and making it available for the NASA History Web site.

Mercury Project Summary including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight (NASA SP-45, 1963) is available at on the Web. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for formatting this complete work, with scanning help from Roland Speth.

Space Handbook: Astronautics and its Applications is now available on-line at on the Web. This 1959 publication was a staff report of the Congressional Select Committe on Astronautics and Space Exploration. An interesting historical document, this Handbook includes much information about astronomy and astronautics that we now know to be incorrect. Nevertheless, this document provides a snapshot of the beginning of the space era. Special thanks to John Henry, who scanned and formatted this document.

For those who have not already seen it, a handy Space Calendar covering space-related activities and anniversaries is available on-line at URL: http:// This Space Calendar includes over 1,000 links to related home pages. It is

compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke so please send any updates or corrections to Note that launch dates are subject to change at any time. Also, note that anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only.

In addition, thanks to the efforts of volunteer John Henry, the on-line version of Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915-1990 (SP-4406) now contains all the images in the printed version. The on-line version is still available at History/SP-4406/cover.html on the Web.


Computers take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly By Wire Project, by Dr. James E. Tomayko (NASA SP-4224) is in layout with an expected publication date of February or March 2000. This is an important study for a number of reasons. Not the least of these is the significance of the program itself. In 1972 the F-8C aircraft used in the program became the first digital fly-by-wire aircraft to operate without a mechanical back-up system. This fact was important in giving industry the confidence to develop its own digital systems, since flown on military aircraft such as the F-18, F-16, F-117, B-2, and F-22, as well as commercial airliners like the Boeing 777. Flying without a mechanical back-up system was also important in ensuring that the researchers at Dryden were working on the right problems.

Today, digital fly-by-wire systems are integral to the operation of a great many aircraft. These systems provide numerous advantages over older mechanical arrangements. By replacing cables, linkages, push rods, pull rods, pulleys, and the like with electronic systems, digital fly-by-wire reduces weight, volume, the number of failure modes, friction, and maintenance. It also enables designers to develop and pilots to fly radical new configurations that would be impossible without the digital technology. Digital fly-by-wire aircraft can exhibit more precise and better maneuver control, greater combat survivability, and, for commercial airliners, a smoother ride.

The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire Project made two significant contributions to the new technology: (1) a solid design base of techniques that work and those that do not, and (2) credible evidence of good flying qualities and the ability of such a system to tolerate real faults and to continue operation without degradation. The narrative of this study captures the intensity of the program in successfully resolving the numerous design challenges and management problems that were encountered. This, in turn, laid the groundwork for leading, not only the U.S., but to a great extent the entire world's aeronautics community into the new era of digital fly-by-wire flight controls. The book also captures the essence of what NASA is chartered to do--develop and transfer major technologies that will keep the U.S. in a world leadership role as the major supplier of commercial aviation, military, and aerospace vehicles and products.

The Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, is seeking summer interns for 2000 to participate in an oral history project. Established by the Director, Johnson Space Center in 1996, the Oral History Project has a primary goal to research and interview individuals involved in the exciting and challenging space programs of yesterday and today. Oral history interviews with government and contract managers, engineers, scientists, technicians, astronauts, administrators, and others are conducted and recorded in state-of-the-art digital audio and/or video formats for archiving and to be available to researchers and authors.

The work involves researching and locating both published and unpublished (primary and secondary) materials using historical and technical documents and a variety of on-line resources. The subjects of the research will have been involved in a range of NASA tasks from the Mercury Project through the current Space Shuttle and International Space Station activities. Interns will compile gathered information into professionally structured individual biographical profiles for use in the preparation and conduct of oral history interviews.

While the subject matter of U.S. human space flight technology and history is unique and stimulating, Interns also gain significant experience in conducting research, writing, and time management. Additionally, throughout the summer, Interns will have opportunities to observe on-going space program operations, tour key JSC facilities, and participate in significant events available to employees at JSC and to members of the community.

Basic Qualifications

Superior Qualifications

Other Information

The Johnson Space Center Oral History Series is now housed in the Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Center as part of the JSC History Collection in the STI Center vault. It consists of 73 linear feet of over 1,000 interviews which include audio and/or transcribed data, covering all aspects of NASA’s human spaceflight program. This information is captured on reel-to-reel audio tapes, audio cassette tapes, audio CD’s, transcripts (either hard copy or electronic), video tapes, and background information on interviewees.

The series contains information ranging from the Mercury through Shuttle programs. The largest part of the series consists of oral histories produced by the JSC Oral History Project (OHP). These general interviews cover each interviewee’s career with NASA. In addition to an audio CD of the interview, each of these oral histories includes a corresponding databook containing both the transcripts (hard copy and floppy disk) of the interview and background information on the interviewee. In some cases, VHS copies of the interviews are also available. In this group is included a subset of audio CD’s (with corresponding transcripts) produced to support the history of The Shuttle Mir (Phase 1) project. There are also audio CD’s called "rescues" of earlier interviews copied from reel-to-reel and cassette tapes. These are interfiled alphabetically by interviewee as described above.

A small portion of this series consists of audio tapes or hard copies of miscellaneous subjects. These include, but are not limited to, radio broadcasts, crew debriefings, air to ground data from selected missions, interviews done by organizations other than JSC and proceedings of anniversaries, symposia and meetings.

The bulk of non-CD media are taken from interviews done by historians in the process of writing JSC histories. These are primarily on reel-to-reel or audiocassette tapes. Some include hard copy transcripts of the audio tapes while others only have transcripts.

The series is organized by medium (i.e., hardcopy, CD, audio tape) and, within each medium, alphabetically (by interviewee). In some cases the organization is by medium, then by program and then alphabetically by interviewee. There are also items that are not interviews, e.g., symposia, meetings, speakers, debriefings, etc. These are included in "miscellaneous" sections within the series.

For more information on this material contact Glen E. Swanson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Mail Stop GS-2, Building 12 Room 267, 2101 NASA Road 1, Houston, TX 77058-3696.


Gen. John R. Dailey, Associate Deputy Administrator, will leave NASA to join the Smithsonian Institution's National Air & Space Museum (NASM). Gen. Dailey will be taking over as Director of NASM in January 2000.

Gen. Dailey came to NASA in 1992 following retirement after 36 years of service in the U.S. Marine Corps, most recently as Assistant Commandant. For the past seven years, Gen. Dailey has served as the NASA Administrator's most senior advisor and has led the Agency's reinvention activities.

"The leadership provided by Jack Dailey has been unparalleled," NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin said. "He has shaped and strengthened the Agency, and was responsible for developing an infrastructure that will carry NASA into the new millennium. His commitment to aviation and space is unmatched."


The National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, provides three residential fellowships to support research in aerospace history: the Guggenheim Fellowship for predoctoral and recent postdoctoral scholars, the A. Verville Fellowship, open to academic and non-academic historians, and the Ramsey Fellowship in Naval Aviation History, which is similarly open. Stipends range from $15,000 to $40,000 a year, plus money for travel and miscellaneous expenses. The application deadline for the academic year 2000-2001 is January 15, 2000, and successful applicants will be notified in mid-April. Further information is at: fellow.htm on the Web. Requests for fellowship application packages should be sent to: Ms. Collette Williams, Fellowship Coordinator, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560-0312; collette.Williams Application packages were mailed around November 15 and will also be made available at the above web address. Potential applicants are also encouraged to investigate the Smithsonian Institution's Office of Fellowships and Grants program. Information can be found at: http://www. on the Web.

In addition, the Museum offers the Charles A. Lindbergh Chair in Aerospace History. Senior scholars with distinguished records of publication who are working on, or anticipate working on, books in aerospace history, are invited to write letters of interest for the academic year 2001-2002 or later. The Lindbergh Chair is a one-year appointed position; support is available for replacement of salary and benefits up to a maximum of $100,000 a year. Please contact: Dr. Michael J. Neufeld, Space History Division, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0311;


The NASA history Office is pleased to announce the inauguration of a "Centennial of Flight" series of books to be published by Texas A&M University Press. This series is intended as a cohesive set of volumes, written for a general readership, that will synthesize the development of flight in the twentieth century. The series editor, Roger D. Launius, invites proposals for a series of relatively small, general interest paperbacks on the history of flight to be published between 2001 and 2003 for the centennial of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903. Proposals are especially welcome for syntheses relating to the following aeronautical and astronautical topics:

· Development of aeronautical technology

· Rise of fighter aircraft

· Development of airlines and air

transportation, both in the U.S. and worldwide

· Evolution of air regulation, policy, and law

· Development of the aerospace industry

· Military aeronautics

· General aviation

· Aerospace reconnaissance

· Social history of the airplane;

· Strategic bombardment

· Human spaceflight

· The space race

· Rocketry

· Space science

These various volumes will be some 200 pages in length, published in paperback form, and would not contain scholarly apparatus, but would have a good essay at the end pointing the direction to other studies of the subject. Interested persons should contact the series editor: Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, Voice (202) 358-0383, fax (202) 358-2866, e-mail


The NASA History Office currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The unpaid internship is approximately 20 hours per week and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, doing research, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See on the web for more information.


On 12-15 October 2000 St. Louis University is sponsoring, "Writing the Past, Claiming the Future: Women and Gender in Science, Medicine, and Technology." Papers on all aspects of gender in science and technology are invited. Deadline for proposals is 1 January 2000. Contact Charlotte G. Borst, Department of History, St. Louis University, 3800 Lindell Blvd., P.O. Box 56907, St. Louis, MO 63156.

On 26-29 April 2001 the Organization of American Historians will hold its annual meeting at the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, CA, with the theme, "Connections: Rethinking our Audiences." Proposals are invited, and must be postmarked no later than 12 January 2000. Contact the 2001 Program Committee, Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47408-4199. For further information on the conference please visit program/call.html on the Web.

Enterprise & Society: The International Journal of Business History is soliciting essays for a special issue on gender and business to appear in 2001. It seeks manuscripts that address ways in which gender challenges or adds to debates in the field of business history from a wide range of topics, methodologies, locales, and historical eras. Angel Kwolek-Folland (Univ. of Kansas) will serve as guest editor of the special issue. The deadline for submissions is 15 January 2000. Send four double-spaced, one-sided copies of your manuscript (approximately 30-40 pages, including endnotes) to David B. Sicilia, Associate Editor, Enterprise & Society, Department of History, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742-7315. For additional information please consult the Call for Manuscripts webpage at Publications/genbus.html; or send email to

The Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Science (CSHPS) is holding its annual conference at the University of Alberta on 25-27 May 2000. Please note that our meeting overlaps with the Canadian Society for hermeneutics and Postmodern Thought (May 24-26), the Canadian Philosophical Association (M 24-27), the Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas (M 25-26), the Canadian Society for the History of Medicine (M 26-28), the Canadian Historical Association (M27-29), the Canadian Society for Renaissance Studies (M 25-27), the Canadian Women's Studies Association (M 27-29), and other societies. The committee welcomes suggestions for joint sessions with these other societies. Deadline for submissions of titles of papers, paper abstracts (minimum 150 words), panel and workshop proposals, joint sessions with other societies: 30 January 30 2000. They can be sent to any one of the members of the programme committee, either through e-mail, fax or snail-mail. Programme Committee Bernard Lightman, Div. of Humanities, 309 Bethune College, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario. M3J lP3, (416) 736-5164, fax: (416) 736-5892,

On 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology will meet in Munich, Germany. The program committee invites proposals for both individual papers and full sessions. The deadline for proposals is 10 February 2000. Contact, Dr. Michael Allen, SHOT Program Chair, Zentralinstitut für Gesschichte der Technik, Deutsches Museum, Museuminsel 1, D-80306 München, Germany, e-mail mike.allen@hts.gatech. edu.


On 6-8 January 2000 Social History Society of the United Kingdom will hold its annual conference on "Envisioning the Future," in Cambridge, U.K. For details, contact Linda Persson, Centre for Social History, Furness, College, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YG, U.K., e-mail:

On 6-9 January 2000 the American Historical Association will hold its annual meeting in Chicago, Illinois. This year’s theme is "History for the 21st Century: Continuity and Change." Contact: American Historical Association, Ph: (202) 544-2422, Website:

On 10-13 January 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will present its 38th Annual AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit at the Reno Hilton in Reno, Nevada. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, Tel: (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 10-11 March 2000 the Women in Aviation, International will hold its annual conference at the Cook Convention Center in Memphis, Tennessee. Contact: Women in Aviation, International Morningstar Airport, 3647 S.R. 503 S., West Alexandria, OH 45381, Tel.: (937) 839-4647, fax 4645, E-Mail:, Website: http://www.

On 16 March 2000 the annual meeting of the Society for History in the Federal Government will be held at Archives II, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. Contact: SHFG 2000 Program Committee, Society for History in the Federal Government, Box 14139 Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044-4139, Website:

On 19-22 March 2000 the National Air & Space Museum will host its 13th Annual Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums Seminar in Washington, DC. Contact: Jane Pisano, Programs Coordinator, NASM, Washington, DC 20560-0310, Tel: (202) 357-4473, E-Mail: Jane.Pisano@ nasm.

From 30 March-2 April 2000 the Organization of American Historians and the National Council on Public History will hold a joint annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. Contact OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.

On 14-16 April 2000 the annual meeting of the Midwest Junto for the History of Science will be held at the Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology in Kansas City, Missouri. Contact: Eliseo Hernandez, Reference Librarian, LHLSET 5109 Cherry St., Kansas City MO 64110, (816) 363-5020, Fax 926-8785, e-mail:

On 27-30 April 2000 the annual meeting of The Society for Military History will be held at the Marine Corps University in Quantico, Virginia. This year’s theme is "Korea, 1950 and 400 Years of Unlimited War." Contact: Col. Gordon Rudd, USMC, Coordinator Marine Corps Command & Staff College Marine Corps University, 2076 South Street, Quantico, VA 22134, (703) 784-1047, e-mail:, on the Web.

On 2-4 May 2000 the American Helicopter Society will hold its 56th Annual Forum and Technology Display at the Virginia Beach Convention Center in Virginia Beach, VA. Contact the AHS, 217 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314, (703) 684-6777, fax 739-9279, e-mail:, and Website: http://www/

On 3-5 May 2000 the National Museum of Naval Aviation will host Naval Aviation Symposium 2000 in Pensacola, Florida. Contact: National Museum of Naval Aviation Foundation, 1750 Radford Blvd., Suite C , N.A.S. Pensacola, Florida 32508, (850) 452-3604, e-mail:, and Website:

On 10-14 May 2000 the annual meeting of the Council on America’s Military Past will be held at the Radisson Burlington Hotel in Burlington, Vermont. Contact: Col. Herb Hart, USMC (Ret.) at (703) 912-6124 or CAMP, P. O. Box 1151, Ft. Myer VA 22211-0151, e-mail:

On 12-14 May 2000 the annual conference of the Great War Society will be held at the Downtown Radisson Hotel in St. Louis, Missouri. This year’s theme is the "The Imperial Germany Army, 1914-1918." Contact: The Great War Society Box 4585 Stanford, CA 94309, Website:

On 14-18 May 2000 the American Association of Museums will hold its annual meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. Contact: The American Association of Museums, (202) 289-1818, fax. X6578, Website:

On 20-24 May 2000 the Association of Old Crows’ 37th International Conference and Exhibition will be held in Zurich, Switzerland. Contact: AOC Headquarters, 1000 North Payne Street, Suite 300, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1696, (703) 549-1600, fax x2589, Website:

On 26-29 May 2000 the National Space Society’s 19th Annual International Space Development Conference will be held at the Holiday Inn City Center Hotel in Tucson, Arizona. Contact: Tucson 2000 ISDC, Attn: Tom Jaquish, 222 N. Park Tucson, AZ 85719, e-mail:, Website:

On 1-2 June 2000 Siena College will present its fifteenth annual international Conference on the 60th Anniversary of World War II, with a particular focus on the year 1940. Contact: Prof. Thomas O. Kelly II, Dept. of History, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd, Loudonville NY 1211-1462, (518) 783-2512, e-mail:

On 6-8 June 2000 the U.S. Army Center for Military History will hold its biennial conference in Washington, DC. The theme of this year’s meeting will be "The Korean War." Contact: Dr. William Stivers, US Army Center for Military History, Attn: DAMH-FPF, 103 Third Avenue, Ft Lesley J. McNair, DC 20319-5058, e-mail:, (202) 685-2729

On 5-7 July 2000 the 69th meeting of the Anglo-American Conference of Historians will be held in London. The theme of this year’s meeting is "War and Peace." Contact: Dr Debra Birc, Institute of Historical Research, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU, United Kingdom, e-mail:

On 10-14 July 2000 the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International will hold its annual conference and exhibition at the Coronado Springs Resort in Orlando, Florida. Contact: AUVSI Headquarters 3401 Columbia Pike, 4th Floor, Arlington, VA 22204, (703) 920-2720, fax x2889, Website:

On 12-16 July 2000 the Ninety-Nines’ International Conference will be held at the Mission Valley Doubletree in San Diego, California. This year’s theme is "Flight into the 21st Century." Contact: The Ninety-Nines, Inc. International Headquarters, Box 965, 7100 Terminal Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73159-0965, (800) 994-1929, e-mail:, Website:

On 16-19 July 2000 the 36th IAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, "Propulsion--Key to Exploring New Worlds," will be held at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 31 July – 4 August 2000 the Swedish Commission for Military History will host the International Congress of Military History in Stockholm. The theme is "The Total War—The Total Defense during 200 Years, 1789-2000." Contact: Lars Ericson, Information Military Archives, Stockholm, Sweden, telephone: 46-8-7826919, fax. 46-8-7826976

On 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting in Munich, Germany. Contact: Dr Michael Allen, SHOT Program Chair, Zentralinstitut für Geschichte der Technik, Deutsches Museum, Museuminsel 1, D-80306 München, Germany, e-mail:

On 15-17 September 2000 the U.S. Branch of The Western Front Association will hold its annual national seminar at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Contact: Len Shurtleff, 6915 N. W. 49th Street, Gainesville, FL 32653-1162, (325) 379-3200, fax x9408, e-mail: , Website:

On 19-21 September 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will host its Space 2000 Conference and Exhibition at the Long Beach Convention Center in Long Beach, California. This year’s theme will be "New Missions, New Opportunities, New Challenges." Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 27-30 September 2000 the Society of Experimental Test Pilots will hold its 44th annual national symposium and banquet at the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Contact: Paula S. Smith, Executive Director, The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, P. O. Box 986, Lancaster CA 93584, fax: (804) 940-0398, e-mail:

On 27-30 September 2000 the Northern Great Plains History Conference, sponsored by Minnesota State University, will be held in Mankato, Minnesota. Proposals for sessions in all areas of history are welcome. Contact: William E. Lass, Dept. of History, Minnesota State University, Mankato MN 56002.

On 10-12 October 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Society of Automotive Engineers will co-host the 2000 World Aviation Congress and Exposition at the Town & Country Hotel in San Diego, California. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 10-15 October 2000 the Oral History Association will hold its annual meeting at the Durham Marrott in Durham, North Carolina. This year’s theme is "At the Crossroads: Transforming Community Locally and Globally." Contact: Oral History Association Dickinson College, P. O. Box 1773, Carlisle, PA 17013, (717) 245-1036, fax x 1046 e-mail:, Website:

From 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) will hold its annual meeting at the Munich Center for the History of Science and Technology, Munich, Germany. Contact Lindy Biggs, SHOT Executive Director, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, (334) 844-6645, fax at (334) 844-6673, or e-mail: biggslb@mail.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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