NASA History News and Notes

Vol. 17, No. 3 August 2000



Mack R. Herring, a longtime Stennis Space Center employee, passed away on 16 August 2000. The first person hired to work at Stennis, Mack worked in the public affairs and history offices there for a number of years. A gregarious man who seemed to know everyone at Stennis, he also wrote Way Station to Space: A History of the John C. Stennis Space Center (NASA SP-4310, 1997). In his dedication to this book, Mack acknowledged the love and support of his family, and his many friends and colleagues at Stennis. About them, he wrote, "I had the honor of sharing a common dream and the history of our part of America's adventure in space." Brian Welch, NASA Director of Media Services, said of him, "Mack was a genuine character\emdash part poet, part historian, part riverboat gambler, and full of great stories about the early days of the space program. Mack was a warm, colorful, and genteel person who will be missed."

Robert R. Gilruth, first director of what would later be renamed the Johnson Space Center, passed away on 17 August 2000. Gilruth began his career with the NACA at Langley Lab and led the Space Task Group that moved a team of human spaceflight pioneers to Houston to form the Manned Spacecraft Center (renamed the Johnson Space Center in 1973). He served as the center director there from 1961-1972. A press release about Gilruth's career is at ftp://ftp.hq.nasa. gov/pub/pao/pressrel/2000/00-127.txt on the Web, as well a brief biographical sketch at http://history.nasa. gov/biose-j.html#gilruth and an oral history compiled from several interviews is at on the Web.


Please mark your calendars for Thursday afternoon, 16 November 2000, to attend a half day roundtable on the history of human spaceflight. The NASA History Office is cosponsoring this roundtable with the Johnson Space Center history function and the History Committee of the American Astronautical Society. It is being scheduled to coincide with the national meeting of the American Astronautical Society in Houston, Texas. It will take place at South Shore Harbour Resort Hotel, 2500 South Shore Blvd., League City, TX, 77537. All interested parties are invited.

This roundtable is sparked by the fact that there is a large number of historical projects underway on this subject, and it seems appropriate to sit down with the people involved to compare notes and see how we might help each other. Since the planned date for this workshop coincides with the American Astronautical Society\rquote s national meeting in Houston we have scheduled our activities to take advantage of the fact that there will be several space historians already in town.

The intent of the roundtable is to allow the people working on various projects to present to others what they are working on and to hear any comments others might have to offer. In that respect the workshop would serve in part as a data exchange for people working in the area, but also it could enable the mapping of research strategies and possibilities for future efforts. We do not intend that this workshop consist of a series of polished presentations but an opportunity for substantive discussion of each project\rquote s objectives, available resources, vexing methodological problems, and related historiographical issues.

Additionally, during the morning of 16 November 2000, the AAS History Committee will be holding its own committee meeting and interested parties may participate as observers. In the afternoon we will hold the roundtable. We envision this workshop as consisting of two major parts. First, Glen E. Swanson at JSC is assembling a session on the history of the Mission Control Center (MCC). He plans to bring together 3-4 speakers for this session. In addition, we will hold the roundtable, allowing time for numerous historians to discuss their projects and to obtain feedback from the participants. Below is the working agenda for that day.

Anyone wishing to attend this roundtable please notify the NASA History Office, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, e-mail: and we will place your name on the mailing list for additional information.


At the upcoming AIAA Space 2000 meeting in Long Beach, California, on 19-21 September 2000, the AIAA History Technical Committee is planning a session with the title, "History of the Military in Space: Strategic Reconnaissance and Rocket Technology." In this session the following papers will be presented:

Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief Historian will chair this session. Anyone wishing to attend this session should come to Room 202C at the Long Beach Convention Center, at 4 p.m. on 19 September 2000. Other information on the AIAA Space 2000 meeting may be found at on the Web.


On 14 June 2000 the NASA History Office co-sponsored with The NASA Education Office a spotlight on National History Day award winners. Seventeen middle and high school students showcased their award-winning National History Day projects, including "How Sputnik Launched the Internet" and "Mercury Program: Turning Point in U.S. Space Exploration." From over half a million students, the top 2,000 sixth- through twelfth-grade students were selected to represent their states in the 25th annual National History Day contest at the University of Maryland at College Park.

These young historians brought with them the products of months of research: creative presentations in the form of dramatic performances, documentaries, exhibits and papers. Projects covered a range of topics, including the role of robotics in space and the Hubble Space Telescope.

The students exhibiting at NASA were contest-winners at the state level. National History Day is an annual education program that brings the classroom into the community. The program's mission is to promote the study of history by engaging students and teachers in the excitement of historical inquiry, community outreach and creative presentation. National History Day also provides educational services to students and teachers, including a summer internship program, curricular materials and Web resources, and annual teacher workshops and training institutes. For information about National History Day activities see on the Web.


On 16 June 2000 the NASA History Office assisted with a very successful conference entitled "The X-Vehicles: Advancing the Limits of Technology," held at the Capitol Hill Club in Washington, D.C. This one-day event provided the aerospace industry and government agencies a forum to exchange and disseminate information regarding past, current, and future experimental X-Vehicle programs. Focusing on the role of the X-Vehicles in the advancement of aerospace technology, the symposium consisted of four paneled sessions. The first three sessions provided a historic background of past X-Vehicle research programs, as well as a review of the current aeronautical and astronautical platforms. The symposium culminated with a final session focused on the future of the X-Vehicle programs as forecasted by the leaders in NASA and the U.S. Air Force.

The symposium was cosponsored by NASA, USAF, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It was well-attended, with a standing room only crowd of almost 150 people from throughout the country.

The NASA History Office distributed copies of Hypersonics Before the Shuttle: A Concise History of the X-15 Research Airplane (NASA SP-2000-4518) by Dennis R. Jenkins. Interested readers may obtain a copy by sending a self-addressed 9x12" envelope with appropriate postage for 15 ounces (typically $3.20 within the U.S., $4.10 for Canada, and $7.20 for overseas\emdash international customers are asked to purchase U.S. postage through an outlet such as to the NASA History Office, Code ZH, Washington, DC 20546.


We are very pleased to announce the publication of Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974 (NASA SP-2000-4408), a pathbreaking study by Asif A. Siddiqi. This book is the first comprehensive history, totalling more than 1,000 pages, to appear on the Soviet human spaceflight program since the opening of the archives in the early 1990s. As a result, it benefits from exceptionally strong primary source materials, as well as perspective on an important challenge that helped to define the U.S. space effort until the 1980s.

Going beyond the basic facts, however, Siddiqi has created a gripping narrative that weaves together three broad interpretive themes. The first theme concerns the institutional framework of the Soviet space program and the constituencies that sometimes teamed together and sometimes fought with each other: the engineers, the artillery officers, the defense industrialists, and the Communist Party leaders. These political dynamics lead to the second theme: the Soviet effort to put a human on the Moon before the United States.

After the Sputnik triumphs, Soviet military officers quickly lost interest in civilian space activities and felt that such efforts hurt the funding potential for military rocketry. Ironically, the "Cold War, having given birth to the Soviet space program, would seriously threaten its very existence." The third theme of Challenge to Apollo covers the Soviets' methods of technological innovation. Siddiqi challenges the Western conventional wisdom that the Soviets always tended toward incremental, rather than revolutionary, innovation.

Among the myths that Siddiqi shatters is that the Soviet space program was monolithic; instead he vividly portrays its various internal political stories. Perhaps one of the most significant aspects of this book is how the author shows readers that Soviet failures in space exploration were not inevitable and Soviet successes were not random chance events. As such, this is a full-bodied history that undoubtedly will prompt Westerners and Russians alike to reexamine basic assumptions about the space race, as well as our political and technological cultures.

This book is available for public sale from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. How to order: For sale for $79.00 (domestic postpaid), $98.75 (non-U.S.). By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Eastern time). This book may be ordered on-line at on the Web. Order stock number 033-000-01231-4. This book may also be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202) 358-0000.


Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1991-1995: A Chronology, compiled by Ihor Y. Gawdiak and Charles Shetland (NASA SP-2000-4028), is the latest volume in the continuing Astronautics and Aeronautics series. This softcover book is an excellent reference work for those interested in aerospace history. Because it is organized chronologically, this book makes it easy to look up what happened at NASA or in the aerospace field generally on a particular day during the five-year period it covers. It includes a useful appendix which details, also in chronological order, the various human and robotic spacecraft which were launched from 1991-1995. How to order: For sale for $43.00 (domestic postpaid), $53.75 (non-U.S.) from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Eastern time). Interested readers may also order this book on-line at on the Web, stock number 033-000-01230-6. This book also may be purchased from the NASA Information Center, Code CMI-1, NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW, Room 1H23, Washington, DC 20546-0001, (202)358-0000.

Atmosphere of Freedom: Sixty Years at NASA Ames Research Center (NASA SP-2000-4314). is now available. Written by Glenn E. Bugos, Atmosphere of Freedom is a well-illustrated history of the Ames Research Center, near Silicon Valley, California. It is for sale for $39.00 (domestic postpaid), $48.75 (non-U.S.) from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents. By Mail: Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. FAX: (202) 512-2250. Phone: (202) 512-1800 (7:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Eastern time). You may also order this book on-line at on the Web, stock number 033-000-01225-0. For further information on this book, contact David Morse at Ames (

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite (Harwood Academic, 2000) contains papers from an October 1997 conference on Sputnik cosponsored by NASA, the Smithsonian, and George Washington University. Edited by Roger D. Launius, John M. Logsdon, and Robert W. Smith, the collection includes essays by Walter McDougall, Sergey Khruschev, James Harford, Peter Gorin, and Asif Siddiqi. To order, please go to on the Web.


Forthcoming in the fall of 2000 is Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft in the 1990's (Monographs in Aerospace History #19, NASA SP-2000-4519), written by Joseph R. Chambers. This monograph describes the close working relationship between the aerospace research undertaken at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the development of military aircraft for the Department of Defence. Stay tuned for more information on this monograph.

Black Magic and Gremlins: Analog Flight Simulations at NASA\rquote s Flight Research Center (Monographs in Aerospace History #20, NASA SP-2000-4520) is a monograph by Gene L. Waltman to be published this fall. This monograph will cover the use of analog and hybrid (analog and digital) flight simulations done at NASA\rquote s Flight Research Center and its predecessor organization under the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) from 1955 to 1975. Among the projects covered in the monograph are the simulations for the X-15 rocket-powered aircraft, the lifting bodies, and the General Purpose Airborne Simulator. The monograph is rich in personal anecdotes and includes personal accounts by many people involved in the early simulations.

In October 2000, The Infinite Journey: Eyewitness Accounts of NASA and the Age of Space will appear from Random House. Written by well-known author William E. Burrows, this books recounts the history of NASA from the 1950s to the present in text, beautiful illustrations, and excerpts from numerous interviews with NASA personnel. A foreword is contributed by Walter Cronkite. Under a Space Act Cooperative Agreement, the NASA History Office and the NASA Public Affairs Office worked with Discovery Channel Publishing to create this visually stunning book as part of President Clinton's Millennium Initiative to document the history of Federal government activities. The list price for this book will be $40.00 and it will be available through numerous bookstores and on-line at and

This fall we also plan to release a two-CD set containing .pdf versions of all the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo air-to-ground transcripts. Titled, Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Mission Transcripts: The Complete Air-to-Ground Transmissions (NASA SP-2000-4601, 2000), this CD/ROM will capture in pdf format all of the voice transmission recordings between Mission Control and the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions in space. Special thanks to Glen E. Swanson, at the Johnson Space Center, for collecting all these transcripts, scanning them electronically, and organizing them. Thanks also to a large team of volunteers who helped Glen check the electronic transcripts for missing pages and other errors.

Late in 2000, we anticipate publishing the fifth volume in a continuing series of key documents. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Volume V, Space Science, Part 1 (NASA SP-2000-4407), is being produced under the general editorship of John M. Logsdon. This volume will contain key documentary materials on the origins, evolution, and organization of the space science enterprise at NASA, the history of planetary exploration, and Earth science. A future volume will contain documentary materials on astronomy and astrophysics, microgravity and life sciences, solar science, and solar-terrestrial physics.

Early in 2001, the NASA History Office will release Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference for the Human Phase of Project Apollo (NASA SP-2001-4029), a unique collection of valuable statistical information about Project Apollo. Richard Orloff compiled these statistics and also wrote narrative chapters on the various Apollo missions.

Also appearing early in 2001 will be Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950-2000 (Monographs in Aerospace History #21, NASA SP-2001-4521), a monograph by David S.F. Portree that will provide an overview of the history of the various plans developed since the dawn of the Space Age for the human exploration of Mars. Each type of mission will be categorized, its originators noted, its main elements detailed, and its legacy traced in the development of subsequent mission elements. This work should be useful reading for those who want to understand the long history of planning for human expeditions to the red planet.

Finally, early in 2001, the NASA History Office will publish Uplink/Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network (NASA SP-2001-4225, 2001), by Douglas J. Mudgway. This book will describe and analyze the complex history of the Deep Space Network (DSN) from its origins, as a result of the early years of the planetary science program in the late 1950s, through its current role in the present as the most capable communications system in the world. It will assess the role of this critical communications method for both providing control to planetary probes and a means of obtaining the scientific data collected. This project is complete and the manuscript is in production.


For increased ease of Web navigation, the NASA History Office has added a useful and attractive site map at the top level of our Web site. It is accessible directly at and from our main page as a new hot-linked tab. There are now four different ways to search for information specifically on our NASA History Web site: the A-Z topical index, keyword search, major subject search, and now the site map. Special thanks go to Amanda Mellies, who suggested the site map, and to Les Lien of the Headquarters Graphics and Design office, who set up the site map and cleaned up some of our old pages.

To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), we have a special site at on the Web. ASTP was the first human spaceflight mission managed jointly by two nations. The mission began with the Soyuz launch on July 15, 1975, followed by the Apollo launch seven hours later. Special thanks to Amanda Mellies for pulling the materials together for this site, to Les Lien for designing and laying it out expertly, and to Kipp Teague for creating an attractive and useful page of thumbnail images.

An on-line version of Project Gemini Technology and Operations: A Chronology (NASA SP-4002) by James M. Grimwood, and Barton C. Hacker with Peter J.Vorzimmer, is now available at on the Web. Special thanks to volunteer Malcolm Munro for scanning and formatting this book for the Web.

Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project (NASA SP-2000-4224), by James E. Tomayko, is now available at on the Web. This electronic version includes the full text and images.

A History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research (Monograph in Aerospace History, No. 13, 1999), by Albert L Braslow, is now on-line at http://www. on the Web.

Women in Flight Research is now on-line at on the Web. Written by Sheryll Goecke Powers, this Monograph in Aerospace History (#6) not only provides much information about women involved in (especially early) flight research at what became the Dryden Flight Research Center, but also a lot of details about how data was recovered from research flights and about the early history of the Center.

We are pleased to announce that The Martian Landscape (NASA SP-425, 1978) and Viking Orbiter Views of Mars (NASA SP-441, 1980) are now available on-line at and on the Web. These two excellent "coffee table books" are recommended for all fans of Martian exploration. Very special thanks to volunteer Chris Gamble, who expertly scanned and formatted these publications for the Web.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has a useful space calendar site that is on-line at on the Web. The WWW version of the Space Calendar includes over 1,600 links to related home pages. This calendar is compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke. Please send any updates or corrections to Note that launch dates are subject to change at any time and that anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only.


The Congressionaly chartered Centennial of Flight Commission has unveiled its site at on the Web. The site contains a starting suite of information for aviation enthusiasts, educators, students, and all those who may be planning projects and activities to help the country celebrate the Wright Brothers' first powered flight centennial on and around 17 December 2003.

The State Department has recently published, both on-line and in hard copy, the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume XXXIV. This is one part of a very large series, but volume XXXIV deals with Energy, Diplomacy, and Gobal Issues. Among some of the documents are several relating to spaceflight. For anyone who would like to see these, they are available at www/about_state/history/vol_xxxiv/ on the Web. This volume includes major sections of the technological gap, cooperation in space, communication satellites, and the supersonic transport.

Kevin S. Forsyth has created a very useful web page on the history of the Delta launch vehicle. It contains background, a flight log from 1960 to the present, current news, upcoming launches, NASA Programs, vehicle descriptions, performance specifications, and other sources. This site is available at on the Web.

There is considerable discussion about the primitive nature of the computers used on-board the spacecraft during Project Apollo. A web site has been constructed dedicated to the "Apollo Guidance Computer and Other Computer History" at on the Web.

The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation has a new listserv. To subscribe, send an e-mail to, leave the subject line blank, and in the message body type "subscribe lemcen YourFirstName YourLastName." You should receive quick confirmation and if you have any questions, contact The Lemelson Center is part of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.


The National Space Club is soliciting entries for the Robert H. Goddard Historical Essay Award. Essays may explore any significant aspect of the historical development of rocketry and astronautics, and will be judged on originality and scholarship. They cannot be more than 5,000 words long, fully referenced, and must be submitted by 1 December 2000. The prize is a plaque and $1,000 award. For further information contact the Goddard Historical Essay Contest, c/o National Space Club, 2000 L Street NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036.


The new Air Force Flight Test Center Museum opened on 21 July 2000. The new 12,000-square-foot facility replaced an older, smaller temporary museum. It boasts a theater and a library where visitors can research the history of Edwards Air Force Base, as well as work areas for restoration projects. For information on museum hours and gaining access to the base, call the AFFTC Museum staff at (661) 277-8050 or send e-mail to The museum's address is AFFTC Museum, 95 ABW/MU, 405 S. Rosamond Blvd., Edwards AFB, CA 93524.


The NASA History Office currently has an internship program for undergraduates. We are looking for interns for both the academic year and the summer. The internship is for approximately 20 hours per week and college sophomores and juniors are preferred. Interns have the opportunity to take on significant responsibilities in editing, researching, answering information requests, and preparing documents in HTML for the World Wide Web. See htm on the Web for more information.


The Air Force is looking for two Museum Curators for assignment to the USAF Museum at Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH, and one Historian who will train at Randolph AFB, San Antonio, TX, and then be reassigned somewhere else in the continental United States after a training period. All three jobs are permanent civil service positions starting at the GS-7 level and promote to GS-11 in three years. Information is at: on the Web. Click on the button for the PALACE Acquire Intern Program and then move on to the career field button on that page. Listed there are the three positions available. Interested parties may also contact John Kuborn at

SAIC has an opening for a historian. Ref No: DJR015937. Request Date: 08/17/2000. Salary Range/Level: $48.5K-$81.5K. Must be able to obtain Secret clearance level. Education: Doctorate (Ph.D) in History required. Focus on military history, to include defense acquisition and logistics, a plus. Job Description: Position is for a candidate with a strong interest in military history and Department of Defense archival research and writing. Contact Derek Reason at, 1710 SAIC Drive, P.O. Box 1303, Mclean, VA 22102

SAIC also has an opening for an archivist. Ref No: DJR015932. Request Date: 08/17/2000. Salary Range/Level: 39.5K-69.5K. Must be able to obtain Secret clearance level. Education: Advanced degree (Ph.D, MA/MS) in Archival Research or related field required. Focus on military history a plus. Job Description: Position is for a candidate possessing a strong interest in military history and Department of Defense archival research. Required Skills: Archivists should have experience in archival work and automation (i.e., developing and maintaining an automated archival database system). Contact Derek Reason at, 1710 SAIC Drive, P.O. Box 1303, Mclean, VA 22102


The National Air and Space Museum provides three residential fellowships to support research in aerospace history: the Guggenheim Fellowship for predoctoral and recent postdoctoral scholars, the A. Verville Fellowship, open to academic and non-academic historians, and the Ramsey Fellowship in Naval Aviation History, which is similarly open. Stipends range from $20,000 to $45,000 a year, plus money for travel and miscellaneous expenses. The application deadline for the academic year 2001-2002 is 15 January 2001, and successful applicants will be notified in mid-April. More details can be found at on the Web. Requests for fellowship application packages should be sent to: Ms. Collette Williams, Fellowship Coordinator, Rm. 3313, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0312; Application packages will be mailed around November 15 and will also be made available at the above web address. Potential applicants are also encouraged to investigate the Smithsonian Institution's Office of Fellowships and Grants program. Information can be found at: on the Web.


The Solar System Development Journal is a new electronic journal devoted to documenting the efforts of the private and public sectors to expand the human domain of activity to space, the Moon and asteroids, and the planets in the Solar System. Papers that are encouraged will couple cost and reliability to all technical discussions and proposals. The Journal will become an archival source of information and ideas for those who develop policy, for space entrepreneurs, and for practitioners. The premier issue is slated for January 2001. For additional information, please contact Managing Editor, Haym Benaroya, e-mail

The First Flight Centennial Commission, North Carolina's official agency to plan and coordinate the commemoration of the Wright brothers' first flight, invites the submission of proposals for sessions and individual papers for its international symposium on the history of flight, 22-25 October 2001 at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina. Session and individual proposals (including speadkers, their affiliations, session titles, and brief 1- or 2-sentence description) should be submitted to: Dr. Larry E. Tise, Symposium Director, First Flight Centennial Commission, 4635 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-4635; Deadline is 15 October 2000.

Greenwood Press is seeking either a solely authored work or an edited work, which would involve the editor soliciting entries, concerning the history of transportation in America. This encyclopedia is intended to cover all different aspects of transportation in America--from air (Wright Brothers, Boeing) to rail (transcontinental, interurban, urban) to water (the Mississippi) to freight to commuter to the Interstate. Below is a description of this project from Greenwood Press. For more details, please contact Barbara Rader at

The 2001 annual meeting of the Business History Conference will take place in Miami, Florida, on 20-22 April 2001. Its theme will be "Services and the Global Economy." Proposals are invited for papers concerned with the historical evolution of all forms of business enterprise engaged in services with a special emphasis on their international dimensions. All graduate students presenting papers are eligible for travel grants to defray costs associated with attending the annual meeting. Proposals may be submitted for individual papers or for entire panels and. should include a one-page abstract and one-page c.v. for all participants. Panel proposals also should include also a cover letter containing a title, one-paragraph panel description, chair and commentator, and contact information. The deadline for submission is 2 October 2000. Please send five copies to: Roger Horowitz, Secretary-Treasurer, Business History Conference, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, DE 19807.

The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations invites submissions for its Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference, hosted by American University in Washington, D.C. from 14-16 June 2001. Proposals that deal with the broadest possible range of topics in U.S. foreign relations, national security, and international security should be submitted by 1 December 2000. Preference will be given to roundtables and complete panels, and submissions should include a one-page abstract per paper, a current one-page c.v., and mailing and email address for each participant. Submission of proposals by email, either as attachments or "pasted text" str ongly encouraged. Mail to: Richard H. Immerman, Temple University, 9th floor Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 W. Berks Street., Philadelphia, PA 19122-5891; fax (215) 204-5891; phone (215) 204-7466.

The Oral History Association announces a call for papers for its annual meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri on 16-21 October 2001. The theme is "Bearing Public Witness: Documenting Memories of Struggle and Resistance," and they welcome presentation proposals that consider the challenges of collecting and documenting memories and histories that reflect trauma, genocide, violence, or social/political disorder. Proposals should include five copies of the following: 1) For full sessions, submit an abstract of no more than two pages and one page vitae per participant and 2) For individual proposals, submit one-page abstract and one-page vitae of presenter. All should include name, mailing address, institutional affiliation, phone number and email address. Deadline is 15 December 2000. For more information, contact Leslie Brown, Washington University, (314) 935-7279; e-mail Send proposals to: Oral History Association Program Committee, c/o Professor Leslie Brown, Program in African and Afro-American Studies, Washington University, One Brookings Dr., St. Louis, MO 63130-4899; fax (314) 935-5631.


On 15-17 September 2000 the U.S. Branch of the Western Front Association will hold its annual national seminar at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Contact: Len Shurtleff, 6915 N. W. 49th Street, Gainesville, Florida, 32653-1162. Call (325) 379-3200, fax x9408. E-mail: Website:

On 19-21 September 2000 the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will host its Space 2000 Conference and Exhibition at the Long Beach Convention Center in Long Beach, California. This year's theme will be "New Missions, New Opportunities, New Challenges." Contact: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, Virginia, 20191-4344. Call (800) NEW AIAA. Fax (703) 264-7551. Website:

On 26-28 September 2000, the 3rd annual Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies International Conference will be held at the Kossiakoff Conference Center of the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099. For information about the meeting, please see on the Web. Among the key speakers will be Eldon Hall, whose book on the Apollo guidance computer is well known to space historians.

On 27-30 September 2000 the Society of Experimental Test Pilots will hold its 44th annual national symposium and banquet at the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Contact: Paula S. Smith, Executive Director, The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, P. O. Box 986, Lancaster California 93584. Fax: (804) 940-0398. E-mail:

On 2-6 October 2000, the International Astronautical Federation will hold its 51st International Astronautical Congress in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For information contact http://www. on the web.

On 5-8 October 2000, the Society for Literature and Science will hold its 14th annual convention at the Sheraton Colony Square Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia. Sessions include panels on the history and philosophy of science and technology. This year's theme is "Media: Old and New." Contact: Bernice L. Hausman, Assistant Professor, English Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg VA 24061-0112, 540-231-5076, e-mail:

On 10-15 October 2000 the Oral History Associationwill hold its annual meeting at the Durham Marriott in Durham, North Carolina. The theme for this year's meeting is "At the Crossroads: Transforming Community Locally and Globally." Contact: Oral History Association Dickinson College, P. O. Box 1773, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 17013. Phone (717)245-1036, or fax: x1046 or Visit the Web page at on the Web.

On 14-16 November 2000, the American Astronautical Society will hold its National Conference and 47th Annual Meeting at the South Shore Harbour Hotel in Houston, Texas. For details, please see on the Web.

On 8-11 January 2001, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will include presentations of historical papers at its 36th AOAA Aerospace Sciences meeting. The meeting commemorates the 75th anniversary of Robert Goddard's first liquid-fueled rocket. Contact: Tony Springer, Chair, AIAA History Technical Committee, or on the Web.


Cameron, Rebecca Hancock. Training to Fly: Military Flight Training, 1907-1945. Washington, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2000.

Cooper, Gordan, with Bruce Henderson. Leap of Faith: An Astronaut\rquote s Journey into the Unknown. New York: Harper Collins, 2000.

Danielson, Dennis Richard. Editor. The Book of the Cosmos: Imagining the Universe from Heraclitus to Hawking. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 2000.

Furniss, Tim, and Alexa Stace. Atlas of Space Exploration. New York: Gareth Stevens, 2000.

Gedney, Richard T., Ronald Schertler, and Frank Gargione. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite: An Insider\rquote s Account of the Emergence of Interactive Broadband Technology in Space. Mendham, NJ: Scitech Publishing, Inc., 2000.

Godwin, Robert. Editor. Apollo 13: The NASA Mission Reports. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2000.

Godwin, Robert. Editor. Apollo 14: The NASA Mission Reports. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2000.

Godwin, Robert. Editor. Gemini 6: The NASA Mission Reports. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2000.

Godwin, Robert. Editor. Mars: The NASA Mission Reports. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2000.

Goldsmith, Donald. The Runaway Universe: The Race to Find the Future of the Cosmos. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 2000.

Handberg, Roger. Seeking New World Vistas: The Militarization of Space. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2000.

Jakob, Peter L., and Rick Young. The Published Writings of Wilbur and Orville Wright. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. Smithsonian History of Aviation Series.

Koerner, David, and Simon LeVay. Here Be Dragons: The Scientific Quest for Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kranz, Gene. Failure is not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Krige, John, and Arturo Russo. A History of the European Space Agency, 1958-1987. Volume I: The Story of ESRO and ELDO, 1958-1973. The Netherlands: ESTEC, ESA Publications Division, SP-1235, 2000.

Krige, John, Arturo Russo, and Lorenza Sebesta. A History of the European Space Agency, 1958-1987. Volume II: The Story of ESA, 1973-1987. The Netherlands: ESTEC, ESA Publications Division, SP-1235, 2000.

Lewis, W. David. Editor. Airline Executives and Federal Regulation: Case Studies in American Enterprise from the Airmail Era to the Dawn of the Jet Age. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2000.

Livio, Mario. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Owen, David. Into Outer Space: An Exploration of Man\rquote s Obsession and Interaction with the Cosmos-Fact and Fiction. New York: Lowell House, 2000.

Reeves-Stevens, Judith, Garfield Reeves-Stevens, and Brian Muirhead. Going to Mars: The Untold Story of Mars Pathfinder and NASA\rquote s Bold New Missions for the 21st Century. New York: Pocket Books, 2000.

NASA History News and Notes is published quarterly by the NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans, Code ZH, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546.

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