NASA History News and Notes

Vol. 17, No. 1 February 2000



The published works of the NASA History Division have typically appeared in the NASA Special Publications (SP-4000) series and are grouped into several categories. Until 1 January 2000, these publications were issued with special publication numbers that reflected the category only. On that date, the History Division began issuing its special publications with the year of publication incorporated into the numbering system, as follows: NASA SP-Year-Number. Accordingly, the forthcoming NASA Historical Data Book will carry the designation: NASA SP-2000-4012.

We have also expanded our Special Publications to include seven broad categories, organized by the following special publication numbers:




We are pleased to announce that on 23 March 2000 the NASA History Division will cosponsor with Syracuse University a small symposium entitled, "Space Policy in the 21st Century." It will take place at Syracuse University’s Greenberg House, 2301 Calvert Street, NW, Washington, D.C.

The objective of this workship is to look at where we are in space policy in the year 2000, how we have gotten there, and especially where we may be going in the new century. The symposium draws on scholars new to the field, as well as those who have been in space policy some time—a mix of perspectives aimed at new ideas and synthesis.

Featured presentations and speakers will include:

This symposium is open to the public, but seating will be limited to 50 participants. To register, please contact promptly the Center for Environmental Policy and Administration, The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, 400 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, New York 13244. If you have any questions, please call (315) 443-1890.


"Before This Decade Is Out…" Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program (NASA SP-4223, 1999) has been awarded the Pendleton Prize by the Society for History in the Federal Government. This annual award is given for an outstanding major publication on the Federal Government's history produced by or for a Federal history program. The Pendleton Prize commemorates Ohio Senator George H. Pendleton, sponsor of the 1883 civil service reform act that bears his name. Kudos to editor Glen E. Swanson, who assembled this fine collection of oral histories.

There are oral histories of fourteen key individuals included in this collection, from NASA administrators James E. Webb and Thomas O. Paine to top managers such as Wernher von Braun, Max Faget, Gene Kranz, Robert Gilruth, and George Mueller to astronauts Harrison Schmitt and Charlie Duke. "Before this Decade is Out…" also features a foreword by Chris Kraft and an introduction covering the legacy of Apollo by Roger D. Launius. This volume is sure to provide enlightening reading for space historians, for historians of technology, and for space fans.

This book is for sale for $38.00 (domestic postpaid or $47.50 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By Mail: U.S. Government Printing Office, Documents Warehouse, 8610 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext: 30273. By fax: (202) 512-1657. Order stock number 033-000-01216-1. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4223.


We have organized a session for the Organization of American Historians annual meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, on 30 March-2 April 2000. Entitled "The Race to the Moon: Mirror Image Twins of the Cold War," the session will be chaired by Janet R. Daly Bednarek, University of Dayton and include the following presentations:

The comment will be offered by Robert W. Smith, University of Alberta. Additional information on the conference may be obtained from the OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.


At the annual meeting of the Society for History in the Federal Government on 16 March 2000 we are sponsoring a session on "Science and Technology Investment and the Federal Government." It will take place in the afternoon at the Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. All are invited to attend.

This session arises from the challenges presently being felt the science and technology arena as a result of reductions in government spending for S&T. Beginning with World War II, the Federal government began a significant expansion in the training of scientists and engineers, and acted as a catalyst for S&T development. In the process, the Federal government became the nation’s primary source of R&D investment. This formed the foundation for today’s technological innovations, and perhaps for the long-term economic growth that the United States has enjoyed. It may well exceed in importance the trials and tribulations of the Cold War itself. Based on what has gone before, how did the U.S. arrive at its present position, and what will be the future pattern of the nation’s R&D investment?

The Cold War provided a political catalyst that created a large infrastructure for basic research that remains a market advantage for the United States within the world economy. Yet future investment in R&D, including basic research, may actually decline in the future. Science policy in the U.S. is once again at a crossroads. Accordingly, it is appropriate for historians to review what has gone before and to offer analyses that might be useful to decision-makers in determining future policy options.

This session will include three papers that center on major components of the S&T investment of the Federal government:

Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian and organizer of the session, will chair the session. Audience comments and questions will be welcome.


The AIAA is now accepting nominations for the History Manuscript Award. The History Manuscript Award is presented for the best historical manuscript dealing with the science, technology, and/or impact of aeronautics and astronautics on society. The purpose of this award is to provide professional recognition to an author who makes a major and original contribution to the history of aeronautics or astronautics. The award is presented yearly at the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit held in Reno, NV each January. This year the requirements for the award have been modified to include manuscripts that are in their first year of publication, i.e. recently published books. Any book published since 1 July 1999 would qualify under these guidelines. This does not preclude manuscripts in any way but expands the scope of the award and the field of possible nominations.

The deadline date for nominations for this award is 1 July 2000. To request nomination forms or additional information, please contact Katy Scheuerman, Honors and Awards Liaison, at 703/264-7623 or via e-mail at or Tony Springer, History Committee Chair at 703/406-5788 or via e-mail at Requirements:



As an outgrowth of a launch vehicle history symposium held last fall, we are planning a collection of essays related to the development of launch vehicles for publication in the NASA History Series. Several presentations from the symposium will be included in this collection, but the NASA History Division welcomes additional contributions. We especially seek essays relating to the development of specific launch systems and to the interpretation of major themes in the history of rocket technology.

Anyone interested in contributing should contact Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, at the NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546, telephone 202-358-0383, fax 202-358-2866, e-mail roger.launius@hq.nasa. gov. Be sure to include a proposed title for the essay, an abstract of what you wish to contribute, and a one-page biography or vita. Proposals are due by 31 March 2000. Notification of acceptance of proposals will be made by 1 May 2000, and essays are due for review by 30 June 2000.


In late 1999 a much awaited institutional history of the Marshall Space Flight Center was published. Power to Explore: A History of the Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA SP-4313, 1999), was written by Andrew J. Dunar and Stephen P. Waring, history faculty members at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. It analyzes thirty years of history at Marshall from its origins as an Army center where Wernher von Braun presided over the development of the Redstone IRBM through the Saturn rocket development era to its present multifaceted role as the center for excellence in space transportation systems and microgravity research. It traces the evolution of the institution from its origins as an Army missile development organization to its status in 1990 as one of the most diversified of NASA's field Centers.

Among the many insightful sections of this book, the two chapters on the Challenger accident—one on the accident and investigation and another on the recovery—are among the best ever to appear. They discuss at length the evidence to conclude that the Challenger accident had more to do with NASA's organizational patterns and technological decisions that made sense at the time they were enacted—mostly in the austere period of the early 1970s—but that in retrospect turned out to be faulty. Detailed analysis of both documentary evidence and testimony showed that.

They also show that engineers involved in the O-ring question were convinced that the joints were safe, and that there were numerous other problems—especially with the Shuttle main engines—that consumed most of the MSFC propulsion team’s attention. Most importantly, there had been little engineering data at the time of the accident to support a correlation between O-ring anomalies and low temperatures. The fact that the seals had always done their jobs before contributed to a sense that they would not cause a major accident.

The authors appropriately discuss how the catastrophic failure was a total shock to the MSFC staff, made all the more painful by their perception that the Rogers Commission had used the center as a scapegoat to deflect blame away from political leaders in Washington. The authors make a very sophisticated case about this, and then follow it with a fine discussion of activities at MSFC to return to flight.

This book is for sale for $49.00 (domestic postpaid or $65.25 abroad), from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By mail: U.S. Government Printing Office, Documents Warehouse, 8610 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707. By phone: (202) 512-1707 ext: 30273. By fax: (202) 512-1657. Order stock number 033-000-01221-7. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000. Order NASA SP-4313.

The NASA History Division has just released The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight (Monographs in Aerospace History, NASA SP-2000-4517, 2000), by Martin D. Maisel, Demo J. Giulianetti, and Daniel C. Dugan. This monograph tells the important story of the development of a unique flight technology, the tilt rotor, which incorporates ideas from both rotory wing and fixed wing aircraft. The authors, all participants in the XV-15 program at NASA’s Ames Research Center, have been involved in the research project for many years and provide a valuable insiders’ perspective on the advance of this technological system.

This monograph is available free of charge by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 for overseas—international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as to the NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


In March 2000, we will be publishing volume VI of the NASA Historical Data Book (Washington, DC: NASA SP-2000-4012, 2000). This volume, compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, will deal with aeronautics, space applications, tracking and data acquisition, personnel, budget, and other resources, for the period between 1979 and 1988. It promises to become, much like the predecessor volumes in this series, a fundamental reference tool for aerospace historians.

Also in the early part of 2000, NASA will be publishing the center history, Atmosphere of Freedom: Sixty Years at NASA Ames Research Center (NASA SP-2000-4314). Written by Glenn E. Bugos, president of the Prologue Group, an independent history firm, Atmosphere of Freedom presents in a well-illustrated format the history of the Ames Research Center near Silicon Valley, California.

Forthcoming soon is Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite (Harwood Academic, 2000). This work will contain papers from an October 1997 conference on Sputnik cosponsored by NASA, the Smithsonian, and George Washington University. Edited by Roger D. Launius, John M. Logsdon, and Robert W. Smith, the collection includes key essays by Walter McDougall, Sergey Khruschev, James Harford, Peter Gorin, and Asif Siddiqi. Stay tuned for more information on its availability.

We are also pleased to announce the publication in May 2000 of Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Race to the Moon (NASA SP-2000-4408), a pathbreaking study by Asif A. Siddiqi. This book will be the first comprehensive history to appear on the Soviet human spaceflight program since the opening of the archives in the early 1990s. As a result, it benefits from exceptionally strong primary source materials as well as perspective on an important challenge that helped to define the U.S. space effort until the 1980s.

Also due to appear soon is James E. Tomayko’s Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA’s Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project (NASA SP-2000-4224). Sponsored by the Dryden Flight Research Center, this book deals with the path-breaking R&D project conducted at Dryden in the 1970s that revolutionized aeronautical technology.



We are pleased to announce a new site devoted to the X-15 research aircraft at on the Web. The X-15 had its first, unpowered glide flight on June 8, 1959, while the first powered flight took place on September 17, 1959. Air launched from a B-52 aircraft, the X-15 set a number of speed and altitude records before its final flight on October 24, 1968. The highly successful program helped researchers design the spacecraft for all of NASA's human missions. This site includes a chronology, biographies, bibliography, and links to other Web sites on the X-15. Our special thanks go to Hans-Peter Engel for designing this useful site, as well as formatting other publications on the X-15 for the Web.

We are pleased to note that Apollo Over the Moon: A View From Orbit (NASA SP-362, 1978) edited by Harold Masursky, G.W. Colton, and Farouk El-Baz is now available on-line at on the Web. Special thanks to Chris Gamble for formatting this book with many interesting photos for the Web.

We now have the complete version of the 1997 NASA Pocket Statistics available on-line at on the Web. Please note that the 1997 version is the latest available. NASA has decided not to publish further editions, either in print or electronic format.

Ron Baalke of JPL has placed on-line a special exhibit on Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons 390 years ago. He has written an article on this discovery, with images of the transcripts written by Galileo, available on-line at on the Web.

Just for fun Kipp Teague has scanned and placed on his website a copy of the commemorative medallion that we produced last summer for the Apollo 11 30th anniversary. It is in the Memorabilia section of Contact Light Project Apollo Archive at on the Web.

The NASA History Office's annual report is now on-line at on the Web.

The latest issue of NASA’s Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Bulletin is now available at on the Web.


The Dibner Institute is requesting nominations for the Dibner Award for Excellence in Museum Exhibits that interpret the history of technology, industry, and engineering. Any exhibit that has opened since 1 January 1999 is eligible for nomination. Complete information and nominating forms can be found at on the Web.


The historians at the three NASA centers in California have organized a session on "Documenting the History of NASA Centers in California." It will take place at the Annual General Meeting of the Society of California Archivists to be held in Ontario, California, 13-15 April 2000. Presentions will include: "Eighteen Months at the NASA Ames Research Center," Dr. Glenn Bugos, Historian, The Prologue Group; "Archives and Publishing at Dryden Flight Research Center," Dr. Dill Hunley, Historian, Dryden Flight Research Center; and "The Role of the Institutional Archives at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory," Dr. Michael Hooks, Chief Archivist, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The Goddard Space Flight Center history representative, Jane Riddle, has been working on several Black History Month activities at the center. These included:

Additionally, Goddard just completed the celebration of its 40th anniversary, hosting several public events, social activities, and acdemic colloquia. During this same period Goddard’s Building 305, the Spaceflight Magnetic Test Facility built in the 1960s, was among five sites in Prince George’s County named a National Historic Landmark. It is still used to test the effects of the Earth’s magnetic fields on the electronic systems of robotic spacecraft.


The NASA history Division is pleased to announce the inauguration of a "Centennial of Flight" series of books to be published by Texas A&M University Press. This series is intended as a cohesive set of volumes, written for a general readership, that will synthesize the development of flight in the twentieth century. The series editor, Roger D. Launius, invites proposals for a series of relatively small, general interest paperbacks on the history of flight to be published between 2001 and 2003 for the centennial of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903. Proposals are especially welcome for syntheses relating to the following aeronautical and astronautical topics:

These various volumes will be some 200 pages in length, published in paperback form, will not contain scholarly apparatus, but should have a good essay at the end pointing the direction to other studies of the subject. Interested persons should contact the series editor: Dr. Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, Voice (202) 358-0383, fax (202) 358-2866, e-mail


Copies of Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992), are now available again. Edited by Frederick I. Ordway III and Randy Liebermann, this Emme Award-winning publication has a prologue by Michael Collins and an epilogue by Arthur C. Clarke. It is profusely illustrated with black&white and color, and is divided into four major parts: "From Dreams to Reality," "Rocketry and Space Flight," "The Golden Age of Space Travel," and "Whre Do We Go from Here?" Among the contributors are science fiction writers, former astronauts, educators, a former NASA administrator, astronomers, and leaders in many aspects of the space program. Copies are now available for $11.80 plus $3.20 for priority mail postage, for a total of $15 per copy. It was originally sold for $24.95. Checks should be sent to Frederick I. Ordway III, 2401 N. Taylor Street, Arlington, VA 22207.


The NASA History Office currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The unpaid internship is approximately 20 hours per week and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, doing research, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See on the Web for more information.


The national Aeronautic Association recently announced that the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet was selected to receive the Collier Trophy for the top aeronautical achievement of 1999. The Boeing Company, the Hornet Industry Team, and the United States Navy were recognized for, "designing, manufacturing, testing, and introducing into service the F/A-18E/F multi-mission strike fighter aircraft, the most capable and survivable carrier-based combat aircraft." More information is available at on the Web.


The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics is currently accepting abstracts for history papers to be presented at two history sessions scheduled for its Joint Propulsion Conference in Huntsville Alabama. The date of these history sessions is 17 July 2000. The two topics for papers in support of this meeting are historical perspectives on rocket propulsion and historical perspectives on air breathing propulsion. Papers dealing with any aspect of these two themes will be accepted. Please e-mail or fax a brief abstract or synopsis of the proposed paper along with paper title and author contact information to Tony Springer, 703-406-5788, fax 703-406-2116, Information on the conference is available on AIAA's web site at URL:

The History Technical Committee of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronuatics has been asked to organize a history session on the military in space for the AIAA Space 2000 meeting in Long Beach, CA, on 19-21 September 2000. Anyone interested in presenting a paper at this session should contact Roger D. Launius, NASA History Division, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546, or call 202-358-0383. If you wish to review the web page for this conference it is located at URL:

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics is currently accepting abstracts for history papers to be presented at a history session scheduled for its 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting scheduled for 8-11 January 2001. The topic for papers in support of this meeting relate to historical perspectives on rocketry in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of Robert Goddard's first liquid fueled rocket. Please e-mail or fax a brief abstract or synopsis of the proposed paper, along with paper title and author contact information, to Tony Springer, 703-406-5788, fax 703-406-2116, Information on the conference is available on AIAA's web site at URL:

The 14th Annual Convention of the Society for Literature and Science will be held in Atlanta, Georgia on 5-8 October 2000. The conference is sponsored by the Ivan Allan College of Georgia Institute of Technology, the School of Literature, Communication and Culture, and the Center for New Media Studies. The theme of the 2000 conference is Media: Old and New. Proposals that explore the social and cultural implications of the emergence of new forms of media are invited, as are papers and panels in the type of science and technology studies traditionally presented at the SLS including, for example, medical humanities, gender in science and technology, and the history and philosophy of science and technology. Scholars working in NewMedia, including digital performance and other forms of digital art are particularly encouraged to participate. For more information, you may consult on the Web. Please e-mail proposals (150 word abstracts) by 15 March to Hugh Crawford, Program Chair at


On 10-11 March 2000 the Women in Aviation, International will hold its annual conference at the Cook Convention Center in Memphis, Tennessee. Contact: Women in Aviation, International Morningstar Airport, 3647 S.R. 503 S., West Alexandria, OH 45381, Tel.: (937) 839-4647, fax 4645, e-mail:, Website: http://

On 16 March 2000 the annual meeting of the Society for History in the Federal Government will be held at Archives II, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. Contact: SHFG 2000 Program Committee, Society for History in the Federal Government, Box 14139 Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044-4139.

On 19-22 March 2000 the National Air & Space Museum will host its 13th Annual Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums Seminar in Washington, DC. Contact: Jane Pisano, Programs Coordinator, NASM, Washington, DC 20560-0310, Tel: (202) 357-4473, E-Mail: Jane.Pisano@nasm.

From 30 March-2 April 2000 the Organization of American Historians and the National Council on Public History will hold a joint annual meeting in St. Louis, MO. Contact OAH, 112 North Bryan Street, Bloomington, IN 47408, phone (812) 855-7311.

On 14-16 April 2000 the annual meeting of the Midwest Junto for the History of Science will be held at the Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology in Kansas City, Missouri. Contact: Eliseo Hernandez, Reference Librarian, LHLSET 5109 Cherry St., Kansas City MO 64110, (816) 363-5020, Fax 926-8785, e-mail:

On 27-30 April 2000 the annual meeting of The Society for Military History will be held at the Marine Corps University in Quantico, Virginia. This year’s theme is "Korea, 1950 and 400 Years of Unlimited War." Contact: Col. Gordon Rudd, USMC, Coordinator Marine Corps Command & Staff College Marine Corps University, 2076 South Street, Quantico, VA 22134, (703) 784-1047, e-mail:

On 2-4 May 2000 the American Helicopter Society will hold its 56th Annual Forum and Technology Display at the Virginia Beach Convention Center in Virginia Beach, VA. Contact the AHS, 217 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314, (703) 684-6777, fax 739-9279, e-mail:, and Website: http://www/

On 3-5 May 2000 the National Museum of Naval Aviation will host Naval Aviation Symposium 2000 in Pensacola, Florida. Contact: National Museum of Naval Aviation Foundation, 1750 Radford Blvd., Suite C, NAS Pensacola, Florida 32508, (850) 452-3604 and Website:

On 10-14 May 2000 the annual meeting of the Council on America’s Military Past will be held at the Radisson Burlington Hotel in Burlington, Vermont. Contact: Col. Herb Hart, USMC (Ret.) at (703) 912-6124 or CAMP, P. O. Box 1151, Ft. Myer VA 22211-0151, e-mail:

On 12-14 May 2000 the annual conference of the Great War Society will be held at the Downtown Radisson Hotel in St. Louis, Missouri. This year’s theme is the "The Imperial Germany Army, 1914-1918." Contact: The Great War Society Box 4585 Stanford, CA 94309, Website: ~mikei/tgws.

On 14-18 May 2000 the American Association of Museums will hold its annual meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. Contact: The American Association of Museums, (202) 289-1818, fax. X6578, Website:

On 20-24 May 2000 the Association of Old Crows’ 37th International Conference and Exhibition will be held in Zurich, Switzerland. Contact: AOC Headquarters, 1000 North Payne Street, Suite 300, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1696, (703) 549-1600, fax x2589, Website:

On 26-29 May 2000 the National Space Society’s 19th Annual International Space Development Conference will be held at the Holiday Inn City Center Hotel in Tucson, Arizona. Contact: Tucson 2000 ISDC, Attn: Tom Jaquish, 222 N. Park Tucson, AZ 85719, e-mail:, Website:

On 1-2 June 2000 Siena College will present its fifteenth annual international conference on the 60th Anniversary of World War II, with a particular focus on the year 1940. Contact: Prof. Thomas O. Kelly II, Dept. of History, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd, Loudonville NY 1211-1462, (518) 783-2512, e-mail:

On 6-8 June 2000 the U.S. Army Center for Military History will hold its biennial conference in Washington, DC. The theme of this year’s meeting will be "The Korean War." Contact: Dr. William Stivers, US Army Center for Military History, Attn: DAMH-FPF, 103 Third Avenue, Ft Lesley J. McNair, DC 20319-5058, e-mail: stivewa@hqda., (202) 685-2729

On 5-7 July 2000 the 69th meeting of the Anglo-American Conference of Historians will be held in London. The theme of this year’s meeting is "War and Peace." Contact: Dr Debra Birc, Institute of Historical Research, Senate House, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HU, United Kingdom, e-mail:

On 10-14 July 2000 the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International will hold its annual conference and exhibition at the Coronado Springs Resort in Orlando, Florida. Contact: AUVSI Headquarters 3401 Columbia Pike, 4th Floor, Arlington, VA 22204, (703) 920-2720, fax x2889, Website:

On 12-16 July 2000 the Ninety-Nines’ International Conference will be held at the Mission Valley Doubletree in San Diego, California. This year’s theme is "Flight into the 21st Century." Contact: The Ninety-Nines, Inc. International Headquarters, Box 965, 7100 Terminal Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73159-0965, (800) 994-1929, e-mail:, Website: http://www.

On 16-19 July 2000 the 36th IAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, "Propulsion--Key to Exploring New Worlds," will be held at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 31 July–4 August 2000 the Swedish Commission for Military History will host the International Congress of Military History in Stockholm. The theme is "The Total War—The Total Defense during 200 Years, 1789-2000." Contact: Lars Ericson, Information Military Archives, Stockholm, Sweden, telephone: 46-8-7826919, fax. 46-8-7826976

On 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology will hold its annual meeting in Munich, Germany. Contact: Dr Michael Allen, SHOT Program Chair, Zentralinstitut für Geschichte der Technik, Deutsches Museum, Museuminsel 1, D-80306 München, Germany, e-mail: t7911aq@

On 15-17 September 2000 the U.S. Branch of The Western Front Association will hold its annual national seminar at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Contact: Len Shurtleff, 6915 N. W. 49th Street, Gainesville, FL 32653-1162, (325) 379-3200, fax x9408, e-mail:, Website: http://

On 19-21 September 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will host its Space 2000 Conference and Exhibition at the Long Beach Convention Center in Long Beach, California. This year’s theme will be "New Missions, New Opportunities, New Challenges." Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 27-30 September 2000 the Society of Experimental Test Pilots will hold its 44th annual national symposium and banquet at the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Contact: Paula S. Smith, Executive Director, The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, P. O. Box 986, Lancaster CA 93584, fax: (804) 940-0398, e-mail:

On 27-30 September 2000 the Northern Great Plains History Conference, sponsored by Minnesota State University, will be held in Mankato, Minnesota. Proposals for sessions in all areas of history are welcome. Contact: William E. Lass, Dept. of History, Minnesota State University, Mankato MN 56002.

On 10-12 October 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Society of Automotive Engineers will co-host the 2000 World Aviation Congress and Exposition at the Town & Country Hotel in San Diego, California. Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191-4344, (800) NEW AIAA, fax (703) 264-7551, Website:

On 10-15 October 2000 the Oral History Association will hold its annual meeting at the Durham Marrott in Durham, North Carolina. This year’s theme is "At the Crossroads: Transforming Community Locally and Globally." Contact: Oral History Association Dickinson College, P. O. Box 1773, Carlisle, PA 17013, (717) 245-1036, fax x 1046 e-mail:, Website:

From 17-20 August 2000 the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) will hold its annual meeting at the Munich Center for the History of Science and Technology, Munich, Germany. Contact Lindy Biggs, SHOT Executive Director, 310 Thach Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5259, (334) 844-6645, fax at (334) 844-6673, or e-mail: biggslb@mail.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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More questions about NASA History in general? Please check out our NASA History Division Home Page at on the Web. The general public is also invited to come to our office to do research. For further information, please contact our office at 202-358-0384, fax 202-358-2866. Send e-mail to Roger D. Launius at or Steve Garber at We also welcome comments about the content and format of this newsletter.